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test he maintains that his exercise provided for the mutual delivery of the veto, however unusual, was up to justice of all persons who, performed in a regular and consti- being charged with the crime of tutional manner, and in a strict murder, or assault with intent to accordance with his sense of re murder, or piracy, or arson, or sponsibility for the duties imposed robbery, or forgery, or the ut. upon him. He adds, that had he terance of forged papers, combeen impeached before the Senate, mitted within the jurisdiction of he would have met the accusation either country, should seek an asywith firmness; and concludes by lum, or should be found within protesting against the unfairness and the territories of the other-prounconstitutionality of the report. vided that this should only be done

The negotiations which had been upon such evidence of criminality going on between Lord Ashbur as according to the laws of the ton and Mr. Webster, relating to place where the fugitive or person the Boundary and other questions, so charged should be found, would were brought to a close in August; justify his apprehension and comand on the 9th day of that month, mitment for trial, if the crime or a treaty was signed at Washing- offence had there been committed. ton by those two Plenipotentiaries, Lord Ashburton arrived in Engwith a provision that it was to be land on the 30th of September. duly ratified, and the mutual ex Before he left New York, he was change of ratifications to take place entertained at a public banquet, in London, within six months from where the most cordial expressions that date. By this treaty, the of goodwill were exchanged on line of the north-western Boun. both sides ; and there is little doubt dary was settled by a minute geo- that the happy expedient of sendgraphical description of the country ing out a Special Ambassador from through which it was to run. By Great Britain, had a most salutary the 8th Article it was stipulated effect in promoting a friendly feel. that Great Britain and America ing between the two countries. should each maintain on the coast His Lordship in the course of his of Africa a sufficient squadron or speech on that occasion, said naval force, carrying not less than “ I cannot but regard it as someeighty guns, for the purpose of en what singular and auspicious, that forcing separately and respectively the respectable gentleman who prethe laws, rights, and obligations of sides at this hospitable board, should each of the two countries for the happen to be the immediate desuppression of the slave-trade. By scendant of a man whose name will the 9th Article, the parties to the live in your memories so long as hotreaty agreed to unite in all be nour, patriotism, and virtue are coming representations and remon venerated; I mean the late Mr. strances with those Powers within Jay. (Applause.) That illustrious whose dominions slave - markets man stepped forward on an occawere allowed to exist; and to urge sion somewhat similar to that which upon all such Powers the propriety you now celebrate ; and, having and duty of closing such markets visited England, happily succeeded at once and for ever. The 10th in his errand of peace, although

made under circumstances of a far • See Appendix.

more difficult nature than those

openness of

which surrounded me on a mission some service.'” (Loud and longwhich has had a like fortunate ter continued cheering.) mination. The task imposed on The correspondence which took Mr. Jay was indeed an arduous one. place between Lord Ashburton At that period wild passions were and Mr. Daniel Webster, previous at work, and the voice of the mes, to the conclusion of the treaty, senger of peace could only with was afterwards published at full difficulty be heard. But amid all length. It is very voluminous, those trying circumstances, that and we avail ourselves of a brief great man, and those who sup- synopsis or summary of the whole ported him, did maintain the in- which appeared at the time in one dependence of this country, and of the American journals, and which saved both nations from a most will be sufficient for our purpose. serious war at that time, whilst The American writer says, with war was raging among the nations regard to the lettersof the earth; and, undoubtedly, We think it will be found, he laid the foundation of the great that those of Lord Ashburton are commercial prosperity of America. remarkable for their simplicity and (Great applause.) Fortunately, clearness, and an apparent ingegentlemen, I have had much less nuousness and

purpose. difficulty to encounter; for when Those of Mr. Webster are, we I add to the reception I met with need scarcely say, able and powerat Washington from the President, ful; but they have a certain air of from his Cabinet, from the Senate showiness, and straining for effect and House of Representatives, that about them, which will strike cordial welcome which I received rather grating on a critical ear. at Boston, the cradle of American " The first letter of Lord Ashliberty and independence

