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not honestly and openly, but dis- Indian had been worse treated honestly and casuistically, supply- than any other. ing Russia, Austria, and other Lord Monteagle followed in supcour ies with it, not merely in port of the measure. The whole foreign, but in British ships. history of our legislation on this By the present measure we were subject during the last twenty about to apply a wholesome stimu- years had been nothing but a lus to the production of free-grown succession of changes ; so it was sugar ; and he was happy to say absurd to say that the House was that there was a disposition, both pledged to anything. In reference in Cuba against the slave-trade, to Lord Stanley's taunt about the and in the Brazils in favour of a small reduction that the proposed system of free labour in the culti measure would effect in the price vation of sugar. After expressing of sugar, he remarked that the a desire to promote the access of whole trade of a country might free labourers to the West Indian turn on the five-eighths of a penny. Colonies, the noble marquis con This had occurred in the case of cluded by suggesting to Lord cotton. The West Indian interest Stanley to withdraw his motion, had received full warning that the and, as more respectful to the Sugar Question must be settled. House of Commons, to make it He considered that this was upon the second reading of the most legitimate mode of recruitBill.

ing the resources of the country; Lord Ashburton opposed the Bill. that it was commercially a good He argued that the system of re measure, and morally not a bad ciprocal protection was the true Colonial system.

If it was done Lord Brougham said, that after away with, the Colonies would having recently addressed their cease to be of value to this lordships on this subject he had country. Was every body, then, now little to add. He still thought to be allowed to carry their ma that this was a most unprecedented nufactures to Jamaica and Canada way of dealing with so large a on the same terms as we received measure, and that it was a most them ourselves? If that were the unprecedented time to deal with it. case, the gentlemen in Manchester The more he was of opinion that who expected such great benefits this question ought to be permafrom free trade would discover nently settled, the more he felt that, in their own favourite arti- that this Bill ought to have been cle of cotton, the monopoly they brought forward at earlier conceived no one could take from period of the Session. He then them, they would be defeated in proceeded to urge the injustice of some of these Colonies. It had passing this Bill without affording been stated by some of those gen- the West Indians an opportunity tlemen in the Committee on Land of being heard against it ; how Burdens, that the Americans met did their lordships know, if they them successfully in the Brazilian were heard, that the Colonists and Chinese markets with coarse could not make out a satisfactory cottons; and why should they not case against this measure? The equally beat them in our West Indians could not have been Colonies? The unfortunate West prepared for such extraordinary

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changes of opinion as had been of the slave and the horrors of the lately exhibited upon this question. slave-trade, and he cited a recent Ilis lordship then passed some declaration of Dr. Lushington, that lively strictures upon Sir J. W. this Bill would render nugatory our Hogg, who had seconded Lord treaties for the suppression of the Sandon's motion, in 1841, and slave-trade. After showing that then addressed himself to what he free labour, though it could succontended was the whole argument cessfully contend with slave labour in favour of this measure, which upon fair and equal terms, was resolved itself into this—that sugar unable to compete with it, unless would be reduced in price thereby, the market of Africa was closed, and brought within the capacity he said that he little thought, of the bulk of the people of this after the victories which had been country by a large increase of the achieved, he should, in 1846, have supply. As a plain man, he would to rise in his place to denounce ask how this reduction in price the slave - trade, and complain by the augmentation of the sup that a liberal Government should ply could happen, unless a large for the first time have introduced quantity, some 30,000 hogsheads a Bill for the purpose of actively of sugar, slave-grown and free- encouraging and extending the grown, were immediately, or within African slave-trade. a year or two, brought into the Earl

Grey answered Lord market of England. How was

Brougham. He appealed to their this increase of supply to be got? lordships, whether the noble lord By one way only—the admission had done any thing to answer the of foreign sugar.

