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2. The said barbarians begged Consuls to the Hoppo, and not to that Hong-kong might be confer- pass through the hands of the Hong red on them as a place of residence. merchants, in order that their exThey also requested to be allowed tortions may be prevented ;' and so to trade at Kwangchow, Funchow, forth. Heamun (Moy), Ningpo, and • The said Shewei again repreShanghae. The Shewei Hanling sented, that from the five places, and his colleagues, as the barbarians Kwangchow, &c. some should be had already built houses on Hong- deducted; but the said barbakong, and yet could beg for fayour, rian obstinately refused. I, your granted that they might dwell servant, have, examined and there. With reference to Kwang- found, that with reference to the chow and the other four places, said foreigners dwelling on Hongthey must be considered too many. kong, and going to trade in the As to the regulations of the trade, provinces of Fokien and Hekeang, as well as the duties, they should the imperial will has already been early be consulted and decided received, with permission as to upon.

what they have requested about " When clear and explicit ques. trading at the five places named, tions were asked, it is authenticated although the comparison is great, that the said barbarians answered, but, as they have taken and kept .We consider Hong-kong as our possession of Amoy and other dwelling-place, and we must have places, which are not yet given up; Kwangchow and the others, in all and as they still hold Hong-kong, five places, as ports of trade; but Golongsoo, and have not retired, if it cannot be allowed, then nei- it will be a difficult matter to get ther Moy, Ningpo, Hinhae, Ting- them back. hae, Topoo, Paoyshan, nor He. “ If we again prepare our armies keang, will be delivered up, neither to maintain those places, it is a will our forces retire. As we want difficult matter to engage with to trade at all these places, it is them on the waters. Though near absolutely necessary that resident to each other, we have been idle Consuls should be appointed to (there has not been any fighting) superintend affairs, to restrain the for many days; and as to those barbariaus and prevent disturb- places which they have taken and ances. The duties shall be paid keep possession of, will it not be according to the regulations of allowed them to return to us our China ; and when the duties are territory, and allow them to trade, settled, there shall be no delay in since they are willing respectfully the payment.

to pay the duties? Just now they «. Further, when we traded at are sensible, and repent of their Canton, the whole trade was in errors, and are as obedient as if the hands of the Mandarin Hong driven by the wind ; and when merchants, and we were exposed again united in mutual friendship, to their extortions, and the injuries benevolence, and truth, all things we suffered were not small. Here- will go on well. And since they after, we desire to choose our own will guard their own market and merchants, that trade may be con- surround and protect the seaducted equitably; and the entire boundaries, there will not be any duties are to be paid through the necessity for recourse for our inter

ference, which will be to the advan- duced (into the service, &c. of the tage of our country.

English), the release of all these "We request the Imperial will they most earnestly solicit. may be sent down to the go "I, your servant, have examined, vernor and lieutenant-governors and found, that with reference to of each of the three provinces, to equal official intercourse, it

may

be examine clearly into the duties and unreservedly granted ; and as the trading regulations of the Comp- affairs with the foreigners are fitroller of Maritime Customs in the nished (the war ended), the priprovinces of Canton; and consult soners may also be released ; by about the management of affairs, which harmony and good underand fix them on a secure basis. standing will be strengthened, for

“ 3. That which the said barba a state of peace will bring repose rians have requested with reference and gladness, and overthrow facto the officers of China-to have tious parties. These matters may ceremonial intercourse upon an be allowed to proceed ; and I have equality, and the barbarians who left them to the Shewei, without have been made captives, and the discussing them.” Chinese traitors who have been se.

CHAPTER XII.

FRANCE.--Resolutions of the Parisian Editors of Newspapers on the

occasion of the Conviction of M. Dupoty-Speech from the Throne at the opening of the French Chambers-Election of President and Vice-Presidents - Addresses presented to the King on the Jour de l'an-Replies of the King - Debates in the Two Chambers on the Address-Question of right of Search in the case of the Slave-Trade

- Dispute with Spain on point of Etiquette-Speech of M. Guizot in the Chamber of Peers, respecting the relations of France with Spain -Speech of M. Guizot in the Chamber of Deputies, relative to the Affairs of the East-Melancholy Death of the Duke of OrleansFuneral ProcessionQuestion of the choice of a RegenlExtraordinary Session of the French Chambers convoked-Affecting Speech of the King– Election of President - Regency Bill proposed by Minislers-Discussion thereon- Ministerial Speech of M. Thiers-Drealful Accident on the Paris and Versailles Railway-Regency Bill carried-Prorogation of the French Chambers.

WE

TE mentioned in our last discussion itself. The jurispru

volume,* that M. Du dence that this act tends to espoty, the editor of the Journal du tablish, goes even beyond the laws Peuple, had been found guilty on of September ; it is still more the charge of promoting sedition menacing ; and one more arbi. and treason, by the tendency of trary has never been so formally the articles which had appeared in stamped with legality. In order his paper ; and that in conse that the laws of September may quence, a meeting had been sum be made applicable to any writer, moned of the principal editors and book, or journal, it is essential that political writers, in order to adopt the writer should have so directly resolutions suitable to the occa- exeited to the assassination of the sion. They met accordingly at person of the King, or to the overthe latter end of December, and turning of the power of the laws, put forth a declaration, in which that such provocation, even withthey stated

out having produced an effect, “ The decree of the Court of should constitute in itself an alPeers is not confined to the striking tentat. The writer thus knows down of a political writer it

- it what he did, and to what risks he presses upon the very liberty of exposed his honour and his life.

