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The Book Given to the Levites.
The Song of Moses.
ears, and call heaven and earth to record
ye heavens, and I will speak; and hear, against them. (29) For I know that after
O earth, the words of my mouth. (2) My my death ye will utterly corrupt your
doctrine shall drop as the rain, my selves, and turn aside from the
speech shall distil as the dew, as the which I have commanded you; and evil 1 Hebrecho hathcor. small rain
the tender herb, and as will befall you in the latter days; be
the showers upon the grass : (3) because cause ye will do evil in the sight of the
I will publish the name of the LORD : LORD, to provoke him to anger through
ascribe ye greatness unto our God. the work of your hands.
(1) He is the rock, his work is perfect : (30) And Moses spake in the ears of all about that there for all his ways are judgment: a God the congregation of Israel the words of that is their blot of truth and without iniquity, just and this song, until they were ended.
right is he.
(5) 1 They have corrupted themselves, CHAPTER XXXII.-(1) Give ear, O
2 their spot is not the spot of his children :
(29) In the latter days.-A not uncommon pro- sincerity, equity, and reliability is to be found elsewhere phetical expression, used with some considerable lati- in all Scripture. This is the character of the Rock. tude. It occurs for the first time in Gen. xlix. 1. This name of God (Tzur) is one of the characteristics (See also Num. xxiv. 14 and chap. iv. 30.) Some would of the song. The word occurs first in Exod. xvii., refer it to the “ days of the Messiah," and make it where the Rock in Horeb was smitten; "and that almost a technical term. But a comparison of these
Rock was Christ.”. From that time we find that few passages will show that it cannot be tied strictly to the very names of the leaders in Israel embody this any one period.
confession. Elizur, my God is a Rock; Zurishaddai, (30) And Moses spake . the words of this the Almighty is my Rock; and Pedahzur, redeemed by song.–The exodus of Israel begins and ends with a the Rock (Num. i. 5, 6, 10), are examples. So exclu. song of Moses. The song of Exod. xv. is usually re. sively is the term in Hebrew (Tzúr or Sélagh) used in ferred to as the “ Song of Moses,” and is thought to be
that no man is ever described by it in the intended in Rev. xv. 3, 4. But there is a remarkable Old Testament. And the LXX., in this song and resemblance between Rev. xv. 3 and Deut. xxxii. 3, 4, in many other places, do not translate it at all, but which see.
give it as God (Ocús). In other places the word Petra
(never Petros) is employed. This fact convinces me XXXII.
that the Petra of Matt. xvi. 18 could only have been (1) Give ear, O ye heavens, and I will speak; understood by Jews as denoting Deity; and that it not and hear, O earth, the words of my mouth. only referred to Christ, but to Christ as God. No other -Comp. the opening of Isa. i. 2, which is almost iden- interpretation will suit the language of Holy Scripture. tical, excepting that the two words for “hearing” are This fourth verse, like the third, is a stanza of four transposed.
lines. The first line is answered by the third, and the (2) My doctrine.-Or, my learning, that which I second line by the fourth. receive—a not very common, but beautiful expression (5)- “He (Israel) hath destroyed himself. in the Hebrew. Everything that comes down from
Their undutifulness, that is their blot. the " Father of lights” is handed on by one heavenly
A froward and crooked generation!" messeuger to another, until it falls upon the heart of These first two lines are given up as hopeless by many man, in just that form in which he can best receive it. interpreters, not because the words are difficult of transThe Son of God says, “My doctrine is not Mine, but lation, but from the great variety of possible interpretaHis that sent Me." I speak that which I have seen tions. After careful consideration of the passage with a with my Father.” Of the Holy Spirit He says, " He learned Christian Hebrew, † I venture to propound this shall receive of Mine and shall show it unto you.” The as the true translation. It is substantially identical with apostles speak “ in words which the Holy Ghost that of the English margin. The Hebrew consists of five teacheth.” The parallels of the verse appear to be words only (1) " He-hath-corrupted (2) to-him (3) not these :-My learning shall drop as the rain; My speech (4) his-sons (5) their blemish.” That the first two ought shall distil as the dew, as the sweeping showers upon to be taken together, if the text is correct, seems the tender herb, as the multitude of drops upon the
certain. The same construction is found in Num. grass.
The “small rain ” of the Authorised Version xxxii. 15, “ye shall destroy all this people,” and also points to a different and probably untenable derivation in 1 Sam. *xxiii
. 10, “ to destroy the city.”
