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beginning of the end," or as the by the supreme authority of the dawn of a new and brighter era of kingdom to those who had been the prosperity and abundance, is still instruments of these changes, and à matter of dubious, though no to sympathize in the trust there longer, as in the Session just con- expressed, “ that by a combination cluded, of angry controversy. What of prudence with enterprise, and of is done is acknowledged to be irre- a willing obedience to law with a vocable; the book of the future is desire for social progress, Her

peoyet unsealed. Under these circum- ple will, through the Divine blessstances it would seem the truest ing, enjoy the full advantages of wisdom to accept the counsel con

peace. tained in the last words addressed

CHAPTER VIII.

France.Election of President and Vice-Presidents of the Chamber of

Deputies --Address in reply to the Speech from the Throne in the Chamber of PeersDiscussion on the AddressSpeeches of M. Charles Dupin, M. Dubouchage, Marquis de Boissy, and M. Guizot -Address carried in the Chamber of PeersAnswer from the King -Address in the Chamber of Deputies-Debate thereon-Speeches of MM. Correl, Peyramont, Duchatel, Durengier de Hauranne, Gasparin, Thiers, and Guizot-Discussion on the separate paragraphsAmendment proposed by M. Isambert rejected -- Amendment of M. Berryer -Speeches of M. Berryer and M. Guizot-Amendment lostAmendment proposed by M. de Remusat---Speeches of M. de Remusat, M. Thiers, and M. Guizot-- Amendment rejected— Amendment of M. Billault-Speeches of M. Billault and M. Peyramont-Amendment lostAmendments proposed by M. Alies, MM. Daugeville, and M. Billault-Speeches thereon, and adoption of the two latterParagraph relating to Poland-Speeches of M. Lamartine and M. Guizot ---Address carried in the Chamber of DeputiesAnswer from the king to the Address.

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VHE new Session of the French M. Sauzet was thus elected Pre

Chambers was opened, as men sident by a majority on the first tioned in our last volume, on the 27th ballot considerably exceeding that of December ; and the first business which he required; for, as has in the Chamber of Deputies was been explained in a previous vothe election of a President. For lume, the successful candidate need this office there were nominally not have more than an absolute four candidates, but the result majority of the whole number of showed that M. Sauzet, who had votes given. Next day four Vicebeen the President for the four Presidents were chosen, and they previous Sessions, had nothing to were all Ministerial candidates. fear from his competitors, and his Their names were M. Bignon, re-election on this occasion was a M. Lepelletier d'Aulnay, M. de decided Ministerial triumph. At Belleyme, and M. Duprat. the close of the ballot, the numbers On the 10th of January, in the

Chamber of Peers, Count Pascalis

read the draught of the Address in M. Sauzet

213 reply to the Speech from the M. Dufaure

147 Throne. It was as follows :M. Dupin

3

“ Sire--The present Session M, Odillon Barrot . 1 opens under fortunate auspices.

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France, calm and flourishing, in future punish every violation of reaps the fruit of that indefatigable the sacred rights of humanity. activity so ingenious in fertilizing “ Sire, the friendship which the seeds of prosperity. The free unites your Majesty and the Queen exercise of all the rights guaranteed of Great Britain favours the contiby our laws insures the regular nuation of the amicable and intidevelopment of our institutions. mate relations of France and Eng.

“ We congratulate ourselves land. The harmony prevailing bewith you, Sire, on the situation of tween two great nations, whose our country. We attribute that mission it is to promote and mainblessing to the accord of the public tain civilization in the world, is a powers, and to the maintenance of

precious advantage for them, and that policy of order and preserva an invaluable blessing for mantion which, tempering firmness by kind. We are anxious that mutual moderation, triumphs over the pas confidence should continue to exist sions, reconciles the minds, secures between the two Governments, and tranquillity at home, and general that they should act in conjunction peace abroad—a policy at once whenever circumstances require, at salutary and glorious, which, after the same time that they will reserve having acquired for your Majesty to themselves an entire liberty of the gratitude of contemporaries, action in their respective political will ever honour the memory of spheres. your reign.

“ The words of your Majesty “ Sire, your Majesty continues induce a hope that the combined to receive from all the Foreign action of England and France will Powers assurance of their pacific obtain on the banks of the Plate and friendly dispositions. We are the desired success. After so ruinhappy to think that nothing will ous an interruption, it is urgent disturb that security which is a that our commercial relations with necessary condition of the progress that important portion of the Ameof labour, and of the welfare daily rican Continent be regularly reaugmenting among all the classes established. If our just respect of the people. It behoves nations for the independence of nations who do not dread war, to profess prevents us from interfering in openly their love of peace.

their domestic dissensions, nobody “A convention, lately concluded can contest our right to minister between England and France, with to our interests, compromised by a view to put a period to an odious the war between two neighbouring traffic, replaces our trade under States, by re-establishing peace in the protection and exclusive sur that quarter, which is the sole obveillance of our flag. We loudlyject of our endeavours. applaud the success of a negotia “ France deplores with you, tion ably conducted and promptly Sire, the events that disturbed our terminated. The execution of the African possessions. We thank treaty confided to the loyal co your Majesty for the promptitude operation of the navies of both of the measures adopted to remedy States is a guarantee that the the evil. We fully confide in the rights and dignity of the two na- heroism of our soldiers. Their tions will be equally respected, and bravery will everywhere assert the that an efficacious repression will triumph of the arms of France,

and strengthen her dominion. Our co-operation of the Chamber and energetic perseverance will main- country. Sire, your family belongs tain our power in Algeria ; wisdom to France. Your sons prove it and foresight will consolidate it. daily by their devotedness and

