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The supreme dignity in Israel was held by the the shewbread to eat at Nob, and was for this act family of Eleazar, the son of Aaron, until the death of murdered by King Saul, together with all the priests tho high priest Ozi. We are not in possession of the then doing duty at the national sanctuary. His son, circumstances which led to the transference of the Abiathar, escaped the massacre, and was allowed to office to Eli, the descendant of Ithamar, the younger assume his father's office.

During the reign of David son of Aaron; probably the surviving son of the this Abiathar continued to be high priest, but was high priest Ozi, of the house of Eleazar, was an infant, arbitrarily deposed by Solomon, who restored Zadok, of or at all events very young, when his father died, and the old high priestly line of Eleazar. The descendants Eli - his kinsman, no doubt — had probably distin. of Zadok continued to hold the office as long as the guished himself in some of the ceaseless wars in which monarchy lasted. the people during the stormy period of the judges The annexed table shows the double line of high were continually involved, and was in consequence priests to the reign of Solomon :chosen by the popular voice to the vacant dignity.

Aaron, After the death of Eli and his two sons, Hophni and Phinehas, the high priestly dignity never seems to have recovered its ancient power and dignity:

Period of Joshua Eleazar Ithamar The eyes of Israel were turned first to Samuel, and

Period of the Judges Ozi then to Saul and his royal successors, David and

Eli--high priest, and Solomon.

judge of Israel. Phinehas

high During the lifetime of Samuel, Saul, and David,

priest; he was though shorn of its old proportions and exposed

slain in

battle of Aphek. vicissitudes, the high priesthood continued in

Ahitub-reign of Saul. the family of Eli, who was succeeded by his grandson,

Ahimelech-reign of Saul. Ahitub, the son of Phinehas. In the days of Saul,

Abiathar-reign of David

and Solomon Ahijah, or Ahimelech, the son of Ahitub, gave David Reign of Solomon Zadok

-- never


to many


It is an error to see in the foundation of the Eternal; this was the fourth phase of the national life. Hebrew monarchy by Samuel in the person of King But in order to weld the once more faithful yet divided Saul merely a vain-glorious popular demand, merely and ill-organised tribes into one great nation, the estab. a desire to emulate other nations in their pomp in lishment of an earthly monarchy was indispensable. circumstance of war, merely a wish to be free from It was, indeed, no new thought; the great Hebrew law. the grave moral restraints of an austere Republican giver, who drew his wisdom direct from communing government, with an Invisible and Almighty Chief with the Most High, had spoken of it as of something presiding over it.

which would in the coming ages be absolutely necessary Samuel, with all the passions of a father and pre- for the progress and development of the nation. And judices of a Republican chieftain, at first resisted the now the time was ripe for it, and the same Being who popular request, but subsequently, influenced by nobler, watched over Israel with a Father's intense love more far-sighted considerations, yielded to it, and even put into the hearts of the elders of the people the desire furthered it with all his great power and the influence for a king, and into their mouths the words with which of his lofty character. The popular request-although they approached with their request His prophet and many earthly feelings and passions influenced the servant, Samuel the judge and seer. people's prayer to their prophet-judge for an earthly We have seen how quickly that true patriot stamped king-was really suggested by the Spirit of the Eternal down his first repugnance to a change which would who had chosen Israel. Such an undivided and firmly alter the whole constitution of the people for whom he established human authority within the chosen people had done and suffered such great things, which would was now indispensable to their progress. Roughly virtually set him aside as ruler and judge, and for ever speaking, Israel

, since it left Egypt and the degrading destroy the natural hopes he had entertained of transslavery to the Pharaohs, had gone through four phases : mitting his nobly earned honours and power to his own the first, the severe education under Moses in the house. Desert; the second, the period of the conquest and The seer laid the matter in prayer before his Master, the age immediately succeeding it, when the people and from Him received direct instructions how he worshipped the Eternal, who had done such great things should proceed. What entire trust must the Eternal for them, with a fervour of enthusiastic gratitude; the have placed in this great prophet-judge to confide to third, the so-called age of the Judges, a period when him the momentous task of establishing a permanent the memory of the God-Friend was growing fainter monarchy in Israel, knowing that the first step in the and fainter, when the wish to live the life He loved establishment of such a monarchy must be Samuel's was gradually dying out of Israel. They were be. own voluntary abdication of rank and power! But the coming like the peoples who lived around them, and Master knew His servant. were gradually falling into subjection to the more war. The old man quietly accepted what must have been like and stronger of their idol-worshipping neighbours. to him a painful, saddening mission. Acting under the From this impending decay and rain they were resened Divine direction, he set out before the chiefs of the by the splendid patriotism and the fervent religious tribes a picture of the new burdens and duties which zeal of Samuel, under whose wise rule Israel as a nation the sovereignty, if established, would require them to once more returned to the pure holy worship of the take upon themselves. As soon as he had received I. SAMUEL.