As to of the Hebrew word. The rain is more definite than the third and fourth words, we have thought that the dew, and therefore the first word in the second half their true relation is the same which we find in of the verse should be stronger than the second, and verse 21, a not-God," and a not-people, and also not vice versa. The tender herb just sprouting can
in verse 5, “ not-wise.” In like manner Israel are bear heavier showers than the grown grass.
in this verse called “ not-sons of His." Their not(3)—
sonship, their unfilial, undutiful, ungodly behaviour to · For (or when) it is the Name JEHOVAH that I utter; Give ye greatness to our God."
Him who is the perfection of truth and sincerity, a very
Rock of fidelity to them, that is their great blemish. (1) He is the rock, his work is perfect: for all his ways are judgment: a God of truth Literally, they are no sons to Him. (Comp. verse 20.) and without iniquity, just and right is he.
+ Mr. Bernhard Maimon, to whom I desire once for all to No such combination of all the words for uprightness,
express my great obligations for assistance in this and many
they are a perverse and crooked genera- |1 Hch: generation (9) For the Lord's portion is his people; tion. (6) Do ye thus requite the LORD,
Jacob is the ? lot of his inheritance. O foolish people and unwise? is not he
(10) He found him in a desert land, and thy father that hath bought thee? hath
in the waste howling wilderness; he he not made thee, and established thee?
3 led him about, he instructed him, he (7) Remember the days of old, con
kept him as the apple of his eye. (11) As sider the years of many generations :
an eagle stirreth up her nest, fluttereth ask thy father, and he will shew thee;
over her young, spreadeth abroad her thy elders, and they will tell thee.
wings, taketh them, beareth them on (8) When the Most High divided to the
her wings : (12) so the Lord alone did nations their inheritance, when he sepa
lead him, and there was no strange god rated the sons of Adam, he set the
with him. (13) He made him ride on bounds of the people according to the
the high places of the earth, that he number of the children of Israel.
might eat the increase of the fields;
? Heb., cord.
3 Or, compassed
He has said, “Israel is my son, even my firstborn.” But are even His offspring.” Hence He appoints our in. all Israel's behaviour gives Him the lie. The contrast heritance. With some such thought as this, the LXX. between the two descriptions—the faithful God of verse translate the latter half of verse 8, “He set the bounds 4, and the unfaithful children of verse 5—is the cardinal of the peoples according to the number of the angels of point in the verse. In the form of the expression, lo
God.” The chosen people were to be His messengers binâv is strictly parallel to the Lo-ammi of Hosea i. 9. to the nations. He chose Israel for His own portion, The “ froward and crooked generation ” supplies two that through them He might inherit the world. And words to Ps. xviii. 26, with the froward thou wilt yet in the face of this glorious calling and mission, the shew thyself froward.” Compare also the context of undutiful behaviour of Israel was their one great blot. the two passages. Many other interpretations have They had only to accept the position already prepared been proposed, and some have altered the text. I believe for them, and they refused ! the text to be correct, and that this is the true meaning. (10) The whole of this verse is in the pictorial present (6) “ It is Jehovah that ye requite thus !
in the Hebrew
“ He findeth him in a desert land,
In a waste howling wilderness;
He compasseth him about, He instructeth him, The first line is an exclamatory question. A question
He guardeth him as the apple of his eye.” and an exclamation have the same name in the Rabbini.
He found him.-This beautiful expression is comcal writings. “Hath gotten ” in the third line is the
mon to the Old and New Testaments as a description same expression which Eve used (in Gen. iv. 1) at the
of God's first revelation of Himself to man. In the birth of Cain, and occurs also in that magnificent saying
case of Hagar it is written (Gen. xvi. 7), “ the angel of in the history of Wisdom, Prov. viii. 22, The Lord
Jehovah found her by a fountain of water in the wilderbegat me (as) the beginning of his way.”
ness.”. Concerning Jacob, that “ He found him in (7) The fourfold division of this verse is manifest.
