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General Observations on the state of the country and position of the Government at the commencement of the year 1842—Secession of the Duke of Buckingham from the Cabinet–Parliament opened on the 3rd of February by the Queen in person—Presence of the King of Prussia on the occasion—Her Majesty's Speech from the Throne—Address moved in the House of Lords by the Marquess of Abercorn, seconded by the Earl of Dalhousie—Speeches of Viscount Melbourne, Duke of Wellington, Lord Broughain, Earl Fitzwilliam, Duke of Buckingham, and other Peers—Address carried unanimously–Debate in the House of Commons—Address moved by the Earl of March, seconded by Mr. Beckett-Speeches of Mr. Ewart, Lord John Russell, Sir Robert Peel, Mr. Williers, and Mr. Escott—General allusion to the Corn-laws— Statement of Sir R. Peel respecting his Financial Measures—Address carried without a division . . . - - - - - - [l

CHAPTER II.

Introductory Debate on the Corn-laws on 9th February—Extraordinary interest manifested in the House of Commons, and out of doors— Attempt of the Anti-Corn-law Delegates to take possession of the Lobby—They are prevented by the Police—Development of the Ministerial plan by Sir Robert Peel—He proposes a modification of the Sliding scale—Short Remarks on the p. by Lord John Russell—It is vehemently denounced by Mr. Cobden as an insult to the People— Debate resumed on the 14th–Lord John Russell moves at great o * Resolution condemnatory of a Graduated Scale—Summary of his arguments—He is answered by Mr. W. E. Gladstone—The Debate *inued by Adjournment during three nights—Principal Speakers on both sides—Debate unmarked by novelty or originality of views—Mr. Roebuck o poses the principle of Protection in toto–Speech of Sir Robert Peel, who is followed y Lord Palmerston—Lord John Russell's Amendment rejected on Division by 349 to 226 . . . [15

CHAPTER III.

Corn-laws—Debate on Mr. Williers' Amendment—General Character of !!!" Discussion which occupied five nights—Speeches of Mr. Williers, Mr. T. B. Macaulay, Mr. } S. Wortley, Mr. Wakley, Mr. Wykeham Martin, Sir Rober: Peel, and Mr. Cobden–Mr. B. Ferrand brings heavy harges against certain Manufacturers—Discussion thereonM P'y of Mr. Williers, whose Amendment is lost by 393 to 90—Public "..."; on the Corn-laws—Proceedings of Aioi. Societies— #. of Lord Nugent on withdrawing from one of these Bodies—Sir rt Peel is burnt in Effigy in various manufacturing Towns– o

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Meetings of Agriculturists—Their general reception of the Measure-

Proceedings of the Aylesbury Association, where the Duke of Buck-

ingham presides—The House of Commons goes into Committee on the

Resolutions on February 25th—Mr. Christopher proposes a new Scale

of Duties as a Substitute for Sir Robert Peel's—An irregular Discussion

on the Amendment terminates in its Rejection by 306 to 104—Mr.

Wodehouse's Motion respecting Duties on Barley withdrawn after some

Debate—Mr. Smith O'Brien advocates greater protection to Irish Oats

—Various other Amendments proposed, all of which are rejected or

withdrawn—On Motion for Second Reading of the Bill Lord Ebring-

ton moves that it be read that Day Six Months—Speeches of Lord

Howick, Mr. C. Buller, Sir Robert Peel, and other Members—The

Second Reading carried by 284 to 176—Rapid Progress of the Bill

through Committee—Divers Amendments defeated—Resolution pro-

osed by Mr. Cobden on Third Reading rejected by large Majority—
}. passed in House of Commons on April 5th–In the House of

Lords the Second Reading is moved by the Earl of Ripon—Earl Stan-

hope vigorously opposes it, and censures the Government—His speech

on moving the rejection of the Bill—Speeches of the Earl of Hardwick,
Duke of ão. Earl of Winchilsea, Wiscount Melbourne, and