But by the interpretation given by • Vol. LXXXIII. p. 253.

the Court of Peers of the law of

1819, every hostile word contem- signedly provoked disobedience to porary with an émeute, a complot, the laws. or an allentat, will be sufficient to “ With the Article 202 of the constitute complicity in such acts, Penal Code, that provocation, to and to bring upon the writer penal- be made a crime or an offence, ties such as détention, transporta- must be direct, and not the result tion, hard labour, and even death. of a connexion more or less arbiThe feeling of the times in which trary, between a fact and the we live, rises up in horror at the writings which have preceded or bare thought.

accompanied this fact. “The jurisprudence which flows “ With the Article 60 of the from the decree of the Court of Penal Code, that there cannot exPeers, aggravates the already fla- ist complicity where there is no grant inconveniences of this juris- knowledge of a plot. diction. It is moreover, a motive • With MM. Royer Collard, for demanding that the compe- Odillon Barot, Lamartine, Bertence of the Peerage may be de- ryer, Dufaure, and Dupin, that it fined and limited in criminal mat is not wise to give judicial attriters and in political offences; but butes to a political body; and that until this shall have been done, it in making the Chamber of Peers is another danger created for the la Cour Prévotale of the press, press and the country. Public its sincerity has been compromised, writers are deprived of those gua as well as the force of our opirantees, which are a natural right nions. in every civilised community, and “ With citizens of all opinions, which the Revolution of July had that the degree of liberty at which promised, and the Charter had a nation has arrived, may be judg. consecrated. The entire press is ed of by the degree of liberty which placed in a permanent state of its press enjoys; and that in this prevention. The accusation of respect France, since 1830, has moral complicity is suspended over positively retrograded. the heads of all writers. It is the “ In fine, that this is a point law of suspicion that is established upon which all can agree-writers, against them.”

electors, deputies, and citizens of The subscribers determine to op- every class. It is a duty to refuse pose every legal resistance to this concurrence to the policy of any new system of intimidation Administration which will not reos We declare then

pair the attempts made against “ With the Charter, that 'the public rights by the laws of Sep• French have the right to publish tember, as well as by the last deand to print their opinions, con cree of the Court of Peers. forming theinselves to the laws.' “ In this situation, we appeal

56 With the Article 69 of the to the Chamber of Deputies—we same Charter, that 'the judging of hope that it will rise to the duty offences of the press belongs exclu, which circumstances impose upon sively to the jury.'

it. And if, contrary to all ex"With the Constitution of 1791, pectation, it fails to do its duty, that no man can be pursued by we shall appeal to the electoral reason of the writings which he body, which is invested with po. has published, unless he has de- litical rights; well convinced that

it will not forget the 66th Article which will prove a source of force of the same Charter, which has and riches to the nation. confided the rights of the press, as I am endeavouring at the well as all other rights conse• same time, by negotiations, prucrated by the Charter, to the pa- dently conducted, to extend our triotism and courage of the Na commercial relations, and to open tional Guards, and of all French new markets for the productions citizens.”

of our soil and of our arts. Such The King opened the French labours honour peace, and render Chambers on the 27th of Decem- it stable and fruitful at the same ber, with the usual ceremonies. time. I have reason to reckon that He read from the Throne the fol- it will not be disturbed, receiving lowing Speech :

from all the Powers the most

amicable assurance. “ Gentlemen, Peers, and Depu " I have taken measures to ties,

prevent any external complication “Since the close of your last from disturbing the security of Session, the questions which ex our African possessions. Our brave cited in the East our just solici- soldiers are pursuing on that land, tude, have reached their term. I henceforth and for ever French, have concluded with the Emperor the course of their noble labours, of Austria, the Queen of Great in which I am happy that my sons Britain, the King of Prussia, the have had the honour of concurring. Emperor of Russia, and the Sultan, Our perseverance shall complete a convention which consecrates the the work undertaken by our coucommon intention of the Powers rageous army; and France will to maintain the peace of Europe, introduce into Algeria her civili. and consolidate the repose of the zation, as the consequence of her Ottoman empire.

glory. “ The great burdens imposed “ The financial laws and others, upon the country, have already ex. having for their object to introduce perienced considerable reductions. useful improvements in the public It would have been my lively administration, will be presented wish, that a balance should have to you immediately. been immediately re-established “Whatever may be the burdens between the expenditure and reve- of our situation, France would nues of the State. This is the support them without difficulty, if result which we must now pre- faction did not unceasingly obpare, and which you will achieve struct the course of her powerful without weakening our military activity. I will not dwell upon organization, and without deferring the intrigues and crimes of the the execution of those works which factious; but let us not forget, are to increase the national pros- Gentlemen, that it is that which perity.

debars our country from fully “A project of law will be pre. enjoying all the blessings which sented to you, for constructing the Providence has conferred upon it, principal lines of a great system and which retards the developof railroads, calculated to ensure ment of that legal and pacific those rapid and easy communica- liberty, which France has at last tions with all parts of our territory, achieved, and of which I make

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