Bethel,” when Jacob said “Surely the Lord is in this (8,9) Comp. chap. xxi. 16.
place, and I knew it not” (Hosea xii. 4; Gen. xxviii. “When the Most High made nations to inherit,
16). A series of similar passages is closed by the When He parted the sons of Adam,
three examples of the lost sheep, the lost money, and He set the bounds of the peoples, According to the number of the sons of Israel.
the son that had been lost, and was found (Luke xv.). For the portion of Jehovah is His people,
He led him about.—The commoner meaning i. Jacob the cord of His inheritance
given in the margin. Rashi has this remark:“He caused The allusion is to the dispersion from Babel (Gen. x., xi.). them to abide round about His glory (Shechinah), tho The Jews were accu-tomed to reckon seventy nations tent of the congregation in the middle, and four stanand languages in that dispersion. Seventy members of dards on the four sides." Jacob's household went down into Egypt. And literally 1 hey interpret this passage to mean that in dividing the
(11, 12) As an eagle awakeneth her nest,
Over her young she broodeth, lunds to the peoples, Jehovah left room for His own, so
She spreadeth out her wings, she taketh up that they might inherit the promised land without any
each one of them,
She beareth him on her pinions : undue pressure upon other nations. It is noticeable
Jehovah alone leadeth him, that the children of Lot and Esau were carefully pre
And a stranger-god is not with Him." served from disturbance by Israel (chap. ii.). But this
The eagle in Hebrew is masculine. He is one of the is the bare literal interpretation. The true meaning creatures that is honoured with a description by the lips of the passage is given by St. Paul in his speech at
of Jehovah Himself in Job xxxix. 27-30. But beanti. Athens : “ He determined (for all nations) times before
ful as the simile and the description in these places are, appointed, and the setting of the boundaries of their
they are surpassed in gentleness by our Saviour when habitation, that they might seek the Lord.” The nations
He says, “How often would I have gathered thy were so disposed in the world, and so developed, that
children together, as a hen doth gather her brood each might have its opportunity of seeking Jehovah, in
under her wings, and ye would not” (Luke xiii. 34). due season, through contact with His people—“if, as Fluttereth.-Or, broodeth, is the word in Gen. i. 2, was certainly not impossible, they might feel after Him
the Spirit of God brooding over the face of the waters. and find Him, who is not far from any one of us. For we
(13, 14) The verbs again are all present. “He maketh * i.c., limit.
him to ride,” &c.
2 Or, despised.
and he made him to suck honey out of 2 Oct which were (19) And when the LORD saw it, he the rock, and oil out of the flinty rock;
- abhorred them, because of the provoking (14) butter of kine, and milk of sheep,
of his sons, and of his daughters. with fat of lambs, and rams of the
(20) And he said, I will hide my face breed of Bashan, and goats, with the
from them, I will see what their end fat of kidneys of wheat; and thou didst
shall be : for they are a very froward drink the pure blood of the grape.
generation, children in whom is no (15) But Jeshurun waxed fat, and
me to kicked : thou art waxen fat, thou art
jealousy with that which is not God; grown thick, thou art covered with fat
they have provoked me to anger with ness; then he forsook God which made
their vanities : and a I will move them him, and lightly esteemed the Rock of
to jealousy with those which are not a his salvation. (16) They provoked him
people; I will provoke them to anger to jealousy with strange gods, with
with a foolish nation. abominations provoked they him to
(22) For a fire is kindled in mine anger, anger. (17) They sacrificed unto devils,
and 3 shall burn unto the lowest hell, not to God; to gods whom they knew
3 Or, hath burned. and 4shall consume the earth with her not, to new gods that came newly up,
increase, and set on fire the foundations whom your fathers feared not. (18) Of
of the mountains. (23
) I will heap misthe Rock that begat thee thou art un
chiefs upon them; I will spend mine mindful, and hast forgotten God that
arrows upon them. (24) They shall be formed thee.
mechat con burnt with hunger, and devoured with
& Rom. 10. 9.
4 Or, hath
(14) Kidneys of wheat. - The metaphor is literally (20) A very froward generation.-Literally, a translated from the Hebrew. The kidneys are enclosed generation of perversities. in the very best of the fat of the animal, fat that was Children in whom is no faith. - Literally, strictly reserved for God's altar by the Levitical Law. children there is no relying on them. (Comp. chap.
(15) Jeshurun is a diminutive--a term of endear. v. 5.) Faith is not used in the sense of “ belief ment. Either “ the child of the upright,” or “the be. * confidence," but as in the expression to “ keep faith," loved Israel.” The letters of the diminutive of Israel, or to “ break faith,” children who will keep no faith if slightly abbreviated, would make "Jeshurun.” It is peculiar to Deuteronomy (here and in chap. xxxiii. 5,
(21) “ They have made me jealous with a no-god; 26) and Isaiah (chap. xliv. 2). Two of the Targums
They have provoked me with their vanities : render the word by "Israel here." The third retains the
And I will make them jealous with a no-people; word itself. The LXX. translate it “the beloved one."