their solemn acceptance of these new and altered con. according to the dictates of his own will, like other ditions—in other words, as soon as he had received from monarchs of the world, but was to enter into the mind the elders of the people an expression of their


and spirit of the Eternal King, of whom he was the willingness to exchange their old republican freedom for visible representative on earth. “We know with the comparative servitude which subjects of a powerful sufficient certainty that every king of Israel, imsovereign, especially in the East, must endure—he pro. mediately upon his accession, was pledged to the existing ceeded with all solemnity to the choice of a king for fundamental laws of the kingdom; in token of which he Israel. It has been well pointed out by Dean Payne was required, when the crown was placed on his head, Smith that the last three chapters of the Bouk of to lay above it a written copy of the Law, and with these Judges, immediately preceding in the Hebrew the Books sacred emblems to show himself to the people before he of Samuel (the insertion of the Book of Ruth in this could be anointed.” place being a modern attempt at chronological arrange- Nor were these noble hopes and lofty aspirations en. ment), seems intended to point out the grave necessity tirely disappointed. It is true that none of the anointed of a king for the well-being of the Hebrew common. kings of Israel fulfilled the grand ideal of the people, yet wealth. They relate the history of a fearful crime, there sat on that strange throne, hallowed by such awful punished with equally fearful cruelty, and, as the Dean memories of Divine glory, “men”-to quote the observes, what makes it mo remarkable is that it took great historian Ewald's words—“ in whom

many place in the days of Phinehas, the grandson of Aaron. forms of royal and manly excellence were exemplified, (See the chronological statement, Judges xx. 28, which and whose like would be vainly sought among other shows that these awful scenes of national sin and ven. nations in those early times. Here only in all antiquity geance probably took place within twenty years of the was the true ideal of monarchy persistently aimed at.” death of Joshua, that is, at a time when the public Indeed, all history might be searched in vain for sove. morality still stood high, and the religion of the Eternal reigns uniting so many splendid qualities as did David still had a mighty influence over the people.). In the and Solomon, Jehoshaphat and Hezekiah. period of the later judges disorders were far more Nor, again, was the change to human kings reigncommon in Israel than even in the days of Phinehas. ing as vice-gerents of the Eternal King, politically

The lofty ideal which the teaching of Moses proposed speaking, a disappointment. From the hour when the to Israel and which, during its long chequered story, patriot-statesman Samuel poured the anointing oil on raised it high above all the other nations of the world, the head of the young king Saul, the nation gradually was that Israel should consider itself the peculiar king- rose in importance. dom of the Eternal King. And at first, under men In, comparatively speaking, a very few years from like Moses and Joshua, no earthly representative of the time when it had to fight with doubtful success for the heavenly Sovereign was necessary.

The people very existence with those warlike Phænician peoples lived and worked as ever in the presence of the Most whó dwelt, "& long thin line,” along the sea-washed High ; but in the very next generation, as we have coasts of Syria and Canaan, Israel, under the iron sceptre seen, the invisible Sovereign began to be forgotten, of David, and the golden sceptre of Solomon, rose to the and to each succeeding age the glorious Presence was position of one of the foremost nations of the East. It still less of a reality. The people in the days of Samuel, shared with Assyria and Egypt the chief place among led by the Spirit of God, demanded that to the theocracy Oriental nations ; indeed, for a time, under the wise and the monarchy should be added, not in any way to sub- splendid rule of David and his son Soloinon, it even oververt it, but, as Ewald happily phrases it, to share its shadowed those two historic powers. Though Israel task, and to supply the want which it could not satisfy. declined from its great power and influence with strange, The earthly king was to be the chosen of the Eternal, sad rapidity, it lasted sufficiently long to stamp its inthe anointed of the invisible Friend. He was to be the fluence for ever on well-nigh all future religious worship, visible image on earth, the vice-gerent of the invisible true and false, on the art and literature of the future King of Israel, reigning in heaven. He was to be no leading peoples in the far Western, as well as in Eastern absolute sovereign, reigning for his own pleasure and lands.

