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tish troops, which were approach- is open and undulating, with no ing Cabul in a north-westerly di- impediment to military movements. rection, necessary.

The main road from Gbuznee toCandahar, therefore, was evacu wards Cabul, lies over a suceession ated by General Nott and the of hills and ravines, very trying for forces under his command, on the draught cattle. At about eight 7th and 8th of August. The miles distant is a defile of about nature of the country which he 200 yards, which Major Hough had to traverse before he could says,fa few guns and a small body reach Cabul, will be understood of infantry could defend against from the following sketeh, taken very superior numbers.' The road from a contemporary publication : is then excellent. Then come de

His route lay along the valley files and a narrow valley easily of the Turnuk River up to its defended. These difficult places source, in the hills near Muhoor, increase, narrow defiles, loose about sixty miles from Ghuznee ground, and broad canals, affordThe road is over occasional Hats, ing many opportunities for anskirted by the mountains, and noying an advancing army. At rugged, broken, and narrow ground. Mydan, seventy miles from GbuzThe delile of Pootee, about forty nee, the road crosses the Cabul miles from Candahar, extending River, and turns up to the right, 200 yards, is only ten or fifteen into a narrow valley, well ealeufeet broad. Beyond the road is lated for defence. The ground at over a low and open country, Mydan is the strongest between which may be flooded. The vale Ghusnee and Cabul, affording a ley then narrows and approaches most commanding position. The the river ; ravines of considerable road continues broken, intersected depth occur, which incommode the by deep ravines and defiles, till in motions of an army carrying (like the vicinity of Cabul, about 100 that of General Nott,) a battering miles from Ghuznee." train.

Khelat-i-Ghilzie is on a At the same time that General hill, where a fort once stood which Nott commenced his march, Majoralmost baffled the Emperor Baber. General England left the neighThence the road is very passable, bourhood of Candahar, where he though intersected by nullahs and had been. encamped with a body water-courses, narrowing near Abee of troops, and advanced towards Tazee, and becoming very precipi- Quetta. This latter officer now, tous at Shuftul. Afterwards, it in pursuance of the orders of the becomes more open and level, the Indian government, assumed the elevation, however, still increas- political responsibility as well as ing, till at Ghuznee it attains the chief military command in 7,726 feet, or 3,242 feet above Scinde and the south-western part Candahar. From Punjuk, 130 of Affghanistan, in consequence of miles from this last-named city, the absence of General Nott, who the land is well cultivated, with pushed forward as rapidly as posnumerous mud - walled villages, sible, and soon came into collision clumps of trees, and orchards: with the forces of the enemy... small forts occur frequently, some

When the British troops on the times, covering the plain. The 29th of August, reached Gonine; ground from Nannee to Ghuznee. thirty-eight miles S. W. of Ghuz

nee, they found that Shumsoodeen, before them until every point was the Affghan Governor of that gained. The general then ordered fortress, was in the vicinity of two regime:its of infantry and their camp, with about 12,000 some light guns, to occupy the men under him. General Nott village of Bullal, which is siadvanced to meet them with one tuated about 600 yards from the half of his force. The enemy ap

walls of Ghuznee, intending to proached in the most gallant man- place them in heavy battery. This ner; each division cheering asservice was soon accomplished ; they came into position—their left but when the guns were moved being on a hill of some elevation, from the camp on the morning of their centre and right along a low the 6th, and before they reached ridge ; while their flank rested on the destined position, it was ascera fort filled with men. They tained that the enemy had evacuopened a fire of small arms, sup- ated the fortress. General Nott ported by two 6-pounder horse- then gave directions that the City artillery guns, which were admi- of Ghuznee and the whole of its mirably served.

works should be destroyed. By The British columns advanced this successful exploit, the triumph upon the different points with great of our arms in this quarter of Affrégulairty and steadiness; and, ghanistan was complete, and the after a short and spirited contest, supremacy of British skill and completely defeated the enemy, valour was again asserted, as it capturing their guns, tents, and had been when the Fortress of ammunition, and dispersing them Ghuznee first fell into our hands, in every direction. Shumsoodeen during the march of the British fled in the direction of Ghuznce, army to Cabul, under the comaccompanied by about thirty horse- mand of Sir John Keane. men.