With a foolish nation will I provoke them.' Kicked.-Only in 1 Sam. ii. 29 : “ Wherefore kick
St. Paul comments on this in Rom. X., as proving that ye at my sacrifice and mine offering
Israel was informed of the calling of the Gentiles, and yourselves fat ?”
compares Isa. lxv. 1, “ I was found of them that songht Grown thick.- As Rehoboam said,
me not. I made myself manifest unto those that infinger shall be thicker than my father's loins." Both
quired not after me. these parallels illustrate the spirit of the verse.
Rashi quotes, perhaps not quite inappropriately (17) They sacrificed unto devils, not to God.- Isa. xxii. 13, and gives this explanation, “A noSt. Paul repeats this expression in 1 Cor. xi. 20.
people,” i.e., a nation without a name; as it is said. Gods that came newly up.-Literally, that ca Behold the land of the Chaldæans: this people from close at hand. Compare the description of the
was not." idol in Isa. xliv. 15, easily made from the firewood; and (22) For a fire is kindled in mine anger.see also Wisdom xiii. 13,“ A carpenter taking a crooked Quoted by Jeremiah (chap. xv. 14, and comp. chap. piece of wood, and full of knots, hath carved it dili. xvii. 4). gently, when he had nothing else to do”—a comment The foundations of the mountains. – Rashi on the passage in Isa. xliv.
says, “ Jerusalem, which is founded on the mountains," (18) of the Rock that begat thee.-" The Rock as it is said, “ Jerusalem, the mountains are about her" hath begotten thee forgetful, and thou hast forgotten (Ps. cxxv. 2). God that travailed with thee,” is another possible (23) Mischiefs.-Literally, ills. Comp. Ezek. v. 16 : translation of this
The expression in the second clause is found also in Ps. xc. 2 (a prayer of
“I will send upon them the evil arrows of famine . . I will increase the famine
them." Moses), “Before the mountains were brought forth,
(24, 25) while Thou wast yet in travail with earth and world, and Consumed * with hunger, and devoured with pestilence, from eternity anto eternity Thou art God!” The word and bitter destruction which I have rendered “ forgetful" is usnally taken as
I will also send the tooth of the beasts upon them, with the
poison of crawling things of the dust. a verb. But the verb is not found elsewhere (i.e., it is Outside the sword bereaveth, and in the chambers terror : invented for the sake of this passage), and the word
Both young man and maiden, the suckling with the man of
grey hairs." may not impossibly be an adjective.
(19) The Lord saw abhorred.-Comp. Jer. xiv. 21.
* Or, possibly. “ Regaled with hunger, and fed with bread of pestilence and bitter destruction," &c.
4 Or, Our high
hand, and not the
I burning heat, and with bitter destruc- Hehburning had sold them, and the Lord had shut tion: I will also send the teeth of beasts
them up? (31) For their rock is not as upon them, with the poison of ser
our Rock, even our enemies themselves. pents of the dust. (25) The sword with or from the being judges. (22) For their vine 5 is of out, and terror within, shall 3 destroy
the vine of Sodom, and of the fields of both the young man and the virgin, the
Gomorrah: their grapes are grapes of suckling also with the man of gray 3 Heb., bereare. gall, their clusters are bitter: (33) their hairs. (26) I said, I would scatter them
wine is the poison of dragons, and the into corners, I would make the remem
cruel venom of asps.
(34) Is not this brance of them to cease from among
up in store with me, and sealed up men : (27) were it not that I feared the
among my treasures ? (35) To me bewrath of the enerny, lest their ad
longeth vengeance, and recompence; versaries should behave themselves
their foot shall slide in due time: for strangely, and lest they should say,
the day of their calamity is at hand, + Our hand is high, and the Lord hath
and the things that shall come upon not done all this. (28) For they are a
them make haste. nation void of counsel, neither is there
(36) For the Lord shall judge his people, any understanding in them.
and repent himself for his servants, (29) O that they were wise, that they
when he seeth that their power is gone, understood this, that they would con
Rom. 12. 19; Hebi and there is
up, or left. (37) And sider their latter end ! (30) How should
he shall say, Where are their gods, their "one chase a thousand, and two put ten
rock in whom they trusted, (38) which thousand to fight, except their Rock 6 let., hand. did eat the fat of their sacrifices, and
a Josu. 23. 10.
