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his family, he was unable to com the guilty man.

But the other mand respect for his authority. grievances of France having been Frightful disorder followed the de- overlooked, the French Ambassaposition of the Emir Bechir, when dor addressed an ultimatum to it was proposed to place Leba- the Porte, in which he insisted on non under the Turkish authority. their being immediately redressed, France acquiesced, but insisted on on the payment of an indemnity to its being merely temporary, having the convents and French citizens always in view the re-establishment who had been despoiled by the of a purely Christian Administra- Turks, and on the instant repeal tion. The Pashas had obtained of the measure of Chekib Effendi and forwarded to Constantinople which enjoined all foreign resipetitions from Lebanon, inviting dents to quit Lebanon and repair the Sultan to appoint an Otto to Beyrout; threatening, in case man governor. France proved the his demand were not acceded to, falschood of those petitions, and to suspend all diplomatic interdefeated the scheme. All the course with the Porte. That ulTurks who succeeded each other timatum was accepted, and every in the government of Lebanon had satisfaction granted. M. Guizot laboured to establish that system next referred to the arrest of a against which France had inva- French dragoman, whose liberariably protested. Chekib Effendi tion, vainly demanded by the was then sent by the Divan to French Consul, was obtained by inquire into the real situation of the interference of the captain Lebanon, and redress the griev- of the Belle Poule frigate, who ances of the Christian sufferers. landed a party of his men to Chekib Effendi violated every pro

rescue him by force.

This act mise he had made previous to constituted a violation of territory. his departure from Constantinople. Nevertheless, the conduct of the On arriving at Beyrout, he pro- consul and captain was approved, ceeded to disarm the population of but they were recommended at Lebanon, both Druse and Christian. the same time not to resort in That measure was executed with future to armed demonstrations. violence, particularly as respected M. Guizot declared, in conclusion, the Christians. The Druses were, that during the last five years he however, equally disarmed, and had availed himself of every oppor

of their chiefs arrested tunity to claim the restoration of and transported to Constantino a Christian Administration for the ple. The French grievances were entire of Lebanon ; that the opinot redressed by Chekib Effendi. nion of France in that respect had The chief who had presided at gained ground since 1842 ; that the murder of Father Charles had Austria had completely adhered to been tried and acquitted. The it, and that others might ere long trial had been conducted with be expected to advocate the same all possible solemnity. Witnesses principle. were examined, and the sentence The debate on the Address in had the appearance of impartiality the Chamber of Peers terminated and sincerity. All the forms had on the 16th of January, when it been observed, and France had was carried by the large majority of no right to demand the head of 120 to 23.


On the 20th the Address was of wealth will give us, in a few presented to the King, who re years, the guarantees which our turned the following answer : security demands, and which will

“ I am happy to see that every extend their advantages over the new year adds fresh motives of entire country and amongst all congratulation to those which you classes of the population. Indushave so long offered me, at the try and prosperity will afford us opening of your Sessions, respect- the means of rendering our maing the increase of public prospe- nufactures prosperous, of reviving rity. We are indebted for that our commerce, and of preparing fortunate result, of which every happy days for our agriculturists, thing presages the progressive and a prosperity worthy of their continuation, to the co-operation laborious efforts. you have so constantly and so “ The Chambers will carefully efficaciously afforded my Govern- examine, without transgressing the ment, and to the accord existing bounds of prudence, the measures between all the powers of the which shall be proposed to them State. I again find, with a lively to complete these great works in satisfaction, in your Address the all their bearings. expression of the sentiments of the “ Your Majesty gives us the Chamber of Peers for my family assurance that our financial posiand for me. In returning to them tion is becoming more satisfactory. our grateful acknowledgments, I We shall endeavour still further to feel pleasure in repeating the as- improve it by employing a vigilant surance that we will ever respond cconomy in the employment of our to them by our entire devotedness to France."