EXCURSUS E: ON THE CITY OF GILGAL (chap. xiii.). On the south-west bank of the River Jordan, a meetings appear at first certainly to have been held. little to the north-east of the old famous Canaanitish (Comp. Joshua v. 10, ix. 6, x. 6, 7, 9, 15, 13, xiv. 6; fortress-city of Jericho, was pitched the fortified Judges ii. 1.) cainp of Joshua at the time of the Israelitish invasion. Ewald considers that, from the notices preserved From this place of arms his armies went forth to the in the Books of Samuel, in the days of that famous conquest of the cities of Ai and Jericho, in the imme. judge-seer it was one of the most sacred places in diate neighbourhood, the first important captures in Israel, and the town centre of the whole people, and the promised land.

that its importance dates from the days of the conquest Gilgal then seems to have been the first spot where under Joshua. Although after the establishment of the the conquering Israelites established themselves. Out monarchy, and the permanent fixing the seat of governof the fortified camp.of Gilgal grew the city bearing ment and the residence of the sovereign at Jerusalem, the same name. During the whole period of the con- where was also erected the Temple, Gilgal declined in quest of the land under Joshua, it seems to have been importance, still, centuries later, in the times of Amos the regular place of assembly for the chiefs of the and Hosea, it appears to have been a sacred place, held tribes, and to have been a kind of head-quarters for the in high regard by the people. (See Amos v. 5; Hos. host of Israel. There, too, the festival and sacred iv. 15, ix. 15.) 64



EXCURSUS F: ON THE SIN AND REJECTION OF KING SAUL (chap. xiii.). The conduct of Samuel in the matter of his separa. The Inspired compiler of this book has chosen out of tion from Saul has been often called into question. the records of the first king's reign two memorable inThe old prophet, in his dealings with the king, has been stances of this strange and obstinate self-will on the accused of harshness and precipitancy, and even Saul's part of the king : the first, the declining to wait for punishment by the Most High has been looked upon as the prophet at Gilgal till the specified time for his severe and disproportioned to the offence. Instead of coming had expired; the second, the refusal to destroy conceding or denying these hasty conclusions, it will be the Amalekite king and the rich plunder taken from well to consider what this offence was which alienated him. the prophet, and brought so terrible a judgment on the To the superficial reader the special acts of Saul great first king of Israel and his royal house.

which are cited in these books as the immediate occasion The existence of Israel, and their prosperity as a of the separation of the prophet and the king, and of people, was based alone on the peculiar favour and pro- the doom pronounced upon Saul and his honse, may tection of the Eternal God. Out of the peoples of the seem trivial- quite incommensurate with the fatal conglobe, He chose them for a special purpose. They sequences; they were, no doubt, as the great German were to keep burning the lamp of the knowledge of the commentator Ewald suggests, isolated cases, which reMost High amid the darkness of the idolatry and sin ceived their true significance from a long series of conof the world. As long as they were faithful the nected events-instances which were selected as perhaps Lord sustained them against all their adversaries. He the best known of Saul's permanent disposition towards enabled them to win a beautiful land; He maintained the invisible Guardian of Israel. (May not such conthem securely there; to use the language of their own siderations, applied to other events chronicled in Holy records, they dwelt safe under the shadow of the Writ, assist us in understanding much that is now dark Almighty wings. God would have led them higher, and difficult – for instance, the terrible woe which and ever higher, had they for their part remained followed on the plucking and eating of the forbidden true and loyal. In a great crisis of their history the fruit in Eden? It is likely that, owing to their rebel. Eternal chose out Saul from among them, and made lious and self-willed spirit, the father and mother of him ruler and His own vice-gerent on earth of His our race were banished from a life for which their chosen people.

self-will rendered them utterly unfit. The sin, of Now, as we have said, the conditions of the ex. which we possess such ample details in the early istence and prosperity of Israel were the favour and Genesis story, was probably a solitary instance of the help of the invisible King. With these they prospered, self-will and disobedience of our first parents to a and went on from strength to strength; without these loving and generous Creator. Many difficulties in the their power withered away at once; the moment the Bible story are capable of explanation, if we adopt Glorious Arm was removed Israel at once sank to the some such considerations as these which we have level, or even below the level, of the other peoples of lightly sketched out here.] the earth.

