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175,000, and one year the crop British market. But it was said did not exceed 145,000 tons. that the principles of free trade In proportion to the falling off of required that we should open our the crops, had the price of the markets to the sugar of the article risen. The average dif- Brazils, in order that the Brazils ference in the price for the six might open their markets to our years before emancipation, and for manufactures.
To this argument the twelve years since that event, he replied, that if we gained a was ten shillings a cwt. He did market for our manufactures in not deny, that if slave-grown sugar the Brazils, we should lose it in were admitted into the markets the East Indies and in our other of this country, the country would colonies, and, moreover, should gain a penny a pound in the price bring on the natives deeper disof its sugar ; but the country had tress than that which we had ala right to expect better things ready inflicted on them by destroyfrom the increased produce of ing entirely their manufacturing sugar in the East Indies and the industry. He then entered upon Mauritius, and from the restored the revenue part of the question, produce of the West Indies, if the and observed, that he could not Government would only consent to understand how Lord J. Russell facilitate the introduction of free arrived at his conclusion, that he labour into the plantations of those should gain 725,0001. more of colonies, and would continue to the revenue by his scheme of Sugar planters the protection which they Duties than Mr. Goulburn would now enjoyed. After entering into have been enabled to obtain by his various details in order to establish scheme. No more revenue would this proposition, he calculated that be derived from British plantation the supply of sugar for the next sugar under one scheme than the year would amount, not to 280,000 other. If 20,000 tons of frcetons, as Lord J. Russell contended, labour sugar were to come 'in under but to 340,000 tons. The greatest the noble lord's scheme, at 21s. consumption ever known in this a cwt., they would equally come country did not exceed 246,000 in under that of Mr. Goulburn's tons, and, that being the case, he at 198. 6d. a cwt. Supposing, considered that, without seeking then, that Lord J. Russell got aid from the slave colonies of ls. 6d. a cwt. more than Mr. Goul. other countries, there would be an burn for his free-labour sugar, he ample provision for the consump- would only get 23,0001. more than tion of Great Britain. He ad- Mr. Goulburn in that way. Even mitted that his calculation was supposing that the consumption founded on the supposition, that increased to 280,000 tons, which the price of sugar was not mate was 40,000 tons more than our rially diminished; for it was quite greatest consumption, and that all clear that, if it were diminished that increase was made up
of six shillings a cwt., as Lord J. slave-grown sugar, he would only Russell anticipated it would be, by obtain 421,0001. of revenue from the introduction of the Brazilian slave-grown sugar, so that at the and Cuban sugar, it would no utmost Lord J. Russell would not longer be profitable to cultivate obtain 440,0001. more than Mr. sugar in the East Indies for the Goulburn. For his own part, he
believed that 23,3331. was all the slaves in a ship of a Brazilian gain in point of revenue, which planter of the name of Houseca, Lord J. Russell would derive from that there was nothing in the pre- . his plan for letting into our markets sent mode of conducting the slavethe sugar of Cuba and the Brazils. trade to reconcile the feelings of Such being the fact, he implored Englishmen to it. He also dehis noble friend not to press on a scribed the wretched condition and measure so materially affecting the treatment of the slaves in Cuba and revenue at the present advanced the Brazils, and then asked the period of the Session. The last House whether it would consent to time these duties were discussed, ruin the humane planters in the the discussion in the committee East Indies and in the West Indies, took up eight nights ; and if they to add to the profits of the inhuman were to be discussed at the same wretches who cultivated sugar in length now, or even at a length Cuba and the Brazils at a loss of life which their importance deserved, which it was awful to contemplate? and if at the end of that and the These resolutions would add 181. subsequent discussions they should to the value of each negro in the be passed, there would be no Peers colonies of Spain and Portugal ; in the House of Lords to receive and, with such a premium on the the Bill founded upon them. He importation of slaves, could they then entered upon the last division doubt that the slave-dealers would of his subject, that connected with send out ship after ship to bring slavery, on which he said that the fresh cargoes of human misery to question resolved itself into this, their guilty shores? After an Would the people of England have an eloquent peroration, in which he slavery, and sugar two-thirds of a summed up his principal argupenny a pound cheaper, or would ments, he concluded by moving, they be content to pay that sum“ That, in the present state of the for sugar grown by the hands sugar cultivation in the British of free British industry? Were East and West Indian possessions, they tired of their past exer- the proposed reduction of duty tions for the emancipation of upon foreign slave-grown sugar is the