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horn.' Now, however, we find must effect the object by means of that their serious objection to our diminished consumption; and if measure was, that it was not ac. that be so, the Income-tax will not companied by a proposal for a large practically turn out to be so large reduction of the duties on the im. a source of revenue to the right portation of cattle.""

honourable Baronet as he might Lord Palmerston next proceeded otherwise reasonably expect. It to contrast the promises of the will not be that clear and undiSpeech from the Throne with the minished addition to the resources performances of the session : of the country which, under other

The points connected with do- circumstances I am convinced it mestic affairs, to which Ministers would prove. I hope it will make invited the practical attention of good the deficiency, though I.conParliament, were, the deficiency fess we are far from entertaining of the revenue, the Corn and Pro- any very sanguine anticipations vision laws, the Bankruptcy law, on that head. The next thing improvements in the law of Eccle- the right honourable Baronet did, siastical Jurisdiction, the law re was to invite the attention of Parspecting the Registration of Elec- liament to the state of the law tors, and the existing distress of relating to bankruptcy. Now, the country. With respect to the what has been the case with refinancial deficiency, the first thing spect to this Bankruptcy Bill? Ministers did was to increase it, It was introduced into the other by, what we think, an unnecessary House of Parliament on the 18th sacrifice of a large portion of the of February. Under the torpid duty on timber. But, after having influence of the genius loci, there increased the deficiency, I must it remained till the 18th of July, admit that they completely made and then it comes to this House good the whole, with a vengeance, at a time when we are so overby imposing the Income-tax; and whelmed with business, that we I am inclined to think, that that are obliged to assemble every day tax will be found much more pro as early as twelve o'clock at noon ; ductive than they themselves ex and we had to dispose of this meapect it to be, not only of revenue, sure at a time when several honourbut of discontent. At the outset, able and learned Members were the public were told that, however absent from London, whose proburdensome the Income tax might fessional experience would have be, the alterations in the Tariff afforded us no inconsiderable aswould so diminish the price of sistance; and if it had not been provisions, as that they might for the return of my honourable cheerfully endure the one for the and learned Friend, who is a host sake of the other. I believe that in himself—the Bill would not a very large portion of the com- have undergone improvements, munity have already found, that which must be fresh in the rethere is little hope of relief or collection of the House. The Ecmitigation in that quarter. But clesiastical Jurisdiction Bill, as we though living may not be cheap- all know, has been put off. As to ened, the Income-tax must be the Registration of Electors Bill, paid ; if we are not able to pay to do anything with that is now it by means of lower prices, we out of the question; but we are

indulged with the hope, that we at an off-hand speech-made some may be allowed to meditate on the observations on foreign affairs, to provisions of that intended mea. which I may advert; all off-band sure, during the interval between speakers, however, say a great deal this and the next session of Parlia without much consideration as to ment. One step has, however, whether what they do say is, or is been gained with respect to this not consistent with the real state subject during the present session of the facts. I remember having of Parliament, and that step is heard of a celebrated Minister of a this -- that the right honourable foreign country, who lived about Baronet has been induced to tell the middle of the last century, the House, that he will not re who was giving instructions to one introduce the Bill of his noble col- of his agents as to the language he league, the member for North should hold with regard to the Lancashire, on the subject of Irish conduct of another Government. registrations. I think I may call The agent having listened with it a step gained, when we are attention to the instructions, venenabled to say, that if we are ig. tured, in a submissive manner to norant of what is to be effected, insinuate, that the language he we at least know what is not to be was ordered to hold was not, perdone. I now come to the distress haps, strictly consistent with the of the people. This subject was facts--nay, indeed, might be said adverted to in the Speech from the to be rather at variance with facts. Throne, and yet no effectual mea. What was the answer? It was sures have been proposed--still less this: * Never mind what it is have any been carried through, on about ; it is a very good thing to which we could place the least re- say, and mind you say it. Now, liance for relieving that distress. I cannot but think that that MiI have no difficulty in asserting, mister would have made a very and I am sure those best acquainted good off-hand debater in this House. with the state of the country will I do not accuse the noble Lord, bear me

out when I say, that the Member for North Lancashire, those distresses are more severe of having either upon that or any and harder to bear at the present other occasion, stated that which moment, than they were at the he knew or believed to be not conbeginning of the session.”

