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poral punishment altogether with service. Having defended the conthe present army; but he would duct of Colonel Whyte, as the comforce the Government to establish manding officer of the 7th Hussars, a better mode of constituting the he proceeded to express his regret army; and he suggested that the at the manner in which the priexperiment of total abolition should vates of that regiment had been be tried upon the IIousehold Bri- called to give evidence against gade.

their officers, and to state that it Mr. Wakley said, that a current must undergo further investigaof opinion had set in against the tion. He also expressed his regret practice of flogging, which the at the death of private White. House would find it difficult to re When the Duke of Wellington sist, and he expressed his surprise heard of it, he said at once, that the Government were not pre

“ This shall not occur again ; pared to consent to its entire aboli- though I believe that corporal tion. He then proceeded to vindi- punishment cannot be dispensed cate his own conduct against some with, yet I will not sanction that reflections which had been made degree of it which shall lead to upon it in reference to the late in- loss of life and limb. He therequest which he had held as Coro- fore suggested at once that all ner upon the soldier named White, punishments should be reduced to whose case has been already ad- fifty lashes. In that suggestion verted to. He strongly supported the Government willingly conDr. Bowring's amendment, not curred, and he trusted that when being satisfied with the diminution they had succeeded in raising the in the punishment made by the re character of the British soldier, cent order at the Horse Guards. the power of corporal punishment

Mr. Fox Maule, adverting to Dr. would become dormant, and the Bowring's statements respecting use of the lash unknown to the the soldier White's case, said, it British army. was very easy to dress up this After some further discussion, question in such a way as would chiefly in reference to the soldier harrow up men's feelings ; but White's case, and the inquest upon he called upon those who would it, the House divided, when there not permit the practice of flogging appearedto be justified on the stern plea of

For Dr. Bowring's resoirecessity, to state what punish


37 ment they would substitute in its

Against it

97 stead. The public mind had been moved on this subject by an unfor

Majority against 60 tunate occurrence, and but for that occurrence, he believed that no Mr. Osborne subsequently moved notice would have been taken this another amendment, which was Session of the code of punishment also rejected. inflicted in the army.

In justice A few nights afterwards, the to those whose names had been same subject was brought under mixed with that occurrence, he notice in the House of Lords by was bound to say that every thing the presentation of some petitions which they had done had been done against flogging, when the Duke of in conformity with the rules of the Wellington took the opportunity Vol. LXXXVIII.






of making the following statement. under any circumstances; but in He said :

no case would it bear any but the “ It has long been the wish best troops that can be had. of all those connected with the must have the


best troops, in command of the army, and par- this country, and in every part of ticularly of the illustrious indivi- the world where we employ them. dual who was my predecessor in We require the best conduct and that command, that the punish the most perfect subordination and ment should be diminished in the order ; for I assure your lordgreatest possible degree. It has ships, that our troops are now at been


invariable practice, since this moment engaged, and are conI first had the honour of a com- stantly engaged, in the daily permand in the army, to make every formance of services which you endeavour to diminish the punish- could not require--nay, I will go ment, so as, if possible, to lead by further and say, which you could not degrees to its entire discontinuance. have from any other troops in the My Lords, this has been the object world. Smail parties of soldiers, of all my arrangements throughout under the command of a subaltern, the service, ever since I first com are constantly employed in guardmanded a regiment, now not less ing from 300 to 400 convicts on than fifty years ago. But really, my a long voyage. No 'misfortune' Lords, the fact is, that it is impos- has ever occurred. Where shipsible to carry on the discipline of wrecks have taken place, the troops the British Army without some have conducted themselves in the punishment of that description most creditable and exemplary which the individual shall feel.”

