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the Executive power was lodged prepared earnestly and honestly to in trustworthy and able hands, and grapple with them. that, without holding out false Such was the state of the public hupes, or making delusive profes- mind, and the relative position of sions, the statesmen at the head of parties, when the labours of Paraffairs both understood the real dif- liament were terminated by the ficulties of the country, and were prorogation.

CHAPTER IX.

INDIA-AFFGHANISTAN.-Collision with the Eastern Ghilzies

Causes of the Quarrel-Reduction of stipulated Payment-Kafila seized at TezeenSir Robert Sale sent to force the Khoord Cabul Pass-The Pass carried-March of Sir R. Sale to JellalabadSevere Contest in the Jugdulluck Pass- Arrival at JellalabadPosition of the British Forces at Cabul— Situation of the Cantonments-Outbreak of the Insurrection at Cabul-Cause of this Murder of Sir Alexander Burnes and other Officers— Troops with. drawn into Cantonments from the Secah Sung Camp-Altacks of the Affghans upon the British Cantonments-Sir W. Macnaghlen negotiates with the hostile Chiefs-- Terms agreed upon Plot laid for the Envoy-Secret Agreement entered into between Sir W. Macnaghten and Akbar Khan - Murder of Sir W. Macnaghlen and Captain Trevor-Renewal of Negotiations with the Afghan Chiefs - Additional Terms agreed upon- The British Troops leave the Cantonments Treacherous Attacks of the Affghans-Perfidy of Akbar Khan-Hostages given up to himContinued Attacks of the Affghans-The Ladies are placed under the Protection of Akbar Khan

Destruction of the native Indian Troops in the Huft Kothul Pass Miserable Situation of the British Forces in the Tezeen Valley-General Elphinstone detained Prisoner by Akbar KhanDestruction of H. M. 44th Regiment-Massacre of the Officers and Escape of Dr. BrydonThe Affghans invest Jellalabad Gallant Conduct of Sir Robert Sale— Measures taken by the Indian Government-Lord Ellenborough arrives at CalcuttaTroops cole lected at the Mouth of the Khyber Pass under Brigadier WildFailure of attempt to force the Pass.

I

N our narrative of events that tion of Cabul, came into hostile

istan, we alluded in our preceding nothing to do with the calamity volume to a disaster which had which it is now our painful duty befallen us in that quarter, which to record ; a calamity which has we partly attributed to our unfor- thrown a deeper shadow over our tunate attack upon, and capture exploits in the East than any of the fort of, Khelat-i-Ghilzie. which has hitherto occurred. And no doubt this was one cause Our collision with the Ghilzies of the irritation felt by the Ghil arose as follows. The Khoord zies, with the Eastern tribes of Cabul Pass is a long and dangerous whom we, soon after our occupa defile through which the road

between Cabul and Jellalabad runs, too disposed to quarrel with us, and which, therefore, it was neces whom it regarded as rapacious insary to keep open for the purpose vaders of the soil. However, it of safe intercourse between Cabul

was necessary that the Pass should and British India. The Eastern be forced; and accordingly, early Ghilzies were the tribes which in October, Major-general Sir occupied this part of Affghanistan, Robert Sale was sent by General and it was thought advisable on Elphinstone from Cabul with a our part to purchase from these brigade consisting of companies of the right of traversing the Pass the 13th Light Infantry, and the without molestation, rather than 35th N. I. to clear the Khoord be compelled to force it on every Cabul Pass, and open the comoccasion at the sword's point, or munication. On the 12th of Ocattempt to keep permanent pos- tober, these troops commenced session of it.

of it. Accordingly, soon their entry into the Pass; near the after we had seated Shah Soojah middle of which, in the valley, the on the throne of Cabul, an agree- main body of the Ghilzies were ment was entered into with the posted behind a breastwork. As Ghilzie chiefs whereby it was the assailing body, however, apstipulated, that a certain sum of proached, the enemy withdrew money should be paid them yearly from behind the breastwork, and out of the Cabul treasury, if they occupied the steep and precipitous would keep the Khoord Cabul Pass ridges of the mountains on either open, and offer no molestation to side, whence they opened a wellour troops on their passage between directed fire, and General Sale Cabul and Jellalabad.

received a ball above the ancle, There are various accounts of which compelled him to leave the the cause of the events that fola field. Lieutenant-colonel Dennie lowed; but it appears that the then took the command, and skirwhole amount of the money stipu- mishing being thrown out on both lated was not paid to the Ghilzies, flanks, who pressed gallantly on whether owing to the financial the enemy, as far as the nature of difficulties of the Cabul treasury, the ground would admit, while or to some mismanagement on the the main column and guns of the part of the officer whose duty it British were rapidly moved along was to disburse the money. They the valley, the Ghilzies gradunaturally felt aggrieved, and im- ally retired : our troops got posmediately rose in arms and closed session of the heights, and the the Passes. A Kafila valued at southern gorge of the Pass was 20,000 rupees was seized at Te- reached, where the 35th N. I. and zeen, and all communication with guns were established in a deserted British India was cut off. It is fort. The remainder of the troops matter of deep regret that anything marched back through the defile like the semblance of bad faith to the camp at Boothak, which should have occurred in this in- they had left in the morning. stance, for British honour was The casualties in this affair were, pledged to the payment of the unfortunately, not few, owing to stipulated sum; and it was most the advantages possessed by the unwise to give any occasion of enemy in annoying our troops by offence to a population already far their fire from the ridges. But

although the Khoord Cabul Pass report with much satisfaction the was thus cleared, there lay before cheerfulness, steadiness, and perse, the force under General Sale a verance with which the tronps difficult line of country to traverse have performed every duty required as far as Gundamuck, consisting of of them ; since leaving Cabul, they narrow defiles and mountain Passes, have been kept constantly on the with eminences on either side, alert by attacks by night and day; occupied by an active enemy. It from the time of their arrival at was not, therefore, until the 30th Tezeen they have been invariably of October that General Sale, and bivouacked, and the safety of our the troops under his command, positions has only been secured by reached Gundamuck after having unremitting labour, and throwing fought their whole way during a up intrenchments, and very severe period of eighteen days.

