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House had come on the Protection course which Ministers ought to of Life Bill, by which it had re pursue, for he would not, even if fused to grant to Ministers those the vote of Thursday night had powers which they deemed neces. been in his favour, ha consented sary for the repression of outrage to hold office by sufferance, or by and for the protection of life in the evasion of any great and imIreland, Her Majesty's servants portant public question. bad deemed it their duty to not for the public interest that tender their resignation to their any Government should remain in Sovereign. If he had had any power which was not able to carry complaint to make respecting the into effect the measures which it course taken by the house, the deemed necessary for the public present was not an occasion for welfare; and in the position of the making it; and he should there- present Government, by the withfore abstain from uttering a sin. drawal — the natural withdrawal, gle syllable which might provoke perhaps--of those who had here-either irritation or controversy. tofore supported it, he did not Such a controversy would be at think it probable that they could once unsuited to the magnitude of have been enabled, with credit to the occasion, and at variance with themselves and advantage to the the feelings which animated him to country, to continue in the admiwards those gentlemen on his own nistration of public affairs. He had side of the House, who had given therefore advised Her Majesty to him on all occasions a cordial and accept the resignation of their generous support, and towards those services, without having recourse gentlemen on the opposite benches to the exercise of the prerogative who had also actively co-operated possessed by the Crown to dissolve with him in forwarding measures the Parliament. Speaking with a which they both deemed for the frankness which ought to offend interest of the country. Hoping, no one, he did not hesitate to therefore, that no expression would declare that if ler Majesty's escape from him calculated to pro- Government had failed to carry voke that controversy wliich he de- in all their integrity the measures precated, he informed the House of commercial policy which they had that Her Majesty had accepted the recommended, there was no exertender of resignation made by her tion which he would not have made Ministers, and that his colleagues to insure for them ultimately the and himself only held office until most complete success. In such their successors were appointed. a case he should have advised He assured them that he had not the dissolution of Parliament by proposed the measures connected the Crown : for the continuance of with our commercial policy with. doubt on such a subject, he should out foreseeing the probability that, have deemed a greater evil than whether they were made law or the recurrence to a dissolution. not, they would cause the disso. Those measures, however, had lution of Government. He, there. now become the law of the land; fore, rather rejoiced that Govern- and he therefore could not conment had been relieved from any sent to advise for the mere exdoubt upon the point, by the early istence of the Government the exdecision of the House as to the ercise of that royal prerogative.

He thought that he ought not to Ireland ; so that no one, on comrecommend a dissolution, unless he paring Ireland and its franchises could reckon upon having in the with Great Britain and its frannext Parliament the support of a chises, should be at liberty to say powerful party, united to him by that a different rule was established a general concurrence of views on in the two countries. Then, with all great questions ; and, after the regard to the Executive Adminispresent division of parties, he did tration in Ireland, he thought that not imagine that he could obtain the favour of the Crown should be such a result. Besides, after all the bestowed without reference to reliexcitement and after all the stag- gious distinctions ; and he assured nation of trade consequent on their those who were about to succeed recent discussions, he considered the him, that if they acted upon that country to stand in need of repose. principle they should hear no comHe then proceeded to notice the plaints from him. Then, with redefeat which the Government had spect to the spirit in which legislareceived on a question connected tion should be conducted, he was with Ireland. He should lament prepared, retaining all the opinions that defeat indeed, if it could be which he had expressed on Irish thought that the measure which policy, to co-operate with those his Government had proposed was who felt that the tenure of land an indication that it held different and the relation of landlord and opinions as to the policy to be pur- tenant in Ireland required immedi. sued towards Ireland from those ate consideration. He had reason which he had disclosed at the close to believe that Lord John Russell of last Session. To the opinions had been commanded to repair to which he then professed, and to Her Majesty's presence, in order which practical effect had been to render assistance in the formgiven by the passing of the ation of a new Government. He Charitable Trusts Act, and of had no doubt that the general the Irish Colleges Bill, he now, principles of that Government, on leaving office, most cordially so far as the commercial policy subscribed. He had brought for- of the country was concerned, ward the Protection of Life Bill, would be developed in the connot under the idea that it was a tinued application of those prinmeasure calculated to improve the ciples which would give us a more permanent condition of Ireland, free commercial intercourse with but because he thought that the other countries. If such should vigorous repression of crime was be the policy of the new Governnecessary to give effect to the ment, he should feel it to be his useful legislation of the House on duty to give to that Government, other subjects connected with that in the pursuit of that policy, his country. It would be unjust to