and also burton is upon the subject of the the reception with which I have north-east boundary. He professes been greeted here, as well in your a deep interest in the welfare of City Hall, where I have been told this country, and an earnest desire that I shook hands with upwards to preserve peace between the two of 3,000 persons, collected there nations. In proof of which he by one common impulse--as at this refers to the fact, that he had festive board, around which I see sought strenuously to prevent the such a large number of your most last war between England and the respectable citizens--I naturally United States; and that he has ask, where is the danger of war since anxiously watched whatbetween England and America ? ever passing clouds have arisen to (Great applause.) Whatever may threaten an interruption of the be hidden I do not pretend to scan; harmony between the two nations. but of a verity I can say, that I He adduces also the circumstance have seen nothing but the greatest of his undertaking this mission at and most unaffected cordiality and his advanced age, as evidence of goodwill and friendship. Still, the existence of those friendly senalthough my mission has been timents, when his taste and inmade in peculiarly happy circum- clinations would have suggested stances, yet I trust that I shall not peaceful retirement. be charged with vanity in saying, Mr. Webster replies, acknow. that's too have done the State ledging the friendly feelings of his

Lordship, stating that the Presi. news of the matter of the Creole dent was aware of all his efforts in bad reached England but shortly favour of peace; and invites his before his departure, and as it had Lordship to begin the talk; to not, previous to that time, been which his Lordship replies, waving presented to the notice of the Briall advantages which might be de tish Government by Mr. Everett, rived from declining to make the he was not empowered to treat first move, and openly and frankly upon the subject. stating his case, drives at once in “ He states, however, that the medias res. He endeavours to laws of Great Britain recognise as avoid the discussion of the ques- free every slave who sets his foot tion of right, saying, that there upon British soil, as much as do can be no hope that either party the laws of Massachusetts recogwill be convinced that the right of nise as free every foreign slave the question is not with himself. when he lands in Boston; and

“ Mr. Webster replies, but goes that they cannot be altered. But fully into the matter, which" his he promises that directions shall be Lordship had desired to avoid ; given to the governors and other the arguments used by Mr. Web- officers of the English West India ster are, however, familiar to all islands to do nothing in this rewho have paid any attention to the spect, when it can be properly subject.

avoided, that may tend to the dis* The matter of the Boundaryturbance of 'good neighbourhood' is fully discussed. Several long between them and the United and able documents from the Maine States. and Massachusetts commissioners The matter of the right of follow, the substance of which we search and impressment is also cannot undertake to state. Lord proposed by Mr. Webster. To Ashburton evinces an intimate this also his Lordship replies, that knowledge of the subject, and he has not authority to make any handles it ably. The result is, a stipulations upon that subject'; proposition by Mr. Webster, which that the peculiar necessities of is nearly that finally agreed to. England in regard to this matter,

Then comes the subject of the growing out of her maritime situaAfrican slave-trade, which is dis- tion, the immense emigration of posed of without difficulty, in the her people to this country, and the manner the treaty shows. There fact that every native of Great is some correspondence with Com. Britain always and perpetually mander Paine, and other naval owes to her the duty of serving artificers, who have been sta- her in war, together with the simi. tioned on the African coast, &c., larity of appearance, and identity not now of such interest that of language of the people of the we have burthened our memory two countries, create a necessity with it.

which forbids entering into any The Creole case is presented treaty upon the subject--at least in strong terms by Mr. Webster at present. in a letter (which, when published, « The case of the Caroline is will bring all the anti-slavery peo- then presented by Mr. Webster, ple about his ears), to which Lord and the whole matter, with its Ashburton replies, that as the awful details, are stated in the

He re

well and forcibly written letter of tral rights, and expresses deep reMr. Webster to Mr. Fox, in the gret that any necessity should have spring of 1841, which is copied and made necessary the invasion of our referred to anew.

territory. He then complains of " To this Lord Ashburton re the treatment of the soldiers enplies with much ingenuity, stating, gaged in the expedition whenthat inasmuch as the authorities on ever caught on this side, protestthis side made no attempt to re- ing against the doctrine that solstrain, or did not restrain or molest diers are accountable to any but the people on Navy Island, who their own Government for the conwere firing upon the inhabitants on

sequences of obeying the orders of the Canada shore, and as the Caro- the officers of their Government. line was in the employ of those “ Mr. Webster's reply recog, people, the British authorities were nises the correctness of the ground compelled, by the necessity of self- assumed by Lord Ashburton, in defence, to invade our territory for regard to the accountability of men the purpose of destroying her; so acting under orders; states, that,'had the case been reversed, however, that such is the nature we would not have hesitated to of our laws-such the delay in the pursue the same course.