It is necessary for me After stating that the experiment now to remark, and I entreat your adopted in the East Indies had lordships to remark, that you canfailed; the troops among whom the not have an army if unfortunately lash had been abolished having mu- it should lose its discipline and hatinied in a most disgraceful manner, bits of subordination and good orthe noble Duke continued, My der; but your lordships may rely Lords, in consequence of the feel- upon it that I will continue to do ing of the Government, of the Par- what I have always endeavoured liament, and of the public, on this to do, that is, to diminish the subject, I have taken upon myself punishment as much as possible; to issue an order greatly to di- and I hope I may live to see it minish the severity of the punish- abolished altogether.' ment; and I hope, with the ar Another subject which claimed rangements made in future, and the attention of Parliament shortly with an alteration in the law, it before the recess, was the occupamay still further be diminished, so tion of Cracow by the Austrian Goas to lead to its final discon- vernment. A strong feeling of tinuance. I must, however, beg sympathy for this republic deprived your lordships to observe, that if of the independence which under we are to have an army, we must the treaty of Vienna had been have it in a state of discipline—a guaranteed to it, was aroused in state of subordination to command this country when the intelligence and of obedience to the State. arrived of its seizure by Austria; This country does not like an army and the subject was shortly after


With re

wards mooted in both Houses of been the focus from which the reParliament. In the Upper House, volutionary movement had spread Lord Beaumont moved for the pro- itself over Gallicia, and a tempoduction of papers and correspond- rary occupation of the city had been ence between this country and the the necessary consequence. It courts of Vienna, Petersburgh, and was desirable that this occupation Berlin, respecting events which should be as short as possible, and had lately taken place at Cracow at this moment conferences were in violation of the treaty of Vi- going on having for their object enna. The noble Lord said that he the reconstruction of the civil Gobrought forward this motion upon vernment of Cracow. three grounds :—first, that it was spect to the excesses in Gallinecessary for this country to en cia, he could not contradict the force treaties to which the Sove- noble lord's statement, but until it reign of this realm had become a was officially proved he could never party ; secondly, that it became believe that the Austrian Governnecessary to do so with a view to ment had played the part which the maintenance of the balance of some of the accounts represented. power in Europe; and thirdly, on The Duke of Wellington conthe broad ground of humanity; and curred in the sentiments expressed proceeded at great length to prove by Lord Lansdowne. It was clear that the independence of Cracow that, under the treaty, Cracow had been guaranteed at the Con- could not be occupied by foreign gress of Vienna, and was now vio- troops : but when that treaty was lated by the steps taken to quell made, the state of things which the late insurrection in Gallicia. existed when the recent occupation He also referred to the butchery of took place was not contemplated. the nobles by the peasants in that It was not thought possible that part of Poland, and while he be- committees would be sitting in lieved that the Government at many of the great metropolises of Vienna had been ignorant of those Europe in order to carry on a seexcesses, he charged them with cret conspiracy, and to organize inneglect in not taking sufficient pre- surrection against an actual Gocautions to prevent the outbreak. vernment of a country; which ocIn conclusion, he expressed his con curred in this very city of Cracow; fidence in the noble lord at the and this circumstance could not head of Foreign Affairs, and hoped have been foreseen at the time of that all peaceful and proper means the treaty of Vienna. would be taken to prevent the like quite certain that the measures atrocities in future.

adopted as to Cracow were conThe Marquis of Lansdowne trary to the treaty, and could only agreed with Lord Beaumont in be justified by the circumstances thinking that the independent ex of the time. He had no hesitation istence of Cracow was guaranteed in saying, that if ever a breach of by the treaty of Vienna, and la- treaty was justifiable it was the mented that any thing should one which had occurred. But it have happened to justify a depar- was not to be supposed that beture, however temporary, from that cause the Austrians were left alone independence—there could be no in Cracow, therefore the independdoubt, however, that Cracow had ence of that town was destroyed.

It was

He did not know what circum served that, although he was the last stances now existed there ; but he

person to interfere in

any question understood, when he was in Her Ma that might risk the peace of the jesty's councils, that the three Sove- world, he still thought that Engreigns had then under their con land, for her own honour, ought to sideration measures for re-establish insist upon the maintenance of the ing an independent Government in

treaties to which she was a party. the town of Cracow, and placing it By the treaty of Vienna we were in a state of independence: and of bound to obtain a constitution for course the old articles of the treaty Poland, and independence for Crawould be revived, and no troops cow; and yet, though our allies would remain in the place.

were bound to grant both, we had Lord Kinnaird expressed similar not had courage to demand from views with Lord Beaumont on the them the fulfilment of their engageconduct of Austria. He said, it was ments. He thought that the House admitted that a conspiracy did exist ought to hear from Lord Palmerin Cracow ; but neither the Mar ston some exculpation, or at least quis of Lansdowne nor the Duke of some explanation, of the conduct of Wellington could explain why the the English Government. He conAustrian troops, together with all ceived that our not having a conthe local authorities, left the town sul at Cracow had led to those meas they did.