most cordial support. If other infer from that Bill that his policy countries chose to buy in the with respect to Ireland had under- dearest market, that ought not gone any change.

He still con to be a discouragement to us tended that there ought to be to buy in the cheapest ; and he established a complete equality therefore hoped that the new Goof civil, municipal, and political vernment would not haggle with rights between Great Britain and foreign countries about commer

cial advantages, but would man had not been affected by the fully pursue that course which policy of the Government, and was most conducive to British that the glory of the British interests. He admitted that the arms, by sea and land, had been surplus of the revenue for the maintained in every part of the coming year was less than he globe by the achievements of our could have wished it to be ; and soldiers and sailors. Although therefore, while he recommended there had been great reductions to his successors the application of in the public burdens, yet he had the principles of commercial policy great satisfaction in saying that adopted during the present Session, the national defences had been he would not urge them to that si- improved by sea and land, and multaneous adoption of them which that the army and the navy were would either be injurious to in now in a most efficient state. He terests which had long been ac hoped that he might congratulate customed to protection, or would the House upon the fact that the create a derangement in either the finances of the country were in a revenue or currency of the country. buoyant state, and that the return He was now speaking of his own of the revenue, for the quarter intentions rather than of the in- ending on the 5th of next July, tentions of others; but he could showing as it did an increased not doubt that those who had sup- consumption of articles, had supported him would give the same plied the void occasioned by the support to similar measures pro remission of certain articles of posed by others. He did not think taxation. IIe thought that he it necessary that he should make might also say, that without any any other observations ; but he harsh enforcement of the law, could not surrender the power, there had been as great obediwhich he had now wielded during ence to it in Great Britain as five years, without expressing a at any former period of hope that, during that time, nei- liistory—nay, more, that in conther the interests nor the honour sequence of the people having a of the country had been com greater command over the necespromised. He thought that he saries of life, there had been more could say, with truth, that in that of contentment and less of seditime the burdens of taxation had tious crime during his Adminisbeen equalized; that many restric tration than at any previous time. tions on commerce affecting trade After paying a just and well-deinjuriously had been removed ; and served compliment to the Earl of that, without interfering at all Aberdeen, for his successful mainwith legitimate speculation, sta tenance of a peaceful policy, he bility had been given to our expressed a hope that he had monetary system by measures left the foreign relations of the passed for the regulation of the country in a satisfactory condition. Bank of England, the joint-stock Not only France, but all the other banks, and the private banks of great powers of Europe, were dethe country--measures which had sirious to co-operate with us in the met the general support of all maintenance of peace. Could he parties. He trusted, also, that have entertained any private wish the stability of our Indian empire for the continuance of his own Go