5 Or, is worse than
the rine of Sodom,
b Ecclus. 28.
God's four sore judgments are all depicted here- except the displeasure of Jehovah. The enemies have
our enemies themselves.
going back to verse 30,“ Their Rock," i.e., Israel's Rock, (26, 27) The argument of these verses is such as no man
had sold them
for their vine is of the vine of Sowould dare to put into the mouth of the Most High. dom.” Comp. Hosea x. 1 : “Israel is an empty vine; he Moses had pleaded it (in Num. xiv. 13–16; Exod. bringeth forth fruit unto himself;” and Isa. v. 2, 7: xxxii. 12), but none but Jehovah Himself would say for “He looked that it should bring forth grapes, and it Himself, “ I feared the wrath of the enemy."
brought forth wild grapes
He looked for (27) Behave themselves strangely.-Possibly, judgment, but behold oppression; for righteousness, misunderstand it, or take note of it (as a strange
but behold a cry.” thing).
(34) Is not this laid up?_" This” is generally (28) Void of counsel.-- Literally, perishing in taken to refer to what follows, but it is not clear. It counsels, or, perhaps, spoiling the plans of Jehovah. may refer to the fact that He looked for grapes, and Yet they said, “Come, and let us devise devices the vine brought forth wild grapes.” against Jeremiah; for the law shall not perish from (35) To me belongeth vengeance, and recomthe priest, nor counsel from the wise, nor the word pence.- In the Epistle to the Hebrews (chap. x. 30) from the prophet" (Jer. xviii. 18).
this sentence is quoted with the first clause of verse 36, (29) Consider their latter end.-Have some dis- “For we know Him that said, Vengeance belongoth Cernment as to their hereafter, what their destiny was,
I will recompense, saith the Lord.” And so and what they will miss, if they fail to fulfil it.
in Rom. xii. 19. (30) How should one (of their enemies) chase a Their foot shall slide in due time.-Rather, thousand (of them). -Comp. the verse in chap. xxviii. for the time when their foot shall slide. 25, and more especially Lev. xxvi. 8, 17, 36.
(36) For the Lord shall judge His people.Had sold them.-Here first used of Jehovah. It Quoted in Heb. x. 30, in connection with the previous is a common expression in the book of Judges (chaps. verse. According to this view "shall judge ii. 14, ii. 8, iv. 2, x. 7; 1 Sam. xii. 9).
"shall punish,” not "shall defend.” Had shut them up (into the hand of their ene- And repent Himself for His servants.-Or, emies).-Comp Ps. Ixxviii. 62, “He shut up His people and will be comforted over His servants. Comp. Ezek. also unto the sword.”
v. 13, “I will cause my fury to rest upon them, and I (31) For their rock.-Perhaps this may be taken, will be comforted ;” and also Isa. i. 24, &c. For their rock (the enemies' God) is not as None shut up, or left.- Comp. 1 Kings xiv. Rock (Jehorah), and yet our enemies are judges, i.e., 10, xxi. 21 ; 2 Kings ix. 8. and especially chap. xiv. 26. lords, over us. So Rashi takes it. The verse should (37, 38) He shall say, Where are their gods ?... be read as a parenthesis. The argument would be let them rise up and help you. He did say so this : No cause can be found for the defeat of Israel in Judges x. 14.
13. 2; Wisd. 16.
2 Or, Praise his
drank the wine of their drink offerings ? 1 Hooan hiding of his servants, and will render venlet them rise up and help you, and be
geance to his adversaries, and will be your protection. (39) See now that I,
merciful unto his land, and to his even I, am he, and there is no god with a 1 Sam. 2:6; Toh: people. me: •I kill, and I make alive; I wound,
(4) And Moses came and spake all the and I heal: neither is there any that
words of this song in the ears of the can deliver out of
people, he, and 3 Hoshea the son of lift up my hand to heaven, and say,
Nun. (45) And Moses made an end of live for ever. (41) If I whet my glitter
speaking all these words to all Israel : ing sword, and mine hand take hold on
(16) and he said unto them, Set your judgment; I will render vengeance to
hearts unto all the words which I testify mine enemies, and will reward them
among you this day, which ye shail that hate me. (42) I will inake mine
command your children to observe to. arrows drunk with blood, and my sword
do, all the words of this law. (47) For shall devour flesh; and that with the 3 Or, Joshua. it is not a vain thing for you; because blood of the slain and of the captives,
it is your life: and through this thing from the beginning of revenges upon
ye shall prolong your days in the land, the enemy.
whither ye go over Jordan to possess. (13) 2 • Rejoice, O ye nations, with his
it. people: for he will avenge the blood a Num. 27. 12.; (48) « And the LORD spake unto Moses
6 Matt. 7. 6; Rom.
& ch. 6, 6 & 11. 18.