But this Bill

arguments urged in support of the went to open the market to slave- Bill. He went on to enforce the grown sugar, and there was financial reasons in favour of the limit to the supply, which could measure, and commented strongly be increased ad libitum by the on the inconsistency of proscribing African slave-trade ; and

he

one particular kind of slave-prowarned those noble lords who duce. All sound rules of conduct, held up their hands for suddenly he contended, must be of universupplying the British market with sal application, and if the oppo30,000 tons of sugar, that, though nents of this Bill pleaded national they might not intend it, they morality, they should be prepared held them up, not for slavery only, to act upon that rule universally, but for encouraging, stimulating, and exclude coffee, cotton, and, in extending, and exacerbating the fact, all foreign slave-labour procurse of the African slave-trade. duce. It was the rankest deluThe argument that sugar should sion that had ever been attempted not be excluded from our market to be palmed upon the country. if other slave-grown products were Adverting to the remarks of Lord not excluded, admitted of various Brougham upon the encouragement

Sugar stood upon dif which this Bill was supposed to ferent grounds from coffee, cotton, give to the slave-trade—though he and tobacco ; but they were now believed it was calculated to check dealing with sugar and sugar only. it—the noble earl complained that The noble and learned lord drew a Lord Brougham, who now glorified powerful picture of the sufferings himself for the services he had

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rendered in the suppression of the moved that it be read a second slave-trade, had slumbered when time that day three months. His those services would have been of speech was almost entirely admost importance, and reminded him dressed to the anti-slavery view of that, when he held a high post in the question. He began with a the late King's Government, he modest disclaimer : he should not had left the Colonial Secretary to have ventured to oppose the Gostruggle unassisted with the difficul vernment on a matter of finance or ties connected with that question. revenue ; but this was a question He (Lord Grey) believed that the deeply affecting the moral chaWest Indians would be stimulated racter of the country, its name for by this measure to exertions which justice and humanity. The Bill would enable them successfully to

the ground that a greater compete with slave cultivation, supply of sugar was needed; there which he was still convinced could must be a greater importation of sunot keep up a race with free labour. gar not West Indian. Sir J. Hogg In reply to the question of Lord had shown that it could not come Stanley, as to the restrictions to be from the East Indies, therefore taken off immigration, the noble earl it must come from Cuba and the said, that as the allowing of indis- Brazils ; they must export more ; criminate immigration of negroes to do that they must make more ; from Africa would be liable to but being semi-barbarous countries, abuse, it was not intended to sanc they do not augment their produce tion that. If any safe mode could by machinery; they do it by the be pointed out, it would be desirable rude labour of human muscles—by that the Kroomen should be en slaves ; they must, therefore, have couraged to migrate to our colonies more slaves ; the slave-trade will during the cane harvest, and re be directly encouraged, involving turn to their native country. All its awful waste of life, which is as that was proposed was to allow vo three to one of slaves actually imluntary emigration from our own ported, to say nothing of the wars, settlements in Africa and India. slave-hunts, and other miseries The noble earl concluded by ex of internal Africa. He treated pressing his belief that this Bill the argument about cotton, and would eventually lead to the extinc- other slave-produce, which we adtion, not only of slavery, but of the mit, as untenable, asking if we slave-trade.

should authorize murder because After some further discussion of we cannot prevent housebreaking. a conversational kind, Lord Stanley As to copper, he would join in withdrew his motion, and the Bill excluding it. But, most emphatiwas read a first time. On the cally, he denied the assertion that motion being made that it be read efforts to suppress the slave-trade a second time on the following had failed: we were on the very Thursday, Lord Stanley moved as verge of extinguishing it by sealing an amendment, to postpone it to up the coast of Africa ; and who that day six months, but it was could

say

what the increase would negatived without a division. have been but for our intervention ?

The second reading, accordingly, Contracts for limiting trade to lebeing proposed on the day ap- gitimate objects have been made pointed, the Bishop of Oxford by African chiefs : Portugal and

on

France were co-operating with us; fix a stain this

country which no even in Cuba and the Brazils a feel- future legislation would remove. ing had arisen that exclusion from The Marquis of Lansdowne comour market on account of the slave- plimented the Bishop of Oxford trade was injurious to the slave- upon the eloquence he had disowning countries. He expressed played, observing, that upon this his deep regret to find that, just question the right reverend prelate as the goal was in view, a mea had peculiar claims to the attention sure should be proposed, the ine of their lordships. After replying vitable effect of which would be briefly to some of the remarks of to reopen the slave-trade in all its the bishop, the noble marquis obhorrors.