“ Sire, the great civil and mili- their zeal to serve her. Your tary works voted by the Chambers grandsons are the hope of future are being everywhere executed. generations. The holy laws of the France has thus acquired an addi- country have sealed the intimate tional guarantee of security. A union of your descendants and lively emulation has manifested it. ours.' self in the different parts of the

The debate on this Address kingdom, at the sight of so many lasted for several days, but it preworks of public interest, which, sented so few features of interest, by facilitating the communications, that we think it unnecessary to will draw closer the ties of national transfer to our pages, at any unity. We will carefully examine length, the speeches that were dethe propositions submitted to us by livered, and shall merely notice the order of your Majesty to ter one or two of the subjects introminate those useful undertakings. duced into the discussion. By imparting to the works com M. Charles Dupin admitted, that menced the impulse which they the situation of the country was need, the King's Government, satisfactory ; the Ministry consobeing the prudent appreciator of lidated, and supported by conthe general situation of affairs, will siderable majorities; the country no doubt show itself prudent in calm, and the foreign relations fresh undertakings.

established on an amicable foot“ We are happy to hear from ing; but he thought that the the mouth of your Majesty, that Committee of the House had the situation of our finances is be- gone too far when it said that coming daily more satisfactory. “ it was happy to hear from the

“We will receive, Sire, with gra- mouth of His Majesty that the titude, the projects of law intended situation of the finances was beto introduce important ameliorations coming daily more prosperous. into the different branches of the Now, he would cite the Budget Administration. Ameliorations are presented by the Minister of that the work of time. In examining department, to show that the sethe propositions which will be pre- curity proclaimed in the Address sented to us, we will consult the was not altogether well founded, lessons of experience. France has for the Minister himself positively a right to be proud of her adminis- stated that the amount of the trative organization. We will care- deficit was yearly augmenting. fully attend to the preservation and It resulted from the returns improvement of that important por- submitted to the Chambers that tion of our public institutions. the deficit, which in 1844 was

“ Sire, in the accomplishment 371,000,000f., had risen in 1845 of that great and noble task im- to 396,000,000f., and in 1846 to posed upon your Majesty, by the 421,000,000f. This he knew was wish of the nation, Providence di- not alarmning ; but, nevertheless, rected your steps. You may al- called for a speedy remedy. He ways rely on the loyal and faithful then referred to the financial posi

tion of England, and observed that was the re-establishment of an a Ministry so partial to that coun- hereditary peerage. Having in try should also take it for a model. the course of his observations In 1816, after the war, the Budget referred the burning of the of England, he said, amounted to timber stores at Toulon, which 2,150,000,000f.; eight years af- he described as an immense loss, terwards, in 1824, it was reduced the Minister of Marine replied that to 1,425,000,000f.; and in 1844, the loss was certainly considerable, it had still further decreased to but not irreparable, since it did not 1,375,000,000f. The debt of exceed 3,000,000f. England had also considerably In the course of the debate diminished, whilst that of France Count Montalembert brought a increased in a frightful proportion. charge of inhumanity against the In conclusion, he drew a parallel, French Government for not having entirely to the advantage of Eng- thrown its protection round the land, of the achievements of both Syrian Christians, upon whichGovernments, and described the M. Guizot rose and said, that extension assumed of late by the those reproaches were unfounded power of Great Britain in every and unjust, for the French Governpart of the globe, extolled the ment, during the last thirty years, admirable expedition, à la Cortez, had been the first to respond to executed by the British arms along the call of humanity in Greece, the Chinese coast, showed the do- Turkey, on the coast of Africa, minions of England daily extend- and generally throughout the globe. ing, at the same time that her M. de Montalembert had comexpenditure diminished, and asked plained that no communication of the Ministry if they could boast of any document relative to Syria similar results, even to justify the had been made to the Chambers. increase of the public burdens ? The Government could have pro

M. Dubouchage complained of duced papers highly creditable to the silence of the King's Speech its policy, but they might have inrespecting the questions most in- jured the success of the cause he teresting to the country, and was anxious to serve. Lebanon blamed the Committee on

the

now in a crisis, and pubAddress for having imitated that licity given to any document consilence.

nected with the pending negotiaAfter M. Dubouchage had con tion might be attended with fatal cluded, the general discussion was consequences.

M. Guizot then closed, and the President read the referred to the principal event of first paragraph of the Address, in which Syria had been the theatre which the Chamber congratulated since 1840. He contended that the King on the prosperity and the Emir Bechir was alone catranquillity enjoyed by the country. pable of governing that country.

The Marquis de Boissy then He was a man of energy; he had rose, and addressed some observa- administered Lebanon for forty tions on the necessity of reform, years; he had acquired his power of which, he said, it behoved the by violence and cunning ; nobody Chamber of Peers to take the could be expected to exercise the initiative. One of the measures same influence ; and although his particularly recommended by him successor was chosen from among

was

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