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substitute for it in the unsubstan On the 21st June the Martial proposals of the late Ministry, quess of Clanricarde moved, as an and so he accepted it perforce. Amendment to the adjourned MoHe pointed out some oversights in tion for the third reading of the the framing of the Bill, which, Bill, that it be read a third time according to his interpretation, on that day three months. would lead to endless confusion in The Earl of Wicklow expressed the working.

his regret, that Ireland had not Lord Melbourne attacked the been included in the operation of Bill in a tone of good-humoured the measure. sarcasm. Admitting that the fi He was followed at great length nancial Government of the country by Earl Stanhope, who supported was not conducted by the Ad the Amendment. ministration of Earl Grey and Lord Beaumont said, that he that which succeeded it, accord- would vote, though somewhat uning to strict principles; that they willingly, for the Bill. had laid the burthen too much on Lord Fitzgerald strenuously asthe Consolidated Fund without serted its necessity, in consequence imposing fresh taxes ; yet, he said, of the state in which the existing circumstances might sometimes Government had found the narequire a departure from stricttional finances on entering office. principles.

Lord Monteagle entered into an After a debate of some length, elaborate defence of his own finanin which the Duke of Wellington, cial administration, and contended the Earl of Clanricarde, and other that no necessity had been made Peers took part, the resolution out to justify the proposed meawas negatived by 112 to 52.

A contest then took place against The Earl of Ripon replied on the immediate reading of the Bill behalf of the Government ; and, for the third time, which, after on a division, the Bill was read a two divisions, terminated in an third time, and passed by a maadjournment.

jority of 71.

sure.

CHAPTER V.

New Tarif-Preliminary Statement of Sir Robert Peel, before going

into Commillee-Speeches of Messrs. Labouchere, D'Israeli, Hume, Gladstone, E. B. Roche, and G. Palmer - Motion of Major Vivian, respecting alleged Suppression of Information by Government Debate, and Division thereon- Motion of Lord Howick against extension of differential Duties-It is opposed by Mr. Gladstone and other Members, and rejected by 281 to 108— The House goes into Committee on the Bill— Debate on Reduction of Duties on Agricul. tural Produce— Mr. P. Miles moves an Amendment respecting Duty on live Cattle-He is supported by Mr. R. Palmer, Earl of March, and Mr. G. Heathcote Opposed by Mr. Gladstone, Lord Norreys, Mr. Gally Knight, and others-Speeches of Lord John Russell and Sir Robert Peel-Mr. Miles's Amendment lost by a Majority of 267-Other Amendments moved by Major Vivian and Mr. Villiers Rejecled— The Commitlee discuss the Items of the Bill seriatim-a Various Amendments relating to Buller, Potatoes, Timber, ColtonWool, and other Articles, withdrawn or negatived— The Bill goes through Committee-Read a third time on 28th June- Remarks of Lord John Russell on that occasion - Declarations of Sir R. Peel respecting Commercial Measures of Foreign SlatesDebates on Customs- Duties Bill in the House of Lords-It is introduced by a Speech of Lord Ripon-Earl Stanhope moves ils rejection, The Duke of Richmond supports the Amendmenl— Lords Clanricarde and Monteagle speak in favour of the BillThe second Reading carried by 59 to 4-In Committee, Amendments moved by Earl Stanhope are rejected ; and third Reading carried by 52 to 9-Debate in the House of Commons on Sugar DutiesThe Chancellor of the Exchequer moves to continue existing Duties for one year-Mr. Roebuck moves an Amendment to equalise Foreign and Colonial DutiesIt is defeated by 59 to 18- Another Amendment for reduction of Duties, proposed by Mr. Labouchere-Speeches of Mr. Gladstone, Mr. Hume, Lord John Russell, Mr. Roebuck, and Sir Robert PeelMr. Goulburn's Resolution is carried by 245 to 164.