sistent with facts-what I accuse The language of Government him of is, speaking of facts with had been admirable, although their respect to which the noble Lord conduct had not been deserving was wholly misinformed." of such entire commendation, In Lord Stanley had charged the regard to foreign affairs, however, late Government, and Lord Palhe found fault with both their merston in particular, with having language and their acts. Lord created embarrassments for their Palmerston then turned to Lord successors in every part of the Stanley, the only Member of the world ; a charge which displayed Cabinet who had said much on not only want of information, but foreign affairs :

the grossest ingratitude: “ The noble Lord, the Member “I had indeed, hoped, that, in for North Lancashire, in a good regard to foreign affairs, it would off-hand speech

no one is better be admitted, that we had bequeath.

ed only facilities to our successors. was the restoration of friendly in(A laugh from the Ministerial tercourse with Persia. Then the benches.) What, do you laugh at Speech said, that the Government that?-why, you have been abso were engaged in negotiations with lutely living upon our leavings. several powers to extend the trade You have been subsisting upon the and commerce of the country ; broken victuals left upon our table. negotiations carried on for some (Renewed laughler.) Gentlemen time by the late Ministers, with opposite remind me of nothing so Spain, Brazil, and Naples; the much as a pack of people who negotiations with Portugal having have made a forcible entry into a been concluded in a recent treaty. dwelling-house, and sat down to Exception had been taken to the carouse on the leavings in the policy pursued respecting China ; larder. Hardly a month, nay but on that head he would appeal hardly a week bas passed, since to the declarations of the Duke of the beginning of the session, with. Wellington in the House of Lords; out Ministers bringing in some and he must himself observe, that measure, which they have acknow. if our hostilities with the Chinese ledged was proposed by their pre- should terminate in a satisfactory decessors."

arrangement of commerce with a Ministers came into office on the nation containing 200,000,000 of 3d of September; the Speech from people, a greater benefit to British the Throne was delivered on the manufactures could hardly be con3d of February ; yet the whole of ceived. He would take some credit the Speech, with a single excep- also for the settlement made with tion, was a record of what had Denmark respecting the tolls of been done by their predecessors: the Baltic; and he should be glad it made no complaints of embar to know, how soon the present rassments, but contained only ex. Ministry would be able to pressions of satisfaction at what produce a like settlement with had passed, and happy anticipa- Hanover respecting the tolls of Lions as regarded the future. the Elbe. If, as he had been in

It mentioned the treaty con formed, they meant to sacrifice cluded with the Four Powers for the rights of British subjects to the suppression of the slave-trade; the interests of the King of Hano“ a treaty,” said Lord Palmerston, ver, then the settlement made “ concluded by us,” It next men- with Denmark by their predecestioned a treaty concluded with the sors would indeed be an embarrasssame powers for opening the straitsment to the existing Cabinet. On of the Bosphorus and Dardanelles; entering office, the late Ministers to which the present Ministers found eighteen treaties: they congave a more imposing title, for they cluded fourteen; two of them, those described it in the Royal Speech with Austria and Turkey, of great as“ having for its object the secu- importance. He included the conrity of the Turkish empire and the vention with France to regulate maintenance of the general tran. the fisheries of the two countries. quillity.” That was saying in other One point in that was not conwords, that we had succeeded in cluded - it respected a demand by fixing an important element in the the French Commissioner, that balance of power. The next point French boats should be allowed to

anchor within three miles of the coast of Abyssinia, (whence comes British shore,-evidently in order the “Mocha coffee,”). by laying that a French fishery on the coast the foundation for the commerce of England might be made a nur which must take place in China, sery for manning the French navy: and in the countries to the West he did not know whether the of the Indus, a river navigable for present Government meant to con 1,200 miles from its source. The cede that point ? There was one

late disaster, which had nothing instance in which the late Minis to do with the original measure, ters failed the settlement of the he attributed to the want of“ orPortendic claims: their successors dinary military precautions." He would know how that question interpreted a reply which he had was beset by difficulties.