vernment in office, he could have the satisfaction of receiving from wished it to survive the day on Mr. Pakenham an official letter, which intelligence should be re dated Washington, the 13th June, ceived from the United States as informing him that the conditions to the result of our last attempt offered by Her Majesty's Governto close the differences between ment had been accepted by the Great Britain and the United Government of the United States, States. He then recounted to without the addition or alteration the House how, within two days of a single word. Thus the Go. after the British Government had vernments of two great nations, received from the President of both impelled by public opinion, the United States the notice that had by their moderation and spi. the existing convention about rit of mutual conciliation averted the Oregon territory was to ter a war, which was in danger of minate at the close of twelve breaking out between them, in months, accompanied with a de. spite of their common blood and claration that the notice was given commou language, and which, in the hope that it might lead to if it had broken out, would not an amicable termination of all dis- have lasted long without involve putes, Her Majesty's Government ing Europe in its desolation. had not hesitated, although its Mentioning, as he passed along, offer of arbitration had been re that the Earl of Aberdeen had fused, to specify frankly, and at intimated to the United States once, the terms on which it would his desire of employing our good consent to the partition of that offices to mediate between them territory. The President of the and Mexico, Sir Robert Peel United States, on receiving our concluded this part of his subterms, had referred them at once ject by expressing his gratification to the Senate ; and the Senate, that, before he surrendered his acting in the same spirit of pa- power, he could assure the House triotism as the President, imme. that every chance of war with the diately advised that they should United States was terminated with be accepted. He then stated the honour to this country. two main articles in the conven Sir Robert Peel concluded his tion to be, first, that the line of address in these words :boundary between the British and Sir, I have now executed the American territory should be con task which my public duty imtinued along the 49th parallel of posed upon me ; and I trust that north latitude to the middle of the I have said nothing which can lead channel which separates the con to discussion or controversy. I tinent from Vancouver's Island, can say with truth, that whatever and thence southerly to the Pa- opinions may be formed with recific Ocean, off Fuca, south of gard to the extent of the danger that latitude, open to both parties;

with which we were threatened, and secondly, that the navigation Her Majesty's Government, in proof the great northern branch posing those measures of comof the Columbia should be free mercial policy which have disenand open to all British subjects. titled them to the confidence of That very day, on returning from many of those who heretofore gave the Isle of Wight, he had had them their support, were influenced

by no other desire than that of me-I say that neither of us are promoting the interests of the the parties who are strictly encountry. (Cheers.)

Our object

titled to the merit. There has been was to avert dangers which we a combination of parties, and that thought were imminent, and to combination of parties, together avoid a conflict that we believed with the influence of the Governwould soon place in hostile colli- ment, has led to the ultimate suc. sion great and powerful classes in cess of the measures. But, Sir, this country. The love of power there is a name which ought to be was not the motive for the pro associated with the success of posal of these measures ; for, as these measures : it is not the I have said before, I had not a name of the noble lord the memdoubt that, whether those mea ber for London, neither is it my sures were accompanied with fail name. Sir, the name which ought ure or with success, one event to be, and which will be associated certainly must occur, and that was,

with the success of these measures, the termination of the existence is the name of a man who, acting, I of this Government. ( “ Hear, believe, from pure and disinterested hear!”) I admit that the with motives, has advocated their cause drawal of the confidence of many with unting energy, and by appeals of our friends was the natural to reason, enforced by an eloquence result of the measures we pro- the more to be admired because posed ; and I do think, when pro- it was unaffected and unadornedposals of such a nature are made, the name which ouglit to be and apparently at variance with the which will be associated with the course which Ministers heretofore success of these measures is the have pursued, and subjecting them name of Richard Cobden. (Loud to the charge or taunt of inconsiste cheers.) Without scruple, Sir, I ency-upon the whole, it is advan- attribute the success of these mea. tageous for the country, and for sures to him. the general character of public “ Sir, I shall now close the men, that the proposal of mea address which it has been my duty sures of that kind under such cir- to make, thanking the House sincumstances should entail that cerely for the favour with which which is supposed to be a fitting it has listened to this my last punishment namely, expulsion address in my official capacity. from office. I, therefore, do not Within a few hours, probably, that complain of it : anything is pre- power which I have held for a ferable to attempting to maintain period of five years will be surourselves in office without a full rendered into the hands of another; measure of the confidence of this I say it without repining, and House. (Cheers.) As I said be. without complaint--with a more fore, Sir, in reference to our pro- lively recollection of the support posing these measures, I have no and confidence which I have rewish to rob any person of the ceived than of the opposition which, credit which is justly due to him during a recent period, I have for them. But I may say, that encountered. I shall, I fear, leave neither the gentlemen sitting on office with a name severely cen. the benches opposite, nor myself, sured by many honourable men nor the gentlemen sitting around who, on public principle, deeply

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