King Saul was fully and fairly tested. No doubt, the King Saul possessed many rare and noble qualities. want of faith and implicit trust-the first requisite for He was brave to a fault, simple, modest, even deeply a true child of Israel—which led to the disobedience of religious. He was gifted, too, with prudence and Gilgal, had been manifested before, on other and less moderation, and was undoubtedly a wise and able conspicuous occasions. This was in the face of the general, but when raised to the throne, and in posses. people, and the long-suffering of the Eternal could not sion of supreme power, he totally mistook the position pass over so glaring and public a manifestation of of Israel.He thought it had won its own way to the king's intention to loosen the links which bound freedom, and the possession of the rich and fruitful together in Israel the visible and the invisible. It was land in which they dwelt, and that it could, by the a fatal example, which might only too quickly have exercise of prudence and valour, maintain itself in its been followed by many. So the prophet and friend conquests, and even rise to be one of the powerful of Saul at once pronounced the doom; but even then, monarchies of the world. In other words, without Saul might have repented, and, had he chosen, might despising or making light of the true King who had again have won the old favour and love of the Eternal in truth raised up Israel from slavery, and made it an King; but we know he did not choose, alas for Saul ! independent nation, Saul considered that the people The heart grieves over the fatal blindness of the gallant over whom he had been called to rule could, if neces. and patriotic king. Gilgal taught him nothing. We sary, do without this supernatural assistance.

feel that the alienation between Israel's visible and in. Acting upon this false conception of the true posi- visible Kings grew with each succeeding year, till again, tion of Israel, he reserved to himself the right to act in the matter of the Amalekite booty, a still more publie in certain emergencies without the advice of the manifestation of Saul's determination never to submit Eternal, communicated throngh that great prophet, who his will to God's will drove the reluctant Samuel to in those days was the mouth-piece of the Most High, pronounce in still more fateful words the doom of the or if he judged it better for the interest of the people, disobedient, and to close for ever his friendship with even in direct opposition to this supernatural advice or the unhappy sovereign. The words of the great seereven positive commands. In other words, when King the friend of God-uttered under the influence of the Saul failed to see the wisdom or policy of the “ word of Spirit of the Lord, when he finally determined to bid the Lord,” communicated to him by the accredited farewell to Saul, sum up the sin and its punishment. seer of the Eternal, he declined to follow its dictates. (See chap. xv. 22, 23.)



SLEW HIM BEFORE THE LORD (chap. xv.). Although, on the whole, we prefer the usual interpre- moved by a lofty, fearless impulse, “Surely the bitterness tation of this scene, which the English Version clearly of death is past. This willingness to die on the part suggests-viz., that Agag, finding that the warrior-king of the royal captive was regarded by the people as a had spared him, ceased to have any apprehensions any happy omen; and possibly, if we adopt this interpretation longer for his life, and that when summoned into the of the episode, this was one of the reasons which had presence of the old prophet, came in a comparatively preserved the circumstances of the incident with such happy and joyous state of mind, imagining that he was exact detail, for there was a deeply rooted persuasion only to be presented in a formal manner to the chief among the ancients that if the victims resisted when led religious official in Israel-still, there is another and to the altar, the incident was one of evil omen. most interesting interpretation of this singular scene, Compare the words which Æschylus, in the Agawhich has the support of the distinguished scholar and memnon, puts into Cassandra's mouth before her death. expositor, Ewald. This interpretation of the original If we understand the words of Agag in the sense understands that the conquered Amalekite monarch was suggested in this Excursus, the captive Trojan princess fully aware that the summons into the presence of the met her death in a similar spirit. dread seer meant a summons to death, and that, con

Cassandra. I will dare to die I pray that I may scious of his impending doom, he braced himself up as receive a mortal blow-and without a struggle that I a warrior king to meet his end heroically with a smile.

close my eyes.