slave, or did they repent of alike unjust and impolitic, as tendthe 20,000,0001. which they had ing to check the advance of propaid for it? They were now pay- duction by British free labour, and ing 1,500,0001., and employing to give a great additional stimulus forty-five ships of war, and a con to slave labour.” siderable number of sailors, for the The Chancellor of the Excherepression of the nefarious and dia- quer followed Lord George Benbolical slave-trade ; and would they tinck through each of the three render themselves supremely ridi- heads into which he had divided culous in the eyes of all the world, the subject. After dwelling on by contributing at the same time the importance of providing an 1,500,0001. to 2,500,0001. to the adequate supply of sugar, which, profits of the slave-dealers of Cuba from a luxury, had become a and the Brazils, by assenting to necessary article of sustenance to these resolutions? He showed, by the people of this country, he proreference to some horrible and dis- ceeded to show that the demand gusting cruelties inflicted on the for sugar was now greater, and the
rise in its price was higher, than the increase in consumption, with a it when the late Govern- deficient supply, was 43,000 tons, ment was induced to let foreign and he thought that he might safely free-labour sugar come into compe- anticipate an increase to a simitition with sugar the produce of lar amount in the next year, when our own possessions, and to con the sugar of Cuba and the Brazils tend that the same considerations would be open to us. Having which had induced the late Govern- shown that Lord George Bentinck's ment to let in foreign free-labour estimate of the supply of sugar was sugar should induce the present Go- greater, and of the consumption vernment to let in slave-labour sugar less, than that on which we had a also. The consumption of the last right to calculate, he proceeded to year had exceeded that of the pre examine his observations on the ceding year by 36,000 tons. The revenue to be derived from the price was higher now by 4s, a cwt. new scheme of Sugar Duties, and in than it was in June 1845. The so doing entered into a detailed supply of sugar had also failed us ; view of the income and expenditure for whereas Mr. Gladstone had esti- of the country. He observed that mated the supply of free-labour Mr. Goulburn had only left him a sugar for the year at 20,000 tons, surplus of 70,0001., and expressed it had been under 4,000 tons, and his fears that before the end of the whole supply for the last five the Session he should be obliged quarters did not exceed 4,130 tons. to bring forward several suppleHaving thus shown that the mea mentary estimates.
He hoped to sures of the late Government to reinforce the revenue by this meaprocure an adequate supply of sure ; and such reinforcement was sugar had failed, he proceeded to not only desirable, but was absodemonstrate that the estimated lutely indispensable ; for he calcusupply of sugar for the next year, lated that at the end of the year which had been developed to the there would be a deficiency of House by Lord George Bentinck, 350,0001., owing to the increased was grossly exaggerated, and more expenditure which we should be particularly that portion of it which compelled to make, on various was to come from the East Indies. heads which he enumerated in deThe actual consumption of sugar tail, and which he considered to be last year was 252,000 tons, and it necessary to the safety of the state would have been larger had it not and the maintenance of our own been checked by an inadequate honour and credit. If the increase supply. He believed that it would in the consumption of sugar should be still larger this year, and to in amount to 20,000 tons, then the sure its increase it was necessary revenue from sugar would amount to take measures to reduce the price to 4,195,0001. ; and if it should of the article. So far was he from amount to 30,000 tons, as he trusted thinking that the duty of 21s. on that it would, the revenue from foreign sugar was too low, that he sugar would amount to 4,405,0001., thought it, if any thing, too high; and in either case the deficiency and he had only fixed it at its pre- which he anticipated would be sent amount in order to give time more than covered. He then to the colonial interest to meet the replied to the arguments of Lord changes now proposed. Last year George Bentinck on the last of
the three heads into which he had that he was precipitating the midivided the subject. He wondered series of Africa ; and that he was how those who used slave-grown causing an amount of deeper suffercotton, slave-grown coffee, slave- ing than the House would willingly extracted copper, and slave-grown listen to. tobacco, could say that by nega Lord Sandon observed, that when tiving these resolutions they would Sir Robert Peel introduced into be discouraging slavery and the the tariff' a discrimination between slave-trade. lle charged the noble free-labour and slave-grown sugar, lord with having laid down principles he had entered his protest against on that subject which he could not it, because he thought the discricarry into effect, and with seeking mination was a mere fallacy. He to deprive the people of England had then stated, that when you of an article which was all but a once opened your market to foreign necessary of life, for the sake of sugar, you opened it practically to carrying out a visionary scheme of slave-grown sugar. He had been impracticable humanity.