received from Sir Robert Peel to Lord Stanley had said, that admit, that orders had been given they had bequeathed their diffi- by the Governor-general of India culties in America. The Boun to evacuate the countries West of dary question grew up before the Indus, whatever might have they entered office-before Lord been done to defeat those orders Stanley himself grew up: but by the misapprehension of the they had done what it had oc orders themselves, or by the forcurred to no previous Govern, tunate arrival of an overland desment to do they appointed patch, to save us from the eternal two Commissions, who had ascer disgrace. He would submit what tained that the boundary-lire the late Ministers had done for claimed by Great Britain did commerce to the test of figures : correspond with the terms of the the declared value of our exports

, treaty of 1783, and that the line rose from 37,000,0001. in 1831, to claimed by America did not. The 50,000,0001. in 1841; the exports second Report, just issued, showed to Turkey, Syria, and Palestine, that part of the American line, from 838,0001.' in 1831, to like ours, proceeds from the due 1,461,0001, in 1840; the trade North line; but from a point fur- with India and China, from ther North, and although it does 3,377,0001. in 1831, to 6,547,0001. go along a range of high lands, in 1840. and so far would fulfil the terms In regard to home affairs, he of the treaty, yet that line of high found the prospect

was rather lands, instead of going to the cheering than otherwise. Governhead of the Connecticut river, as ment was pledged to the principle it ought to do, goes twenty-five of free-trade ; they could not remiles wide to the North, and is cede—they could not stand still separated from that head by a they must go on: and if they large tract of swampy plain, and should be deserted by any powerful not a part of the range of high- body of their own friends, they lands. In the Right of Search would have the cordial support of question, Ministers had adopted the the Opposition in their march of arguments of their predecessors. improvement. As to foreign afLord Palmerston himself claimed fairs, he looked with considerable credit for extending British com- apprehension and fear to a Governmerce by opening new markets on ment acting upon a system of the coast of Arabia, and on the timidity, of apathy, and of com

promise. Whether it be in refer- Minister of Reform. If the noble ence to the King of Hanover, or Lord did not, under Mr. Canning, to the French-fishery Commis see those clear indications in the sioners, or to the United States, country that Parliamentary Reform or to Akhbar Khan, they seemed was close at hand, he ought at to be prepared to act on a system least to have some toleration for of submission : but in that course those who with only equal blindthey would be jealously watched ness overlooked the coming necesby the same Opposition. Much sity. cheering followed Lord Palmer Sir Robert Peel denied that ston's speech.

the necessity for Commercial ReSir Robert Peel rose to second form originated in the change prothe motion, which Lord Palmer- duced by Parliamentary Reform. ston, he said, had copied, even in In years long prior to that, Mr. the very wording, from one by Huskisson and others maintained Colonel Sibthorpe on the 25th of the true principles of commercial May, 1841 ; though without giving reform. Nay, in the ten years credit to his predecessor for the preceding the Reform Bill, there example. He thanked him for the

was a greater application of comopportunity of comparing the ef- mercial reform, and much larger forts of the two Governments. abolition of monopolies, than took Following Lord Palmerston in the place during the ten years which historical review of the state of followed the Reform Bill. But if parties since the peace, and begin- from the era of Parliamentary ning with the Roman Catholic Reform ought to have been dated Relief Bill, he said :--The result the necessity for commercial imof that attempt was perfectly provements—if that be true, then known to us when we felt it our the noble Lord passes the most duty to propose that measure to severe censure on those to whom Parliament. We were aware what the Reform Bill gave political its inevitable result must be: it power. Why, when you were was foreseen that it must cause a strong—when you were, as you temporary forfeiture of confidence would represent, convinced of the among those who had been our necessity of commercial reformsupporters. When, however, the when you saw, as you say, that noble Lord reflects on his own Parliamentary Reform necessitated conduct respecting Parliamentary a new course of commercial policy, Reform-conduct which I am not only by the reason of the sure was dictated only by the most thing, but by the coincidence of honourable motives, I think that great events—how can you justify the noble Lord ought to be one yourselves for having left commerwho would have some toleration cial reform to utter neglect at the for changes of opinion. The noble very time when you had most Lord, till the death of Mr. Can- power to secure it? Then, when ning, the bitter opponent of Par- you had powerful majorities, you liamentary Reform, was the faith- might have disregarded any oppoful adherent of that right honour- sition of ours to measures you proable Gentleman.. In 1832, the posed. Parliamentary Reform had noble Lord was as faithful an ad- nearly annihilated the Conservative herent to Lord Grey, the great party : you, who tell us you had

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