Chorus. Agag then met his fate "with delight” (this is the

If thou really art acquainted with thy doom,

how comes it that, like a divinely-guided heifer, thou adword rendered in English delicately), and cries out, vancest so courageously to the altar?- Agamemnon, 1261-1269

EXCURSUS H: ON THE SCHOOLS OF THE PROPHETS (chap. xix.). “ Long before Plato had gathered his disciples round exercises, the records of the past, we may be certain, were him in the Olive Grove, or Zeno in the Portico, these examined and copied with extreme care, and the mateinstitutions (schools of the prophets) had sprung up rials out of which the Divine records were in after days under Samuel in Judæa.” (Stanley.)

compiled were, no doubt, there arranged and classified. Before the days of Samuel the name of “prophet” In Samuel's schools by Ramah, we may assume, were very rarely occurs ; incidentally the title is once given trained, under their renowned master, David, Gad, to Abraham (Gen. xx. 7), and Moses is on many occasions Nathan, Heman, and others whose names as writers, so styled. (See especially the great passage in Deut. prophets, and teachers subsequently became famous xviii. 15—18, where he is made the type of the old after the days of Samuel, during the reigns of David order.) Aaron, too (but in relation to Moses), was also and Solomon, and of the earlier kings of Israel and called a prophet.

At rare intervals we meet with the Judah. After the separation, prophets are frequently name: for instance, in the days of Gideon (Judges vi. 8); mentioned-sometimes by name, as in the case of Gad and most probably in the reign of the high priest Eli and Nathan-sometimes we hear of a nameless prophet. (1 Sam. ii. 27), in the person of the “man of God” We have to wait, however, until the days of Elijah and who brought the stern message to Shiloh, we have Elisha before we meet with a further allusion to those another rare example. There is one solitary instance prophetic schools.

Under the general name of in those early days of a woman bearing the honoured Sons of the Prophets,” these seminaries, or schools, name-Deborah, the judge and prophetess (Judges appear in the times of these great prophets in several iv. 4).

localities. Their numbers evidently were considerable. Samuel, however, was the true founder of the pro- It is an indisputable fact that during the later years of phetic order. Samuel, the Prophet and the Seer, was the independent existence of the people, and also in the title by which this great and loved man was known the Captivity, and for a time after the return, the not only in his own, but in all succeeding generations. prophets exercised an enormous influence over the

There is no doubt but that one of the great works of tribes. Samuel's life was to call into existence "unions,” or, as We may, then, fairly assume that the new impulse they have been subsequently termed, “schools of the given to religious education by Samuel was never prophets.” We must not, however, conclude that all, suffered to die out, and that from his days onward the or that even a large proportion of the people trained in schools of the prophets flourished among the chosen these schools of Samuel were prophets in the sense of people. The company of prophets gathered round being able to make predictions, or even to write or Samuel in the Naioth by Ramah-the “Sons of the speak as inspired men. This Divine gift, we must Prophets ”—who acknowledged men like Elijah and remember, was a gift of God, which He bestowed Elisha as their revered masters, were the direct an. on whom He would. He, in His omniscience, knew cestors of the scribes and rabbis of later days. who among men were fitted for this grave and im- When Samuel first founded the new order, there portant office.

was, it must be remembered, an utter want of lofty But the trained in Samuel's “Naioth,” in that spiritual teaching: The sanctuary of Shiloh had been school of his by Ramah- those known in later days as destroyed, the Ark removed, the priesthood dishonoured “Sons of the Prophets”-were taught the study of the and disgraced. Later, it is noticeable that it was in the Law and the story of the Divine guidance of Israel ; northern kingdom of the ten tribes, in the provinces they were most carefully trained in music and singing; of which there was no temple, no priests, no sacrifice, and in these quiet homes of learning and religious where we find those great schools of the Sons of the I. SAMUEL.

Prophets, under the presidency of men like Elijah and Elisha. The prophetic order then, in the first place, owed its creation to a want of all spiritual guidance and influence, when Eli was dead and Shiloh dese.

crated; and further on, its development and rapid in. crease among the northern tribes is plainly attributable to the fact of there being no temple and no priestly order outside Jerusalem.