fortified in that statement subseclusion, he expressed a confident quently, by the advice of the most hope that the results of the change experienced merchants, and he now proposed would not be inju- therefore could not concur in the rious to the West Indian interests, opinion of Lord George Bentinck, whilst he was certain that it would that whoever supported these resobe productive of great benefit to the lutions was encouraging slavery and merchant, the manufacturer, and the slave-trade. Our present systhe shipowner, and, above all, the la- tem produced irritation and jeabouring population of Great Britain. lousy in Spain and Brazil, and, in
Sir R. Inglis thought the House stead of being a discouragement to indebted to Lord George Bentinck the sugar-growers of those counfor proposing this amendment, and tries, was only a discouragement for supporting it by a speech full to the British merchant and shipof facts, in which every fact was an owner. Lord George Bentinck had argument. During the whole of recommended the Government to the Chancellor of the Exchequer's take time for the consideration of reply, he could not help fancying this question. Now he thought that that time and space had been anni- it was better for all parties that it hilated, and that he was listening, should be settled at once, and in in May 1847, to the speech of a the mode now proposed by Her Minister apologizing for a deficiency Majesty's Government. of 350,0001. which he found in his Mr.Grantley Berkeley contended budget, and declining to tell the that, with an adequate supply of House whether he would make up labour, the West Indies could send that deficiency by the transactions to England again, as they had sent of legitimate commerce, or by the before, an adequate supply of sugar. blood of the tortured slave. For He, therefore, recommended the his own part, he would not willingly Government to promote the immiincrease the amount of human suf- gration of free labourers into the fering, and yet, if he voted in favour West Indian Colonies, rather than of these resolutions, he should feel encourage the importation of slavethat he was preventing the working grown sugar into Great Britain. out of a wholesome experiment; Sir J. Hogg observed, that when Vol. LXXXVIII.
he seconded the resolution of Lord by slave-labour, imported sugar for Sandon, in 1841, which led to the its own consumption not more than dissolution of the last Parliament, thirty years ago. he wished to give the people of Mr. G. W. Hope had voted, like England an adequate supply of Sir J. Hogg, in favour of Lord cheap sugar, and to discourage Sandon's resolution in 1841, but slave-grown sugar ; but the ques- had not seen, like Sir J. Hogg, tion which he had now to consider any reasons for changing the opiwas, whether his anticipations in nions which he then expressed. 1841 had been realized, and whether He considered that these resolu. the measures which he had then tions would inevitably promote the supported had produced the results extension of slavery and the slavewhich he then contemplated. He trade. was obliged to confess that the Sir Robert Peel observed, that measure then introduced had not Lord George Bentinck was perafforded an adequate supply of fectly correct in stating that he sugar, and that some other mea had announced at the commencesures were indispensably necessary. ment of the Session a measure for As one well acquainted with the the introduction of foreign sugar, condition of India, he must inform very different from that proposed the House that Lord George Ben- by Lord John Russell
. That meatinck had been guilty of great but sure would have given greater enunintentional exaggeration respect- couragement than the present reing the supply of sugar to be ex solutions to the admission of freepected from the East Indies, and labour sugar, and would have conthat his anticipations had been tinued the exclusion of slave-labour equally erroneous, both as to the sugar. He had always felt that quantity and as to the price of the this question of admitting slavesugar likely to be produced there. labour sugar was excepted from the The East Indians wanted no pro- category of free-trade. He thought tection to their sugar, but undoubt that this country stood in a special edly they would take it if it was relation to the West Indian colonies, offered to them. He should certainly We had emancipated their slaves, support these resolutions, though and had given them an apparently he could have wished that the West magnificent compensation for the Indian proprietors had two or three sacrifice of their property. Whether years to make their arrangements, it was an adequate compensation before they came into competition a matter of doubt ; but, be with slave-labour sugar.
that as it might, it placed this melancholy to contemplate the ne country in a position of some difficessity of depriving the whole of culty with respect to the West the poor population of these Islands Indies. He had, therefore, been of a cheap supply of such a neces of opinion that considerable time sary article of life as sugar. Every ought to have been allowed to the body knew that all we had done West Indies before they were called for
so many years to stop the on to compete with slave-labour slave-trade had been splendid sugar, and in that opinion he was failures, and no greater proof of it confirmed by the dictum of Mr. could be afforded than this, that Deacon Hume. We had also conCuba, which now cultivated sugar stituted ourselves the police of the