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our side only two were killed and way, to a barrier gate at the bottwenty-four wounded.
tom of the hill, where a wooden The state of the weather was bridge over a wet ditch connects it such that no farther proceedings with the isthmus and the gates of could be taken till the 7th, when the city; the whole of which are the troops were re-embarked, and covered with ironplates and the expedition proceeded to Ning strongly secured. The space on po. On the evening of the 9th the isthmus between the citadel the whole of the squadron and hill and the city wall is filled up transports were anchored off Ching towards the sea with a battery of hae, of which we extract the fol. five guns, having a row of strong lowing account from the dispateh piles driven in a little beach in of Sir W. Parker.
front of it, to prevent a descent « The city of Chinghae, which in that quarter; and on the river is enclosed by a wall thirty-seven side of the isthmus are two batfeet in thickness, and twenty-two teries adjoining the suburbs, and feet high, with an embrasured pa- mounting twenty-two and ninerapet of four feet high, and nearly teen guns, for flanking the entwo miles in circumference, is trance; twenty-eight guns of difsituated at the foot of a very com- ferent sizes and numerous gingals manding peninsular height, which were also planted on the city walls, forms the entrance of the Tahee principally towards the sea.” river on its left or north bank, on The next morning (the 10th,) the summit is the citadel, which, the troops were landed, protected from its strong position, is con- by the ships of war and steamers, sidered the key to Chinhae, and which took up such positions as to the large and opulent city of be able to cannonade the citadel Ningpo, about fifteen miles up and eastern part of the city walls. the river; and it is so important The steamers performed excellent as a military post, that I trust service with their guns, and though may be excused for attempting to for a considerable time under a describe it. It stands about 250 heavy fire from the river batteries, feet above the sea, and is encircled they sustained no damage:: also by a strong wall with very “ About 11 o'clock," states Sir substantial iron-plated grates at the W. Parker, the Admiral in comeast and west ends. The north and mand of the fleet, "we had the south sides of the height are ex- gratification of seeing the British ceedingly steep: the former access colours planted by the troops in ible only from the sea by a narrow one of the batteries on the opposite winding path from the rocks at its shore ;, and in a few minutes the base, the south side and eastern others on that side were all carried, end being nearly precipitous. At and the Chinese observed flying in the east end of the citadel, out- every direction before our gallant side its wall, twenty-one guns soldiers on the heights. At a quar. were mounted in three batteries of ter past eleven, the wall of the masonry and sand bags to defend citadel was breached by the fire the entrance of the river. The from the ships, and the defences only communication between the being reduced to a ruinous state, citadel and city is on the west the Chinese abandoned their guns, sida: by a steep but regular cause which they lada hitherto worked
with considerable firmness, and a push on with the least possible large portion of the garrison re- delay to Ningpo, Sir W. Parker treated precipitately towards the proceeded on the 12th in the city. Not a moment was lost in Nemesis steamer, to ascertain the making the signal for landing the practicability of the river, and battalion of seamen and marines, having returned in the evening, with the detachments of artillery arrangements were made for the and sappers (the whole under the attack on the following morning. command of Captain Herbert, of The troops destined for the service the Blenheim). Before noon the were under the command of Sir boats were all on shore ; every im- Hugh Gough, whose account of pediment presented by the diffi our taking possession of Ningpo culty of landing on rugged rocks we transcribe : was overcome, and the force gal Having left the 55th, with lantly advanced to the assault, the exception of the light comwith a celerity that excited my pany, 100 of the Royal Marines, warmest admiration. An explo- with detachments of artillery and sion at this time took place in a sappers in Chinhae, the rest of the battery near the citadel gate; and force, about 750 bayonets, excluthe remnant of the garrison fled sive of the artillery and sappers, without waiting to close it. The embarked in steamers by eight, citadel was therefore rapidly en A. M., on the 13th, and we reached tered, and the union jack displayed Ningpo at three o'clock. No enemy on the walls. Our people had appeared, and it was evident that scarcely passed within them when no ambuscade was intended, as the another explosion occurred, hap- inhabitants densely thronged the pily without mischief, but whether bridge of boats, and collected in by accident or design is uncertain. clusters along both banks. The Captain Herbert having secured troops landed on and near the this post, quickly re-formed his bridge, and advanced to the city men, and advanced towards the gate, which was found barricaded; city ; the Chinese still occupying but the walls were soon escaladed, in