· The different Bills presented In the Chamber of Deputies, to us shall be the object of our on the 12th of January, the Pre utmost solicitude. sident, M. Sauzet, read the fol “ We are happy to hear that lowing Address in answer to the your Majesty has received from Royal Speech :

all the foreign Powers pacific and • Sire—The Chamber of Depu- amicable assurances. Peace will ties congratulates itself with your be henceforward the first wish of Majesty on the general state of all people. It belongs to those the country, on the accord exist- whose force equals their courage, ing between the great Powers, and and who loudly proclaim its beneon the maintenance of our policy fits. The policy which has mainof order and conservation, which tained peace through so many will secure more and more the storms, with the assistance of the regular development of our in- powers of the state and of public stitutions, the consolidation of our opinion, excites at present the liberties, and the progress of na gratitude of all nations. One day, tional prosperity.

Sire, it will do honour to your “ Your Government applies it name in history. self to the execution of great “ The reiterated marks of public works, both of defence and friendship which unite you to of utility, of which the nation the Queen of Great Britain, and demanded the prompt completion. the mutual confidence of the two These new elements of force and Governments, have fortunately VOL. LXXXVIII.




secured the amicable relations of to establish with you on imperishthe two States. Your Majesty able bases the Government and the announces to us that the con- dynasty of our choice. Providence vention recently concluded for has blessed our efforts. It has afthe purpose of putting an end forded us consolations which are to an odious traffic is this mo our guarantees for the future. ment being executed.

Thus are

Your grandchildren will follow being realized the wishes con the example of their fathers stantly expressed by the Cham- those noble princes who, wherever ber, the rights of humanity shall they have appeared, have worthily be efficaciously protected, and our supported the name of France. commerce shall be replaced under Sire, your wishes have been acthe exclusive care of our flag. complished, you have for ever ac

“ We trust that France and quired the affection of the country, England, by a common action, and every day renders more indisthe object of which is to stop the soluble the intimate union between effusion of blood, and to establish your family and the nation.” safe and regular commercial re The debate on this Address lations, will at length produce in the Chamber of Deputies did peace on the banks of the Plata. not commence until the 19th of France, faithful to the engage- January, and was of a ments which she contracts, has animated and interesting characa right to invoke the sanctity of ter than that which took place treaties. She recalls to the re in the Chamber of Peers. The collection of Europe the solemn discussion was opened by guarantees stipulated in favour of M. Corne, who said that he could

not share the sentiment of quie“We deplore with your Ma- tude and satisfaction expressed by jesty the events which have dis- the Cabinet in the speech from the turbed our African possessions, throne, and confirmed

by the and we partake the sentiments committee in the address. He with which the heroism of our had only to refer to the situation troops inspires your Majesty. of Algeria to show how little that France follows them in their pe- confidence was founded, when, rils with solicitude and gratitude. after a campaign glorious for the She applauds the prompt measures arms of France, a frightful masadopted by your Majesty to pre sacre occurred, and Abd-el-Kader serve in Algeria her force and do was again in arms, more formidmination. Nothing shall exhaust able than ever, in the heart of her our perseverance, nor our gener African possessions. The Ministry ous efforts to establish prosperous had also badly chosen the moment security in that land, which your of extolling its policy, in presence Majesty proclaims to be French of the disastrous results of the territory.

treaty with Morocco. If he re“ Sire, your wisdom and your verted to internal affairs, he could courage have accomplished for us, discover evidence of their in the midst of our most severe boasted prosperity. The country trials, the noble mission confided was burdened with a budget double to you by the national will. Our in amount to what it was under duty is to lend our loyal assistance the restoration, and, during the

a generous nation.


last six years, enormous resources, them had been admitted by the far greater than were ever granted courts. In several instances, even, by any nation, had been placed at the latter had stigmatized the the disposal of the Cabinet, and, illegalities committed by the preto this day, they had not been fects in the most energetic terms. able to balance the receipts and False electors had been inscribed expenditure of the State, to create on the lists, and the names of something like a respectable navy, numbers of citizens, entitled to and to command something like vote, had been struck off; and that respect for the honour of France. system was so barefacedly carried He then criticised various acts of on in some departments, that he the administration. The national would cite two colleges, consisting guards dissolved at Lyons, Stras- each of about 250 electors, in burg, and in other cities, still which the appellants had exceeded awaited their re-organization, and 140. M. Legrand concluded by the only reply hitherto made by recommending electoral reform, Ministers to those who reproached and the convocation of the electors, them with that violation of the in the chief towns of the departlaw, had been, “ We have violated ments, to return their deputies. the laws, but we are ready to M, Peyramont bore testimony assume the responsibility of our to the truth of the facts mentioned conduct.” Ministers had likewise by M. Leyrand. Part of them been guilty of a serious attempt had passed under his eyes, otheragainst the independence of Par- wise he would have considered liament, when they dared to super- them incredible and impossible. . sede in their offices members of Their investigation had already the House, who had silently voted occupied the court, of which he against some of their acts. M. was a member, during two months, Corne next denounced a number and the sentiments they had exof illegalities committed by Minis- cited in the bosom of the magisters at elections, and said that he trates had been surprise, disgust, would vote against the address. and profound indignation.