Lord Brougham, who moves another Amendment—Both motions are

rejected by great Majorities—The Bill is read a Second Time—In

Committee Viscount Melbourne moves an Amendment in favour of a

Fixed Duty—It is rejected after full Discussion by a majority of 68–

Three Resolutions condemnatory of all Duties on Foreign Corn are

proposed by Lord Brougham—They are disaffirmed by 87 to 6—Various

other Amendments are moved without success, and the Bill is read a

Third Time and passed - - - r [42

Financial Measures—Embarrassing Circumstances of the Country—Sir

Robert Peel's bold and comprehensive Plans of Reform—His Speech

on introducing his Budget—Its Reception by the House—Remarks of

Lord John Russell—In the House of Lords Lord Brougham moves a

String of Resolutions respecting the Income-Tax-The Earl of Ripon

moves the previous question, which is carried—Debate in the House of

Commons on Finance—Speeches of Mr. F. T. Baring, Mr. Goulburn,

Lord Howick, and Lord John Russell—Sir Robert Peel vindicates his

Measures, and explains the Machinery of the Income-Tax Bill—Recep-

tion of the Measure by the Opposition in the House of Commons—

Notice given by Lord John Russell–First Debate on the Subject—

Objections against the Tax urged by different Members—Some of the

Liberal Party support it—Speeches of Mr. Smith O'Brien and Mr.
Roebuck—Sir i. Peel defends his Measures against the Objections

urged—Speech of Lord John Russell—Attempt to postpone the Deci-

sion of the House by Motions of Adjournment—They are negatived,

but, ultimately, it is deferred till after the Easter Recess—The Subject

resumed—State of Public Feeling respecting it—Mr. Blewitt moves an

Amendment on Sir Robert Peel's Resolution, but afterwards withdraws

it—The First Resolution carried without a Division—Debate on the

Second Resolution—The Second and Third Resolutions carried—Lord

John Russell moves an Amendment condemnatory of the proposed Tax

—Speeches of Mr. Goulburn, Sir Robert Peel, Mr. Macaulay, Lord

Stanley, Mr. Labouchere, Sir R. H. Inglis, Viscount Sandon, Mr.

O'Connell, Mr. Hawes, Sir James Graham, Mr. F. Baring, Mr. Fer-

New Tariff—Preliminary Statement of Sir Robert Peel, before going into

Committee—Speeches of Messrs. Labouchere, D'Israeli, Hume, Glad-

stone, E. B. Roche, and G. Palmer—Motion of Major Vivian, respecting

alleged Suppression of Information by Government—Debate, and Diviz

sion thereon—Motion of Lord Howick against extension of differential

Duties—It is opposed by Mr. Gladstone and other Members, and

rejected by 281 to 108—The House goes into Committee on the Bill—

Debate on Reduction of Duties on Agricultural Produce—Mr. P. Miles

moves an Amendment respecting Duty on live Cattle—He is supported

by Mr. R. Palmer, Earl of March, and Mr. G. Heathcote—Opposed by

Mr. Gladstone, Lord Norreys, Mr. Gally Knight, and others—Speeches

of Lord John Russell and Sir Robert Peel—Mr. Miles's Amendment

lost by a Majority of 267—Other Amendments moved by Major Vivian

and Mr. Williers—Rejected—The Committee discuss the Items of the

Bill seriatim—Various Amendments relating to Butter, Potatoes, Tim-

ber, Cotton-Wool, and other Articles, withdrawn or negatived—The

Bill goes through Committee—Read a Third Time on 28th June—

Remarks of Lord John Russell on that occasion—Declarations of Sir

R. Peel respecting Commercial Measures of Foreign States—Debates

on Customs-Duties Bill in the House of Lords—It is introduced by a

Speech of Lord Ripon—Earl Stanhope moves its rejection—The Duke
.# Richmond supports the Amendment—Lords Clanricarde and Mont-

eagle speak in favour of the Bill—The Second Reading carried by 59

to 4–In Committee, Amendments moved by Earl Stanhope are re-

jected; and third Reading carried § 52 to 9—Debate in the House of
Commons on Sugar Duties—The Chancellor of the Exchequer moves

to continue existing Duties for one ūš. Roebuck moves an
Amendment to equalise Foreign and Colonial Duties—It is defeated by

59 to 18—Another Amendment for reduction of Duties, proposed by

Mr. Labouchere—Speeches of Mr. Gladstone, Mr. Hume, Lord John

Russell, Mr. Roebuck, and Sir Robert Peel—Mr. Goulburn’s Resolu-

tion is carried by 245 to 164 - - - [103

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