considerable force the walls of and the Chinese assisted in reit, as well as the two batteries be- moving the obstructions and openneath the hill on the river side, ing the gate. The little force of against which our troops had al- soldiers, seamen, and marines, drew ready turned some of the guns up on the ramparts, the band of taken on the right bank. A few the 18th playing God save the volleys of musketry speedily dis- Queen. The second city of the lodged them from both positions, province of Che-keang, the walls and the battalion of seamen and of which are nearly five miles in marines pushed on in steady and circumference, with a population excellent order to attack the city. of 300,000 souls, has thus fallen The wall (twenty-six feet high,) into our hands. The people all was escaladed in two places, and in appear desirous of throwing thema short time complete possession selves under British protection, was taken of Chinhae, the Chinese saying publicly that their mandatroops having made their escape rins had deserted them, and their through the western gate.” own soldiers are unable to protect
It having been determined to them. I have assembled some of
the most respectable and influential batteries below the usual anchorof the mercantile class that have age. remained, and have assured them But the Chinese were resolved of my anxiety to afford them all to make a bold attempt to drive us the protection consistent with our from Ningpo and its neighbourinstructions to press the Chinese hood; and, after concentrating a government. Proclamations have large body of troops, amounting been issued, calling upon the peo to not fewer than 14,000 men in ple to open their shops, which I the vicinity, they entered Ningpo have engaged shall not be mo on the morning of the 10th of lested. This they have done to March, by getting over the walls some extent, and confidence ap at different points, no resistance pears to be increasing."
being offered by the British, who It it gratifying to be able to allowed the enemy to penetrate to state, that the conduct of the the market-place, when our troops troops after taking possession of attacked them, and drove them the town, was such as to call forth back instantly with great slaughter. the warmest commendation from As they retreated in confusion, the Commander-in-Chief.
field guns drawn by ponies were No event of any importance oc- brought up, and poured on the curred after this for a long time. dense and flying mass a discharge The Chinese at Canton employed of grape and canister, at a disthemselves busily in erecting new tance of less than 100 yards. fortifications, and the whole of the About 250 dead bodies were left passage from Macao to that city, within the walls. is described as having become one On the night of the same day, succession of batteries and earthern Chinhae was also attacked ; but breast-works.
the guards at the gates having Early in the present year, the been doubled, the Chinese were district cities of Yuydo, Tsikee, repulsed with great loss. In these and Funghwa, distant respectively impotent attempts on the part of forty, twenty, and thirty miles the enemy, the British forces did from Ningpo, were "visited” and not lose a single man. temporarily occupied by detach After the unsuccessful attack on ments of British troops. The re- Ningpo, the Chinese attempted to sistance offered by the Chinese annoy the British garrison, by obwas too contemptible to give any structing the supply of provisions ; interest to these operations; and and intelligence having been rewe willingly spare our readers de- ceived that a body of 3,000 or tailed accounts of various unim- 4,000 men were encamped at the portant successes gained by our town of Tse-kee, about eleven troops, whenever they came in miles westward of Ningpo, Sir contact with the Chinese.
Hugh Gough determined to attack Sir Henry Pottinger returned them. A force about 1,100 strong to Canton in the spring of this was taken on board, and in tow of year, but did not interfere with the Nemesis and Phlegethon steamthe operations of the Canton au ers, on the 15th March ; and on thorities in throwing up works arriving near Tse-kee, the Chinese and erecting fortifications, so long were seen posted in a tolerably as they refrained from building strong position, immediately to the
west of the town, the walls of command of Commissioner Yihwhich were scaled without any King, who had been sent to exterresistance. When, however, the minate the “ Barbarians." They British troops went out to attack included 500 of the Imperial Bodythe encampments, the Chinese guard, whom Sir Hugh Gough fought well, keeping for some time describes as remarkably fine men, a fire from gingalls and matchlocks. and the Kansich troops from the The marines and sailors were di frontiers of Turkistan, “a strong rected to attack them on the hill and muscular race, accustomed to which formed the right of their border warfare, and reported by position, while the 46th took the the Chinese invincible.” centre, and the 18th and 26th the Ningpo was evacuated by the left of their camp. Here it seems British on the 7th of May. The the much shorter distance which the fleet sailed from thence to Just-inmarines and 49th had to traverse the-Way, a place of anchorage be(and no doubt impatience to en tween Chusan and Chinhae, leaving gage), brought on the fight rather about 150 troops at the