served, that it was the opinion of The Bishop of London seconded those conversant with the subthe amendment. The result of ject, that by freedom of trade, his consideration of the arguments and a liberal and generous policy which had been addressed to their as far as commerce was concerned, lordships on the first reading of bringing with it an increase of the Bill was, that if this measure moral and religious feelings, an passed, it would sanction the slave- impulse would be given to free trade, the abolition of which was labour. He could not but consider one of the brightest features in the the scarcity of petitions against history of this country. His right the Bill a most decisive proof that, reverend friend had shown, that if in the opinion of the country, this we were to have a large increase of measure not retrogressive ; the quantity of sugar, it must be otherwise, instead of half-a-dozen by a large increase in the number petitions presented against it in of slaves imported into Brazil and the last few weeks, the table would Cuba. The number

have been covered with them. He 150,000 per annum, and if we

hailed this as

a proof that the were to have 30,000 tons more of country did not participate in the sugar, that could only be supplied fears of the two right reverend preby 30,000 additional slaves : and lates, and that the people believed the number of slaves imported into that not only would the interests sugar-growing countries was of commerce be extended by this measure of the evils inflicted, inas measure, but that, ultimately, in much as for every additional slave connection with it, the moral feeltwo would die in the middle passage, ings of mankind would lead to a or in the seasoning. From 60,000 final euthanasia of slavery. to 80,000 human beings would, Their lordships then divided, therefore, be hurried into eternity, when the numbers wereafter suffering cruel torments. Feeling that the real prosperity, For the original question 28 the honour, and the welfare of this For the amendment . . 10 country were involved in this measure, he could not acquiesce in it, Majority for the second believing in his heart that it would reading

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CHAPTER VII.

Miscellaneous MeasuresThe Government propose to renew the Irish

Arms BillDissatisfaction excited by this announcementExplanation of the Secretary for Ireland— Debate on the Second Reading Remarks of Mr. Labouchere, Mr. Hume, Mr. B. Escott, Mr. B. Osborne, Mr. T. Duncombe, and other MembersLord Morpeth and Lord John Russell intimate a willingness to make concessionsThe Second Reading is carried by a majority of 33—On a subsequent evening Lord John Russell announces the determination of the Government to abandon the Measure-Distress in Ireland occasioned by the recurring failure of the Potato CropLord John Russell proposes a measure for the employment of the population in Public WorksExplanation of the Ministerial scheme in detail_Remarks of Mr. D. Browne, Mr. Williams, Mr. Labouchere, the Earl of Lincoln, and other MembersThe Public Works Bill passes the Commons, and is introduced in the House of Lords by the Marquis of LansdowneSpeeches of Lord Monteagle, the Earl of Wicklow, and other PeersDeclaration of Lord Lansdowne respecting out-door relief--Further discussions in Parliament respecting the impending scarcity in Ireland -Speeches of the Earls of Roden and Clarendon, and of Mr. Dillon Broune and Mr. Labouchere-Flogging in the Army and Military Reform-Tendency of public opinion on this subject-Captain Layard moves an Address to the Crown praying for an Inquiry, with a view to limiting the period of enlistment--His Speech on moving the Address -Speeches of Mr. Fox Maule and other MembersThe Motion is postponedĂn order is issued from the Commander-in-Chief limiting the Sentences of Courts Martial to fifty lashesLord John Russell makes a statement upon the subject-Dr. Bouring moves a Resolution in favour of the total abolition of flogging--Speeches of Captain Layard, Mr. B. Osborne, Colonel Peel, Colonel Reid, Mr. Wakley, Mr. Fox Maule, and other Members-Dr. Bouring's Motion is rejected by a large majority-Statement of the Duke of Wellington in the House of Lords on the subject of the recent order-Occupation of Cracow by the Austrian Government--Lord Beaumont moves for papers relating thereto-Speeches of the Marquis of Lansdowne, Lord Kinnaird, and the Duke of WellingtonMr. Hume makes a similar Motion in the House of Commons-Speeches of Mr. Milnes and of Lord Palmerston--Sees of St. Asaph and Bangor-Earl Pouis brings in a

Bill to rescind the proposed union-Debate on the Second ReadingVol. LXXXVIII.

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