Lord Kinnaird knew lancholy results, which Sir R. from history, and from the mode of Peel declared to be scarcely cregovernment adopted by Foreign dible. Powers, that it not unfrequently Mr. M. Milnes, in seconding the happened—and he believed it was motion, contended that the Three so in the present case—that they Powers had been guilty of a gross deemed that the best means of violation of their engagements quashing a conspiracy was urging towards us, when they took armed it on, and bringing it to a head. possession of Cracow. He gave a

Lord Beaumont's motion was history of the brutal massacres then agreed to.

which the Austrian Government Mr. Hume originated a similar had organized in Gallicia, and dediscussion in the House of Com- clared that no less than 1,478 mons, by a motion for copies or ex landed proprietors had perished in tracts of any correspondence be- them. Ought such things to be tween the Governments of Cracow, done without drawing forth a reRussia, Prussia, or Austria, rela- mark from the Government of tive to the appointment of a Bri- Great Britain ? tish consular agent at Cracow since Lord Palmerston observed that the declaration made by the Minis nothing could be more painful to ter of Foreign Affairs in the House any man of proper feelings than a of Commons in the year 1836 of his discussion turning on the fate of intention of sending a consul to re the people of Poland, who, by injusside at Cracow. The honourable tice of the greatest magnitude, Member having alluded to the cap had been deprived of their nature of the town of Cracow by the tional existence, and had been abAustrian troops in February 1846, sorbed into the dominions of other and to the atrocities which subse Powers. But those events were quently took place in Gallicia, ob now matter of history; and what

ever might be the aspirations of us with information which we had those gallant men, who looked for- in abundance from other sources. ward to the re-establishment of the It was impossible to deny that the ancient glories of their country, treaty of Vienna had been violated members of Parliament, knowing by the late transactions at Cracow; the engagements by which the pre- and he proceeded to explain at consent distribution of the nations of siderable length the history of the Europe was regulated, could not events which had taken place in go further back than the treaty that town and its vicinity. The of Vienna. But to that treaty we treaty of Vienna must be upheld; had a right to go back; and on it could not be permitted to any that treaty we could take our stand. Government to pick out with one Consistently with his duty he could hand the articles of a treaty which not consent to the motion of Mr. it would observe, and with the Hume as it then stood. He had other the articles which it was deformerly stated the reasons on termined to violate ; and he therewhich he had opposed a similar fore hoped that the Governments motion. He had then said that of Austria, Russia, and Prussia, there were circumstances in opera- would recollect that if the treaty tion which created much irritation of Vienna was not good on the Visin the parties to the treaty of tula, it might be equally invalid on Vienna -- that the correspondence the Rhine and on the Po. With between them was of an angry respect to the atrocities in Galcharacter, and that there were dif- licia, he believed that Mr. Milnes ferences of opinion on rights and had not exaggerated them, and facts with respect to the mat- that they were without example in ter then at issue. The Three modern times. He believed, howPowers held opinions different from ever, that they had their origin ours: we maintained our own; and, with the local authorities of the if he were at liberty to produce province, and had not been sancthe correspondence, he could show tioned by the Government of Vi. that we had maintained our opinions

He concluded by assuring with adequate firmness and dig- Mr. Hume that no representations nity. It would, however, be very should be wanting on his part to injurious to rake up that corre- insure respect for the provisions of spondence after an interval of ten the treaty of Vienna. years from the time when it took Dr. Bowring, Mr. M. Gore, Mr. place; and he thought that the in- J. A. Smith, Mr. Wyse, and Mr. terests which Mr. Hume had at P. M. Stewart, all expressed warm heart would be injured rather than approbation of the speech of Lord benefited by its production. He Palmerston, and thanked him for had never attached any value to his public declaration that the the appointment of a consul at Cra- treaty of Vienna had been viocow. Whether the treaty of Vi- lated by the occupation of Cracow. enna was or was not violated by Mr. Hume then withdrew his any of the parties to it depended motion. on their own conduct, and was

The motion made in the two prequite independent of the appoint- ceding Sessions by Earl Powis, ment of a consular agent at that for the rescinding of the proposed place, who could not have furnished union between the sees of St.


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