latter place, prematurely - these getting into with one of H. M.'s ships, and action much sooner than the 18th one transport. The Admiral and and 26th, who had a long distance fleet sailed from Chusan, and to go over steep hills; the 18th joined the other ships at Just-inwere unable to get at the Chinese the-Way, leaving at Chusan 300 till they had begun to run, and troops and H. M.'s brig Clio, with they then did execution on the eight transports. On the 13th the flying mass. According to all ac- fleet left "Just-in-the-Way, and counts, the Chinese displayed more sailed for the River Tsëentang, to courage on this than any previous attack the city of Chapoo, which occasion, and their loss as well as is the great mart of the Chinese numbers are variously estimated trade with Japan, not far from its in different letters; the former at mouth. On arriving there on the from 4 to 900 killed; the latter at 16th, the place was reconnoitered from 14,000 to 15,000 ; although in the Phlegethon and Nemesis, most of the letters mention the without interruption. The line of enemy to have been about 6,000 land from E. to W. for about three strong. On our side the loss was miles, ending at the suburb of the three killed and 20 wounded. That city, comprised three separate hills; night, the British troops slept in the slopes between were fortified the neighbourhood, and on the by field works, and on the last of following morning burnt the camp these hills next the town were two and several houses in the city and batteries, about one-third up, consuburbs. Intelligence of another sisting of seven and five guns. In camp, at about five miles' distance, front of the town, facing the water, being received, the troops were was a circular battery, mounting marched there, but found it ut fourteen or fifteen guns; and furterly deserted. On the following ther to the westward another, altomorning, the troops returned to gether about forty-five guns on the Ningpo and Chinhae.
seu face. The hills and works apThe Chinese troops who fought peared to be covered with soldiers. on this occasion were the elite of On the 17th the fleet moved in; their army, and were under the and on the 18th, the Cornwallis,
Blonde, and Modeste, being an- live as a separate people, obeying chored abreast, and as close to the the same laws, however, wearing batteries as possible, opened their the same dress, and speaking the fire, which was very faintly re same language ; but in their so. turned. To the right (eastward), cial habits differing from each the troops disembarked on a fine other_in a remarkable degree. sandy bay, without aceident, and The Tartar town is laid out like headed by Sir Hugh Gough, pushed a compact encampment, and conon over the heights, and joined sists of lines of huts running paralthe troops between the heights, and lel, and only interrupted by the soon came upon a Causeway lead. canals. Each hut has its own ing to the city. The Chinese fled little compound, and on the bambefore them in every direction. As boo fence separating it from its soon as possible after the troops neighbour, a rich vine is almost in moved from the east, the naval every instance grown ; the remainbrigade landed at the west end ing space is occupied by the family of the heights, and joined the well, a peach tree, and a few troops hetween the heights and beautiful evergreens, tastefully arthe suburbs. Up to this time, ranged, and twisted into grotesque every defence had been carried shapes. The interior is less pleaswith scarcely any loss; but about ing: in general only a cold, damp, 300 Tartar troops, finding escape clay floor, a few chairs and tables, impossible, took possession of a chests, and rude bedsteads; and in joss-house on the spot, and de the richness of their dress alone do fended themselves desperately, yn, they rival the Chinese." til the house fell in upon them, Sir H, Pottinger rejoined the when about forty were taken alive, squadron before it sailed from the rest perished. On this occa. Chapoo ; and its subsequent ope. sion we sustained some loss. The rations are concisely detailed by Chinese forces amounted to 10,000 him in a “ circular," dated on men, one-third of whom were board the steam frigate Queen, in Tartar troops,
the Yang-tze-Kiang River (off The following extract, giving an Woosung), 24th June :account of Chapoo, is taken from “ After the necessary delay in a letter written by an eye wit, destroying the batteries, maganess :
zines, foundries, barracks, and "Chapoo presents many features other public buildings, as well as in common with all Chinese towns the ordnance, arms, and ammy. -narrow, irregular, and filthy nition, captured at Chapoo, the streets, stagnant canals, and crowd. troops were re-embarked, and the ed buildings; stores of grain, and expedition finally quitted that port immense temples used as public on the 23rd of May, and arrived buildings as well as places of on the 29th off the Rugged Islands, worship. There are two distinct where it remained until the 13th towns; the one occupied by the of June, on which day it crossed original inhabitants of the coun. the bar, which had been previously try, the other by their conquerors, surveyed and buoyed off, into the Both cover a space about four Yang-tze-Kiang River, to the miles in circuit. 'Ą wall divides point where the river is joined the Tartars and the Chinese: both by the Woosung. At this point