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ish nation, was reduced to the constitution instigated by sordid lowest ebb. Government, con

interest. Desirous to establish vinced that this force gives life uniformity to the administration and health to states, has paid it of all the provinces, in a manner regularly, and has put some ships equally conformable to the welfare in repair to cruise upon the coast. of the nation and to the public Other vessels of various classes have faith, the Government has thought been put in a state to render im- it a duty to present a project of portant service.

Others are put law to modify the Fueros, of the in commission, to repair to our Basque Provinces. The good order colonies, should it be necessary. of the administration requires a The commercial navy occupies the new division of territory, that shall attention of Government as the remedy the defects pointed out by basis of a military navy, and as the experience in the present one: for surest means of promoting indus- this purpose, a project of law will trial and commercial prosperity. be submitted to you, for which Since the restoration of peace the the public advantage loudly calls. mercantile movement is reviving. There will likewise be laid before To it the confidence of tranquility you a project of law for the organiis necessary."

zation of the tribunals and of the The Government, "sincerely at- magistracy, and another on the pertached to the representative sys- manency and responsibility of the tem,” was anxious to augment the magistrates and judges.” guarantees calculated to

"Gentlemen, Senators, and Destability and permanency to the puties,—The nation contemplates constitution

you. Strong hopes are founded “With this view, there will be on your patriotism and justice. presented to you a project of Min- Your mission is serious, and tends isterial responsibility, designed to to regenerate the nation, and the act as a check on men invested book of immortality reserves you with power, and to secure the a golden page. Depend upon my political principles of the Spanish efforts and the honest heart of a nation. The necessity for ameli- soldier, who always fought for the orating the public administration, liberty and glory of his country. and for harmonizing with the con Do not forget that certain impostitution of the state the organic tent and criminal parties pretend, law which is legitimately derived in their delirium, to combat the from it, induces the Government constitution and the throne, in orto submit to the Cortes projects of der to discredit the sacred cause laws on the organization and func- which we defend, and that they tions of the municipalities, the are endeavouring to excite Europe provincial deputations, and the against us. Let us draw closer the political chiefs. There will also bonds of a sincere and consolidatbe presented to you a project of ing union, and let us consolidate law on the liberty of the press, the constitutional throne of a young tending to suppress the abuses and Queen, whose magic name has al. check the licence under which de- ways vanquished the enemies of famation is pursued upon system, liberty. I have no ambition for calumny promulgated on calcula- myself; my life belongs to my tion, and conspiracy against the country and the glory of serving

it with honour forms my patri- guardianship of England. He crimony. May the existing consti- ticised the policy pursued with retution, the throne of the young spect to the powers of the north, Isabella, the national independence, and attributed their enmity to the and the Government framed ac want of a strong and stable governcording to the wishes of the nation, ment in Spain, which could make be the programme of our fidelity itself respected abroad, and unite and the point of departure whence the interests of the various proto direct the legislative labours vinces of the monarchy, so as to towards the consolidation of a achieve power and solidity at home. strong and just Government; The greatest sensation was, how. which, resisting the snares of am ever, produced by Senor Marliani, bitious factions, may secure for who boldly impugned the reply on ever the prosperity and happiness the point of its acquiescence in the of the nation!”

asserted harmony existing between The next day the Cortes pro- the Spanish Cabinet and those of ceeded in both chambers to the neighbouring nations, a state of election of a president, vice-presi- feeling which he decidedly declared dent and secretaries. In the sen did not exist on the part of that of ate the four following members France. He then entered into a were appointed secretaries:-Se- comprehensive historical review of nors' Torres Salanot, Onis, Mug- the policy of France towards Spain nizo, and Chacon. In the Cham. for the last 150 years, and conber of Deputies Senor Acuna was tended that it had been uniformly elected President, and although an injurious one, arising out of the he was a member of the opposi- inimical dispositions of the reigntion, his return was looked upon ing families of that nation. With as a triumph by ministers, as there- respect to the revolution of Sepby Senor Lopez was excluded, tember, 1840, he adverted to the whose election might have been fact, that the subsequent royal productive of much mischief to speech of the present King of the them. The vice-presidents were French had asserted that “the Senor Alcon, Senor Lills, Senor Spanish nation was in a state of Saquarti, Senor Viadera. In the anarchy"-going out of its way to senate, the reply to the speech of libel its neighbour, and manifestthe Regent was discussed on the ing a spirit of hostility, in which 17th, 18th, and 19th of January. the French nation at large had