General Nott now advanced On the 5th of September, Gene- upon Cabul, and had one mbré rał Nott moved on Ghuznee. He encounter with the Affghans, found the city full of men, and a whom he found to the number of range of mountains running N. E. 12,000, prepared to intercept his of the fortress, covered by heavy march upon Mydan. They were bodies of cavalry and infantry; under the command of Shumsoowhile the gardens and ravines deen and other chiefs, and occupied near the town were also occupied a succession of strong mountains. by the enemy: A considerable The account given by the Genereinforcement from Cabul had ars ral of his success over the enemy rived at Ghužnee, under the com on this occasion has the merit of mand of Sultan Jan.

brevity :-“ Our troops dislodged General Noit having made a them in gallant style ; and their reconnoisance, determined to carry conduct afforded me the greatest the mountain positions, before en- satisfaction.” camping his force. The troops General Nott then resumed his accordingly were ordered to ascend march, and effected a junction the heights, which they did in with General Pollock ať Cabul gallant style, driving the enemy without further molestation.

CHAPTER XI.

CHINA.-Departure of the British squadron from Hong-Kong to

Amoy-- Account of the fortifications of Amoy-Attack upon the City and successful result - Proclamation by Sir Henry PottingerArrival of ihe Armament at Chusan_Ting-hae taken by the British - Expedition proceeds to Ningpo-Description of the city of Chinghae-- Taking of Chinghae by assault-Taking of Ningpo-Chinese forlify the banks of the Canton river-Sir H. Pottinger returns to CantonAttempt of the Chinese to retake Ningpo-Rout of the Chinese at Tse-kee-Ningpo evacuated by the British-Capture of Chapoo_Description of the city of Chapoo-Subsequent operations of the British squadron-1t enters the Yang-tze river Elepoo appointed High Commissioner -Arrival of the Armament at China keang foo-Description of the city-Attack upon Chin-keang-fooTaking of it by assault— The Squadron sails to Nankin-Description of Nankin-Suspension of hostilities-Negotiations for peace belween the Chinese Commissioners and Sir Henry Pottinger-Terms of the Treaty-Report from the Chinese Commissioner to the Emperor.

WE

E resume our narrative of China-and the important conse

the inglorious war in quences which may be expected China -in which success could be to flow from a peaceful and more attended with little honour, and unrestricted intercourse with the failure would have been disgrace. vast population of that kingdom British skill and valour have per will be some compensation for havhaps never been engaged in an en- ing engaged in so questionable a terprise where fewer laurels were quarrel. to be gained than in our quarrel We stated in our preceding vowith the Celestial Empire ; for lume,* that in the month of Auwhether we regard the origin of gust last year, Sir H. Pottinger the dispute, or the nature of the and Sir W. Parker had sailed for opposition which our troops had to Hong-kong, which was the place encounter, we are compelled to of rendezvous for the ships destined admit that little reputation was to for the expedition to the northbe gained by a series of bloodless ward. On the 21st, the ships sailed triumphs over a weak and vain- from the island and anchored on glorious enemy. We are there. the evening of the 25th in the fore happy to have it in our power harbour of Amoy. The population to bring to a close in the present volume our history of the war in • Vol. lxxxiii. p. 285.

of this city is said to have amounted fifteen feet high, and was of course to 70,000, and the Chinese army intended to protect their flank garrisoning it was about 10,000 from our troops. Two semi-cirstrong. On the next morning a cular batteries are in the middle of flag of truce came on board the the wall, and at the end nearest admiral's ship (the Wellesley) to the town one larger one, which is inquire the object of the visit. The built of granite, covered with following account of the fortifica- chunam ; it is supposed that several tions and defences of Amoy proves of the mandarins occupied it: they how serious would have been the continued firing to the very last, attempt to take it by storm if it when some of their guns were dishad been occupied by a brave and mounted, the walls nearly knocked skilful garrison.