out-post duty; whilst each sucWe do not give details of this ceeding morning has brought its march, as the actions were not of affairs, with a bold and active sufficient importance to justify us enemy, eminently skilful in the in devoting much space to them; species of warfare to which their but, after leaving the Khoord attempts have been confined, and Cabul Pass, both in the valley of armed with juzails, which have Tezeen and that of Jugdulluk, enabled them to annoy us at a severe encounters took place with range at which they could only be the enemy, in which we were suc- reached by our artillery. Though cessful in driving them before us compelled by the effects of my from all their positions. In the late wound to witness those conlatter valley the contest was very flicts with a doolie, I must bear my severe. All the salient points of unequivocal testimony to the galthe hills were in possession of the lantry of officers and men on every Ghilzies, who were protected by occasion of contact with the enemy, breastworks; but by throwing out and especially in scaling the treflanking parties, who gallantly won mendous heights above Jugdultheir way up the lofty heights, luk." and dispossessed the enemy of After this, the brigade under their positions, while the main the command of General Sale body advanced up the defile, the moved on to Jellalabad, which it Pass was forced. After this, in reached on the 12th of Novemthe words of General Sale's de- ber, after a series of further annoyspatch : “ Our troops commanded ances from the enemy; without, the route to Sook hab, and the however, any serious encounter. enemy seemed to decline any fur In the meantime the fearful ther opposition. The march was tragedy, which ended in the total resumed, but as the cumbrous destruction of our Cabul force, had train of baggage filed over the commenced in that city. It may mountain, the insurgents again be useful to explain the position of appearing from beyond the most our troops. They were placed in distant ridges renewed the contest a cantonment, which seems to have with increased numbers, and the been selected in defiance of every most savage fury."

maxim of prudence and ordinary In the same despatch General caution. It was on the north Sale states, that he is able " to side of the city, and consisted of a

1 ow rampart and narrow ditch in his majesty Shah Shooja-ool-Moolk the form of a parallelogram thrown resided. up along the line of the Kohistan On the 2nd of November, 1841, road, 1,000 yards long and 600 the rebellion burst forth.* The broad, with round flanking bas two chief leaders were Ameenooltions at each corner, every one of lah and Abdoollah Khan; Mawhich was commanded by some hommed Akbar Khant had not fort or hill. The “ Mission Com- yet arrived at Cabul. It com. pound” where the Envoy (Sirmenced by an attack of 200 or William Macnaghten)and his suite 300 men on the dwellings of Sir resided, was attached to the can Alexander Burnes and Captain tonment on the north side, and Johnson (paymaster of the Shah's surrounded by a single wall. On force), who resided in the city of the eastern side, about a quarter of Cabul. Sir Alexander Burnes thinka mile off, the Cabul river flowed ing at first that it was a mere riot in a direction parallel with the would not allow his guard to fire, Kohistan road. Between the river but harangued the attacking party and cantonments, about 150 yards from the gallery of his house. The from the latter was a wide canal. assassins, however, burst in, and There was before the outbreak of murdered him, his brother Lieutethe insurrection a small camp, oc nant Burnes, and Lieutenant W. cupied by our troops, to the east of Broadfoot, who were with him. A the cantonment, and separated from report of these proceedings having it by the river and the low range reached the cantonments, and of hilly ground called Seeah Sung flames being seen to issue from Here Brigadier Shelton that quarter of the city where Sir manded.

Alexander Burnes dwelt, General General Elphinstone threw a Elphinstone sent an order to Bri. bridge over the river so as to ren- gadier Shelton to march forthwith der the communication between with a body of troops from the the Seeah Sung camp and the can Seeah Sung camp to the Bala tonment more easy. But the most extraordinary oversight was the • The following extract is taken from allowing the commissariat stores

a memorandum written by the unfortu

nate Envoy, Sir William Macnaghten. to be placed in an old fort detached

“ The immediate cause of the outfrom cantonments, and in such a break in the capital was a seditious letstate as to be wholly indefensible. ter addressed by Abdoollah Khan to A number of small forts com

several chiefs of influence at Cabul, manded the cantonment in various stating, that it was the design of the

Envoy to seize and send them all to directions, and on the north-west London! The principal rebels met on was the village of Beymaroo (i. e. the previous night, and relying on the “husbandless,” from a beautiful inflammable feelings of the people of virgin who was buried there),

Cabul, they pretended that the king which lay at the base of some hills death; having previously forged an

had issued an order to put all infidels to completely overlooking the “Mis- order from him for our destruction, by sion Compound.” The Bala His- the common process of washing out the sar (or Royal Citadel) is situated contents of a genuine paper with the at the eastern extremity of the exception of the seal and substituting

their own wicked inventions." city, and lay to the south-east of

+ Akbar Khan was a son of the exthe British cantonments. Here ruler of Cabul, Doost Mahommed.

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