(39) I, even I, am he, and there is no God with me. There are many very similar passages in
JOSHUA TAKES UP THE HISTORY. Isa. xli.—xlvi.; but none of them exactly reproduces (44) He, and Hoshea the son of Nun.-Why this sentence.
should Joshua be called Hoshea in this place. His I kill, and I make alive. — This was name was apparently changed to Joshua at the time peated by Hannah in her song, “The Lord killeth and when he entered the promised land with the eleven maketh alive” (1 Sam. ii. 6). Comp. also Isa. xliii. 13, others who searched it out (Num. xiii. 8, 16). Now “Yea, before the day was I am he; and there is none that he is about to lead Israel to the conquest, we are that can deliver out of my hand."
once more reminded of his change of name, and that (40, 41) For I lift up my hand.- This is the the “salvation of Jehovah” was to be manifested form in taking an oath. (Comp. Rev. x. 5.) The two through him. Possibly the change of name was also verses may be connected thus : For I list
hand at this time confirmed to him. Compare the case of to heaven, and say, As I live for ever, if I whet my Jacob, whose change of name to Israel was twice made lightning sword, and my hand take hold on judgment, the subject of a Divine communication (Gen. xxxii. 28, I will render vengeance to mine enemies, and repay xxxv. 10). Compare also what was said to him when them that hate me.
about to enter into Egypt: “God spake unto Israel in (42) My sword shall devour flesh.-Comp. Isa. the visions of the night, and said, Jacob, Jacob.” kvi. 16 : "For by fire and by His sword will the Lord We are assured by the mention of Hoshea in this plead with all flesh, and the slain of the Lord shall be place that the Joshua appointed to succeed Moses is many.
the same person who was faithful among the spies. With blood.-Literally, from the blood of the It is also possible that this mention of Hoshea may slain and of the captivity, from the beginning of re- be Joshua's first mention of himself in the sacred writvenges upon the enemy. Judgment must begin at the ings. After the close of the song, the remainder of house of God, as it did in Ezekiel's vision (chap. ix. 6), Deuteronomy is not covered by Moses' signature. It "and begin at my sanctuary;" but it will not end there. belongs to Joshua, or else the author is unknown.
(43) Rejoice, o ye nations, with his people.* (46) Set your hearts unto all the words.- This is cited by St. Paul to show that the Gentiles Rashi compares Ezek. xl. 4: Son of man, behold with must also “glorify God for His mercy”in sending Jesus thine eyes, and hear with thine ears, and set thine heart Christ. But it is not wholly fulfilled yet. “If the fall ироп
all that I shew thee." of God's people was the wealth of the world what Which ye shall command.-Rather, that ye will the receiving of them be, but life from the dead ?” may command your children to observe to do all the (See Rom. xi. 12, 15, xv. 10.)
words of this law. Obviously the knowledge of the And will be merciful unto.-Literally, will re- law wonld depend very much on personal instruction concile or make atonement for His land, the land of for some time to come. His people, or for the land of His people. He will (47) For it is not a vain thing for you.-Not cleanse, forgive, and be merciful to it. The very last too light a thing for you, not un
inworthy of your words speak of local restoration of the land to the attention. people, and the people to the land. Of no other land It is your life.-For the last time in this book the has He said “The land is mine.” “Israel ” alone is people are assured that the very end of their existence called His “ firstborn."
in Canaan was the observance of the law of Jehovah as
the law of the land. The LXX. have a longer version of this verse, “Rejoice, ye (48) And the Lord spake unto Moses that heavens, with Him, and let all the angels of God worship Him selfsame day. The day in which he spake the song (Heb. i. 7); Rejoice, ye Gentiles, with His people. and let all the sons of God be strong in Him; for," &c.
in the ears of all Israel.