down, and long after our troops “ From the islands at the en- had landed and hoisted the ensign trance of the harbour to Cohun at the other end of the wall. A soo, the island is about four miles, high hill runs along the coast and good anchorage all the way up for comes abruptly down behind the line-of-battle ships to about 400 long battery, and divides the town, or 500 yards from the shore. On or rather its suburbs, into two all the islands at the entrance are parts; the walled city, which is placed batteries. The 'long bate not more than a sixth of the whole, tery' in the straight line contains is on the other side of the hill.” seventy-six guns, forty feet be The whole number of guns tween each, making it more than amounted to about 500-and the half a mile long; this battery is Chinese fancied the place to be built of solid granite work, being impregnable. The attack comabout fifteen feet thick at the bot- menced at noon the following day tom, and nine at the top, and by the steamer Sesostris passing about fifteen feet high; excepting along the battery of seventy-six at the embrasures for the guns, it guns, and opening her fire of shot is entirely faced with a coating of and shell upon the battery and mud quite two feet thick ; above town which was situated behind a the embrasures is also a coating of semi-circular battery at the end of the same; the masonry is beautiful, that which we have designated as and quite solid; and all who have the long one. She was soon sucseen it declare they have never ceeded by the other vessels taking seen anything so strong or so well up their positions, and anchoring built ; indeed, the proof is, that along the line of batteries on the after four hours' hard fighting, not right at point-blank distances, so one single breach was made in it that they were enabled to pour in by our guns, though placed at a tremendous fire in a continuous point-blank range.

On each side stream. The Chinese guns were of their guns several sand bags soon partially silent; but whenwere placed, so as to protect them ever the firing of the ships at all when loading and firing. At the relaxed, they recommenced. This end furthest from the town is lasted for about two hours, when built a strong granite wall, about the landing of a body of our troops half a mile long, with loop-holes (the Royal Irish, with Sir À. at the top for their matchlocks, Gough at their head) was effected but no guns; it is about ten or at that end of the battery furthest

from the city. They were towed “ Her Majesty's Plenipotentiary in boats close to the shore, and deems it quite superfluous to say immediately formed upon the

the one word as to the manner in heath. At the same time another which this important service has body, consisting of the 26th regi- been performed. The facts rement, marines, and sailors, attacked quire no eulogium. The Chinese and carried the two batteries on the government vainly imagined that island Cohun-800, consisting of they had rendered Amoy impregfifty guns. The Chinese did not nable, but were undeceived in preawait the attack of Sir H. Gough sence of the viceroy of the proand the troops that landed with vinces of Chekeang and Fokien him'; but, after discharging a few (who, with a number of high offiarrows and shots, fled precipitately cers, witnessed the attacks from over the hill to the city. No far- the heights above the town'), in ther resistance was made to the the short space of four hours from advance of the British, and before the firing of the first gun ; and dusk the fortifications were in our had the opposition been a hundred possessioni The next morning, times greater than it was, the spirit Sir H. Gough, at the head of the and bearing of all employed showed troops, marched into the city, meet- that the result must have been the ing with no opposition. The manda- same.” rins and soldiers had all fled, leav A continuance of bad weather ing the city occupied by a few prevented the expedition from putcoolies. This success was attained ting to sea and continuing its prowithout the loss of a single life on gress northwards before the 5th of our part, the only casualties being Septeinber. On the 21st it reached a few wounds occasioned by the the Chusan group of islands,and af. arrows of the Chinese. The num- terwards reconnoitered the defences ber of Chinese killed is supposed of Ting-hae and Chusan harbour', not to have exceeded 150. When where the Chinese had erected the British troops landed, the man- very extensive and formidable darin, wlio was second in command, works since we quitted that part rushed into the sea and drowned of the coast in the month of Fehimself. Another was seen to cut bruary last year. The troops were his throat and fall in front of the disembarked on the 1st of October soldiers as they advanced.

in two divisions, and supported by On the 30th of August the the fire of the ships; they quickly troops were withdrawn from the drove the Chinese, who, on this city, but the island of Cohun-soo occasion, made a more resolutie was retained, which is distant stand than usual, from their works about 1200 yards from Amoy. at Ting-hae, although they were Here 500 men were left as a gare at first assailed by a heavy disrison, and the Druid frigate and charge of gingals and matchlocks Pylades sloop remained also, with from the heights. The walls of orders to shell the town on the first Ting-hae were escaladed without demonstration of hostilities. opposition, and by 2 P.M., the Bri

In the proclamation addressed tish colours waved over the fortifiby Sir H. Pottinger on this coca- cations. In this engagement the sion to “Her Britannic Majesty's enemy suffered severely, and several subjects in China,” he says: mandarins were killed, while on

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