On the first day, the principle certainly no share. commentators on the reply were In conclusion he entered largely Senors Campuzano, Marliani, and into the affair of M. de Salvandy's Ruiz de la Vega; while Senors credentials, and enumerated the Gomez Becerra, Gonzales, and various circumstances connected Heros spoke in defence and ex with his appointment, his delay, planation. Senor Campuzano com and his subsequent arrival and deplained of the omission of any ex parture, which sufficed to convince planation of the existing relations him of the continued systematic between Spain and Portugal, whose hostility of the French government, interests were so nearly allied, and and of the imperative necessity of of the apparent and tacit delivery union amongst Spaniards and firmof the latter country into the sole Dess in their government, and the


rejection of vain illusions of peace connected with this question of and harmony from the minds of credentials. all—to preserve them from the Next day the discussion of the effects of a conspiracy even now reply to the Royal speech was rebrewing against the independence sumed, and the first eight paraof Spain--a conspiracy more terri- graphs were adopted

the first ble still than that which had lately without discussion ; the second exploded in the capital and the gave rise to a conversation reBasque provinces.

specting the promotion of native This speech produced its natural industry, in which Senor Ferrer effect on the national spirit of its complained of the prejudice expeauditors, and at its close rather rienced by the nation with respect unusual marks of sympathy and to the contract entered into with approbation were manifested in the house of Rothschild for the the assembly.

working of the quicksilver mines Senor Gonzales (Minister of of Almaden ; and the Minister of State) appeared to feel its force, State expressed his determination and rose immediately to remind not to allow the nation to lose any the Chamber that in discussions advantage which might be fairly of this nature the utmost latitude derived from them in future, for was allowed to individual opinion; the sake of any immediate benefit and that it was rather the

part of which the contractors might offer. the Government to patiently hear The third paragraph, in which and receive the opinion of the se the rebellion of October was alnate than to attempt to influence luded to, called up the Minister its judgment on such an occasion ; for the Home Department, who that the duty of the Govern- made a long defence of the policy ment was to attend to the actual of the Government, founded chiefly well-being of the country, while on the excellent antecedentes of the individual senators had the privi. troops which garrisoned Bilboa, lege of making charges and accu. Vittoria, Pampeluna, and Madrid. sations against them and their po. Senor Heros (the Intendent of the licy with the utmost latitude. Palace) also bore testimony to the

The only point which the Mi- zeal and foresight of the Governnister made in reply to Senor ment in that unfortunate affair, Marliani was, that he declared declaring that Her Majesty and that M. de Salvandy had protested her sister were absolutely prisoners in the conference which he had from the month of August till the with him (Senor Gonzales) that insurrection broke forth; for the he had brought no particular in- Government were so much alarmed structions from Paris respecting for their personal safety that they the presentation of his credentials, were not permitted to drive outand that his Government was ani- side the gates of Madrid. mated with the most friendly in The fourth paragraph, relative tentions towards that of Spain. to Barcelona, gave rise to a long He (Senor Gonzales), in conclu. speech on the part of the Minister sion, prayed the Senate not to of War, in which he defended the anticipate charges against the Go- imposition of the state of siege as vernment till they had had an op. a matter of necessity in the critical portunity of seeing the documents position of things in that city; and

Senor Gomes Becerra (at the invi the Chamber could desire. The tation of the Minister of State) Chamber trusts that every incideclared that the paragraph had dent which could disturb the har. not in the least been edited by the mony of two great nations may Committee of Reply in a spirit of be terminated in a similar man. hostility to the Government. ner, and that those nations may

The remaining paragraphs of respect their mutual independence the reply were afterwards read and good name, and never to be and approved.