trial of causes, and such the afgrets that the matter was not parent conflict of jurisdiction beurged, and redress sought, at an tween the courts of the states of earlier period, and soon after the the United States, that some diffievent took place. He declares the culty in cases of such arrests cannot high sense on the part of Great be avoided. Britain of our claim to a sacred in “Mr. Webster then,' as directed violability of territory ; but urges, by the President,' gives the Briat the same time, the existence, tish Government a full discharge in this case of the immediate and from all further blame on account urgent necessity, admitting of no of the Caroline, inasmuch as they delay,' spoken of by Mr. Webster, have apologised, and · inasmuch' as alone justifying an invasion of as no better reparation from the our territory—that there was no nature of the case can be had, and other mode left of destroying the • inasmuch' as they have expressed vessel - that the expedition left the so much respect and regard for the Canadian shore for the purpose of inviolable and sacred character of destroying her at Navy Island our neutral rights, &c." that, not finding her there, there On Friday the 7th of Decem. was no time for deliberation or de- ber, the President's message was lay, &c. He doubts whether any delivered to Congress. It was as person or persons were sent in the usual a lengthy document, from boat over the cataract—that she which we select such passages as was towed into the stream to possess the most general interest. prevent injury to the buildings The President begins by congraand inhabitants of Schlosser—that tulating his fellow-citizens on the it is not known that any person prosperity of their common counwas killed by the expedition ; but try :repeats again a respectful acknow. We have continued reason to ledgment by the British Govern profess our profound gratitude to ment of the sacredness of our neu the great Creator of all things, for

The ap

numberless benefits conferred upon executive on several of the leading us as a people. Blessed with ge- topics in dispute were frankly set nial seasons, the husbandman has forth in the message at the openhis garners filled with abundance; ing of your late sessions. and the necessaries of life, not to pointment of a special Minister by speak of its luxuries, abound in Great Britain to the United States, every direction. While in other with power to negociate upon most nations steady and industrious lan of the points of difference, indibour can hardly find the means of cated a desire on her part amicably subsistence, the greatest evil which to adjust them, and that minister we have to encounter is a surplus was met by the Executive in the of production beyond the home de same spirit which had dictated his mand, which seeks, and with dif. mission. The treaty consequent ficulty finds, a partial market in thereon having been duly ratified other regions. The health of the by the two Governments, a copy, country, with partial exceptions, together with the correspondence has for the past year been well which accompanied it, is herewith preserved ; and, under their free communicated. I trust, that whilst and wise institutions, the United you may see in it nothing objec. States are rapidly advancing to- tionable, it may be the means of wards the consummation of the preserving, for an indefinite period, high destiny which an overruling the amicable relations happily exProvidence seems to have marked isting between the two Governout for them. Exempt from do- ments. mestic convulsion, and at peace “The question of peace or war with the world, we are left to con between the United States and sult as to the best means of secur Great Britain is a question of the ing and advancing the happiness deepest interest, not only to themof the people. Such are the cir- selves, but to the civilized world, cumstances under which you now since it is scarcely possible that a assemble in your respective cham war could exist between them bers, and which should lead us to without endangering the peace of unite in praise and thanksgiving Christendom. The immediate efto that Great Being who made us, fect of the treaty upon ourselves and who preserves us a nation. will be felt in the security afforded

I congratulate you, fellow-citi to mercantile enterprise, which, zens, on the happy change in the no longer apprehensive of interaspects of our foreign affairs since ruption, adventures its speculamy last annual message. Causes tions in the most distant sea; and, of complaint at that time existed freighted with the diversified probetween the United States and ductions of every land, returns to Great Britain, which, attended by bless our own. There is nothing irritating circumstances, threatened in the treaty which in the slightest most seriously the public peace. degree compromises the honour and The difficulty of adjusting amica- dignity of either nation. Next to bly the questions at issue between the settlement of the boundary the two countries, was in no small line, which must always be a matdegree augmented by the lapse of ter of difficulty between States as time since they had their origin. between individuals, the question The opinions entertained by the which seemed to threaten the VOL' LXXXIV.


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