THE question of the Income- which had been propounded in the

tax being now virtually dis- early part of the Session - the posed of, the exertions of the Go. alterations in the Tariff or Cusvernment were next directed to toms-duties. A complete table of carrying into effect the other great the changes proposed, had been branch of their financial scheme, printed and circulated very shortly

after the intentions of Govern- Committee of the House had perment had been announced ; but formed an important service, by further consideration, and the re- directing general attention to the presentations of parties concerned, state of the Tariff and the Importhaving subsequently induced them duties.” to concede certain modifications in The general object of the preparticular items, an amended copy sent Government was to simplify of the Tariff was afterwards placed the existing law :in the hands of Members, pre “We have applied ourselves to viously to the 5th of May, on the simplification of the Tariff-to which day it was announced that make it clear, intelligible, and as it would be moved to go into far as possible, consistent; and that Committee on this important sub. alone, without reference to the ject.

amount of duty is, I apprehend, On that day the proceedings in a great public object. We have the House of Commons were com also attempted, speaking generally, menced by an elaborate prelimi- to remove all absolute prohibitions nary statement on the part of the upon the import of foreign artiPrime Minister. The delay in cles, and to reduce duties which bringing forward the Tariff, he are so high as to be prohibitory said, had been unavoidable, from to such a scale as may admit of a the nature of the propositions fair competition with domestic prothemselves; for it was the duty of duce. There are instances in which Government, in first considering that principle has been departed the subject, to avoid communica- from, and where prohibitions are tion with parties personally in- maintained, and in those cases, we terested ; but the proposal having justify departure from the rule been once made, parties had a fair upon special circumstances; but right to be heard with reference to the general rule has been, to abothe important commercial changes lish prohibitions, and reduce proaffecting their interests. To the hibitory duties within the range amended copy of the Tariff he of fair competition. Our object appealed for proof, that the Mi- has been, speaking generally, to nisters had been swayed by no un reduce the duties on raw materials, worthy motive; that they had which constitute the elements of neither deferred to powerful ina manufactures, to an almost nominal terests suggesting alterations with- amount; to reduce the duties on out reason, nor neglected weaker half-manufactured articles, which interests. He cast a glance re. enter almost as much as raw matetrospectively upon the legislation rials into domestic manufactures, relating to this subject :

to a nominal amount; and with “ In 1787, Mr. Pitt consoli- reference to articles completely dated the Customs-laws. During manufactured, our object has been the war, it was the practice under to remove prohibitions and reduce financial pressure, to raise the prohibitory duties, so as to enable Customs-duties indiscriminately; the foreign producer to compete and many of the present anomalies fairly with the domestic manufacarose from that practice. In 1825, turer; and I still entertain that Mr. Huskisson made important confident belief and expectation, changes; and in 1839 a Select which I expressed on first intie

mating the intentions of the Go- duties on foreign wood entered for vernment with respect to this home consumption, it has been Tariff, that the general result of imported into this country, and it, if adopted by the House, will then re-exported to France and be materially to diminish the charge Germany, and, finally, re-imported of living in this country. If you hither as furniture, on a payment of say to me, 'Why, you cannot 20 per cent. ; so that the cabinet make such a saving on this parti- trade of this country has been cular article, as to constitute any transferred to Germany and France; material item in the expenditure but by the reduction, I anticipate of a family,'I am quite willing to that England may in turn exadmit that, with respect to parti- port furniture. The reduction of cular articles; but, speaking of duties on dye-woods and ores, the general effects of the Tariff as will be of the greatest benefit to proposed by Her Majesty's Govern- the trade. The high duty on ment, I contend, if there be any copper ore operates in such mantruth in the principles either of ner, that copper smelted in bond in trade or of arithmetic, the inevita- this country cannot be used here; ble result must be and a great while copper is imported which advantage it will prove to all classes has been smelted in France and of the community-to make a con- Belgium with our own fuel.” He siderable reduction in the present gave an instauce of the effect: price of living in this country, as ' A foreign power was desirous of compared with the price of living entering

into a very large contract in other countries. It has been for the building of several steamsaid, that it would be better to ships. Application was made to take fewer articles, and deal specie this country; and the only objecfically with them : but the im- tion made to entering into a conmense advantage of dealing gene- tract for the building of these rally with a great number of articles steam-ships here, to a very large is, that to him who has to suffer extent, was, on account of the ex. individual and partial injury, you pense of coppering and fastenings, give a compensation by reductions and preparing the steam-boilers in on other articles.”