unmindful of the immense and On the 13th of January M. mutual advantages to be derived Olozaga presented to the Cham from drawing closer the bonds of ber of Deputies the draught of the political union.” address in answer to the Regent's The proceedings of the Cortes speech. This document was write this year possess little general inten in a spirit highly favourable to terest, and until the latter part of the Government; it approved of the year the tranquillity of Spain all the measures and general ame remained undisturbed by any acliorations announced by the Re. tual outbreak, although the oppogent, but blamed the Cabinet for nents of Espartero lost no opits improvidence and apathy at the portunity of intriguing against time of the last insurrection, and him and spreading disaffection. for the proclamation of martial In the month of November a law in Barcelona. The following formidable insurrection broke out were the most important passages at Barcelona, the originating cause in that address :

of which has not been clearly as“ The Chamber of Deputies has certained, but discontent amongst experienced the most complete sate the cotton-manufacturers contriisfaction at seeing your Highness buted greatly towards it. On the open the Cortes by virtue of the 12th and 13th an uneasy feeling power vested in you by the funda- displayed itself amongst the popumental laws of the kingdom, and lace on account of the arrest by at seeing the solemn act enhanced Juan Guttierez the political chief by the presence of our beloved of Barcelona of some individuals Queen, who so fortunately escaped connected with a republican neisthe dangers to which the dearest paper—and as large crowds had objects of the Spanish nation were assembled in the different squares exposed during the interval of the and public places, the troops were session-a nation which has made ordered to disperse them, but the so many sacrifices in defence of National Guard rushed to arms the constitutional throne now more and drove back the soldiers. Next firmly established since the sup- day a furious combat took place pression of the scandalous rebel- between the troops under the comlion of October.

mand of General Van Halen, and “ It has been likewise most the National Guard aided by the agreeable to the Chamber to hear populace, the result of which was, from your Highness's mouth the that the former were compelled to favourable state of our foreign re retire into the citadel, and the inlations, and that the occurrences surgents remained masters of the of last year have been the subject town. A supreme popular junta of explanations as satisfactory as was immediately formed, which

assumed the conduct of affairs. ings; that the political chief should Espartero finding that the insur be removed ; that General Zurrection did not subside, res Ived to bano-odious to men of all parties repair to Barcelona in person, and on account of his brutal despotism in order to prevent inflammatory-should not enter the city; and, speeches in the Cortes during his in fine, that no person should be absence, he took the prudent step prosecuted for his conduct during of suspending the sittings of that the insurrection. The Junta like body by an order dated the 21st wise claimed a guarantee in faof November. The Catalan depu- vour of the cotton-manufacturers, ties had already began to palliate who had chiefly fomented the disand justify the revolt, and their content in Catalonia and the intreasonable harangues might have surrection of Barcelona. The Redone much mischief to the cause gent listened with patience and of tranquillity and good order. attention to the representations of Before he left Madrid Espartero the Junta. He replied in moderate harangued the National Guard language, but granted none of the who were drawn up on the Prado, conditions. He stated that the law, and loud “Vivas” rent the air at of which he was the organ and the the conclusion of his speech. The defender, admitted of no treaty Regent, on his arrival at Barcelona with illegality and revolt; that the confirmed the order given by Ge- battalions of factious operatives neral Van Halen to disband the should immediately lay down their dewly raised insurgent battalions, arms, and that the National Guard but the republicans in their ranks should evacuate the citadel as well excited them to prolong the revolt. as the forts; that it was for the The Junta then determined to ar- guilty to save themselves, if they rest one of the principal leaders of could, from the sword of justice, the republican party, and impri- and not for him to guarantee their soned him in the fort of the At safety ; that no one had a right to torazanas, garrisoned by the urban dictate to the Government the militia, who had consented to sur choice or exclusion of public funcrender to the Regent. The free tionaries and generals; that, in corps, however, would not lay fine, with respect to manufactudown their arms. Out of six bat. rers, the Cortes ought to deliberate talions three determined to resist upon the interests which concerned the orders of the pacific Junta. them, and that he himself would This Junta waited upon the Re- consider what was best for the ingent in the morning of the 30th terests of Catalonia. The Regent ult., and demanded as conditions, terminated his reply by a threat that the garrison to be introduced to bombard the city. The first into Barcelona should be composed visit he paid was to inspect the of other regiments than those which batteries of Montjuich. The city had been engaged against the peo was now strictly blockaded by sea ple, in order to prevent future col- and land, and some ineffectual atlision; that the institution of the tempts having been made by the National Guard be maintained in Junta to obtain terms if they surthe city; that the Captain-General rendered, which Espartero refused Van Halen should be changed, on —they declared their resolution to account of his arbitrary proceed- resist to the last extremity.

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