M. Leyrand confined himself to M. Duchatel, the Minister of 'an examination of the conduct of the Interior, next rose, and denied the agents of the Government dur. having organized the system of ing the elections of 1845. The corruption exposed by M. Leyrand. prefects, he said, had been guilty He had never given the instrucof the most shameful frauds, and tions cited by that deputy, and he organized, agreeably to their in- defied him to produce a line emastructions, a complete system of nating from his department in supcorruption all over the country. port of his assertions. M. DuNever, at any former period, even chatel and his friends were anxious under the restoration, had a greater for the triumph of their political number of appeals been addressed opinions, but they would be sorry to the courts of justice against to owe it to the use of such means. the decisions of those functionaries. Besides, they did not want to reThey had amounted, according to cur to those means to insure his computation, to upwards of triumph to their policy, which 2,000, whilst in 1841 they were every day obtained more and more only 200, and three-fourths of the sanction of public reason.


They desired as ardently as their " Order” arose from the Minisadversaries the truth and sincerity terial benches. of the representative Government; When silence was restored, M. and if facts, such as those de- Duvergier de Hauranne continued nounced by M. Leyrand, had oc his speech, and cited instances in curred in some departments, it which the present Cabinet had had been without the approbation manifested its disrespect for the or authorization of the Cabinet. usages of the representative GoM. Duchatel then explained why vernment by remaining in office the number of appeals against the when abandoned by the majority, decisions of the prefects had been or supported by such small ma80 considerable in 1845. They jorities that their friends at the had amounted to 1,936, and were other side of the Channel were principally grounded on the mis- indignant at their conduct. application of the new law on the Duvergier de Hauranne, after conpolitical domicile of the electors, tending that the domestic policy voted last year by the Chambers, pursued at present was less liberal and of the law on licences. Of than it was twelve years ago, prothose 1,936 cases, 1,809 had been ceeded to compare the foreign decided ; 790 were admitted, and policy of the Cabinet with that of 1,019 rejected.

the Government of 1831 and 1832, M. Duvergier de Hauranne pro- and maintained that under similar ceeded to examine whether the circumstances the former would public liberties and the national never have dared to occupy Ancona influence had progressed during and besiege Antwerp, and that the last five years, and arrived at the Cabinet of 1831 would never the conclusion, that the theory have granted an indemnity to Mr. of representative Government was Pritchard, nor signed the treaty now an idle word, and that the of Tangier. The weakness of the dignity and honour of France had Administration had been hitherto been sacrificed. Investigating, af- its only safeguard. In its negotiaterwards, the conduct of the agents tions with foreign Powers it inof the Government in the elections, variably held a language unbehe drew a parallel between the coming the dignity of France. doctrines formerly professed by In London, Rome, and elsewhere, certain Ministers when they be- it told the Governments, “Do not longed to the Opposition and those be too exacting ; make some conthey now practised, and asked cessions, otherwise we shall be the Minister of the Interior if he obliged to vacate our offices, and would to-day sign the circular be replaced by others from whom addressed in 1830 by M. Guizot, you have nothing to expect.” M. the then Minister of the Interior, Duvergier de Hauranne then asked to the prefects, recommending them what Ministers had achieved since the strictest neutrality and impar- last Session to justify their quietiality in the elections.

tude ? In Syria, the secular inM. Duchatel having replied in fluence of France was at an end, the affirmative, M. Larochejacque- and she could not even prevent lin rose, and loudly exclaimed the massacre of populations placed that he would not. This incident for ages under her protection. caused confusion, and cries of What was their conduct on the

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