this country, as compared with He then went over in detail France and Belgium. A demand some of the chief alterations pro was made to give a drawback on posed in duties on what might be the amount of copper required, or considered raw material :

to permit a quantity of copper to “For instance, there are seve be introduced from foreign counral kinds of seed-produce, the free tries duty-free, equivalent to the importation of which would be of amount needed for those vessels. great advantage to the agricultural It was impossible to accede to those interest. In 1840, the clover- demands ; although it was stated seed imported at 20s. duty pro- by the parties concerned, that the duced 141,0001. revenue; an ex contract must be transferred either tent of importation, considering to Rotterdam or some place in the high duty, which proves how Belgium. I believe that course great the necessity for it had has not been taken ; I believe the been. The duties on woods came decision as to the place in which next: in consequence of the high the contract shall be entered into

has been suspended, until the de- duction they had begun at the termination of this House shall wrong end ; and that they ought have been made known; and I to have dealt more largely with have every reason to believe, in the Corn-laws, and the duties on case there should be an adequate articles of provision :reduction of the price of copper in His answer was, that they had. this country, as compared with the materially reduced the price of the price in other countries, that that necessaries of life. Ai that mocontract, instead of being trans ment, under the old law, the duty ferred to a Continental port, will on foreign wheat would have been be taken in this country.' The 27s. a quarter; under the new like advantages would result from law it was 13s. He found that beef, the reduced duties on 'oils and fresh or slightly salted, was abso. extracts,' which are extensively lutely prohibited; he proposed to used in our manufactures; while admit it at 88. a hundred-weight. one of the chief, spermaceti oil, Lard, an article important in the has risen from 602 or 701. per tun consumption of the poor, and for a few years ago, to 951., or even to manufacturing purposes, would be 111l. per tun; and in the United admitted at 28. a hundred-weight, States, it can be procured for simi- instead of 88. ; salt beef at 8s. inlur purposes at 3s. or 4s. a gallon. stead of 12s. ; hams at 148. a hunComing to timber, he reminded dred, instead of 288. ; salmon, now the House of the celebrated dictum prohibited, would be admitted at of Mr. Deacon Hume, that we 10s. a hundred-weight; add herhave abundance of untaxed coal, rings, a fish in which the poor abundance of untaxed iron, and were most interested, would be that we only want abundance of admitted at 10s. the barrel instead untaxed wood, in order to be of 20s. This part of the measure provided cheaply with the three had created some apprehension in great primary raw materials of the north of Scotland, under the employment and necessary cono apprehension of which a person sumption. He thought that to had written to him thus: * Nore admit an unlimited competition way produces, I think, as many with the Colonies in an article herrings as

Go to the of so much importance to them, Baltic, and you may purchase would be open to grave objec. herrings at 7s. 6d. to 8s. a barrel, tions; but the permission to im while ours cost from 18s. to 20s. port colonial timber free from duty, I presume the Norwegian herrings would keep in check any demand can be landed in Ireland at 11s. to which might be made on Parlia. 128. per barrel ; ours cannot at ment, in case they felt disposed to less than from 20s. 1o 22s. I am afford additional facilities for the a free-truder in every other reimportation of Baltic timber. spect -(Cheers and laughter)

On articles of foreign manuface but with respect to herrings, ! ture, he proposed to lay an amount caution you against the general of duty, generally speaking, not to ruin which you are about to inexceed 20 per cent. At present, flict on those engaged in that the amount of the duties was as branch of trade.' That was a very high as it was during the war. fair example of the general feeling It had been said, that by that re created by these reductions. He

we do.

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