EXCURSUS I: ON THE SO-CALLED OUTLAW LIFE OF DAVID (chap. xxii.). From the scattered notices we possess in this book, in words of the writer of the Chronicles, “warriors equip2 Sam., and in 1 Chron., it is clear that the career of ped with shield and spear, like lions in aspect, and yet David during the period of his life when he was de. speeding over the mountains with the swift foot of the clared by the reigning sovereign, Saul, to be a public gazelle. Four hundred men-at-arms— of course this enemy, was not the career of a vulgar freebooter, to does not include the younger armour-bearers and the whom he has been often wrongly likened. To his like accompanying these veteran soldiers - are menstandard, as we shall see, quickly gathered a number of tioned as joining the armed camp of David. These four iilustrious men, among whom were found many of high hundred seem soon to have increased to six hundred. lineage, as well as men famous for their military Extraord nary weight and dignity were added to his achievements; distinguished representatives, too, of the counsels by the presence of men like Gad, the prophet priestly and prophetic orders were also to be found at of the Lord, trained in the school of Samuel, and enthis wandering Court of the future illustrious king. dowed with the rare gifts of a seer of the living God; Among the principal reasons which induced so many and Abiathar, the son and successor by direct desrent and such distinguished persons to associate themselves of the murdered high priest Abimelech, who brought with David may be enumerated growing discontent with him to the exile's camp the precious Urim and with Saul's rule; his frequent inability, owing to the Thummim, the greatest treasures of the sacred Taberrecurring paroxysms of his distressing mental malady, nacle, by means of which the “ outlaw” David was to conduct the affairs of the kingdom; his growing dis- placed in direct communication with Jehovah, the trust of his friends, especially of his gallant son ; the covenant God of Israel. unfortunate favouritism he displayed towards the tribe In this school of fighting men were trained those of Benjamin-his own tribe; his relentless and, at the generals and wise strategists who in the golden days of same time, groundless animosity against his bravest David's rule commanded his armies, and raised Israel and most successful captain, David. There were not from the obscurity of an “ Arab” tribe, who with diffi. wanting evidently in the border warfare—a warfare culty held their own among the ancient Canaanites, to which greatly contributed to his popularity among the the position of one of the great nations of the old people, which David almost ceaselessly carried ou with Eastern world. Philistia during this period-romantic incidents which I cannot forbear transcribing from the Talmud a show us the character of David's soldiers, and which curious note on “the four hundred warriors of David." well illustrate the spirit of devotion to his person with This ancient tradition evidently bestows on these which this great man was able to inspire his followers. “ fighting men-at-arms ” who rallied round David in his On one occasion, for instance, in the course of a border days of exile and poverty, the splendour which perhaps foray, the son of Jesse, exhausted and wearied, was subsequently surrounded the great king's body-guard heard to express a longing for a drink of water from when he reigned as a mighty prince in Jerusalem orer his own home spring at Bethlehem, then occupied by a Canaan and the surrounding nations. “David had four Philistine garrison. Three of his generous and devoted hundred young men, handsome in appearance, and with followers, determined to gratify the longing of their their hair cut close upon their foreheads, but with long loved chief, with a reckless bravery broke through flowing curls behind, who used to ride in chariots of the enemy's line, and fetched the coveted water. But gold at the head of the army. These were men J'avid, we read, touched to the heart by such reckless of power, the mighty men of the house of David, gallantry and love, refused to drink it, but poured it who went about to strike terror into the world.” out—that water, won at such risk—as an offering to the -Babylonian Talmud, Treatise Kiddushin, fol. 76, Lord. (See 1 Chron. xi. 16-19.)

col. 2. In this little army of heroes eleven men of great re- It is most probable that a corps of elite, in memory of nown are in one passage positively mentioned by name, the original "four hundred” of the days of the king's so distinguished were they-men of great military ex- wanderings, was established when David possessed a perience, from the distant tribe of Gad—in the graphic powerful standing army.


AND NABAL (chap. xxv.). We perhaps ask, What were the reasons which induced In a singularly vivid way, however, they picture the the inspired compiler of these records of the history future king's life during those days of temptation of Israel, among the materials, no doubt, present in and anxiety, and show how well he used his position abundance to his hand, to relate the especial episode to win the affections of the people as chieftain of a contained in this chapter in such detail of the life of powerful and somewhat reckless band. He seems to David when chief of an outlaw band? The incidents have acted as the protector and generous helper of all seem at first sight trivial, scarcely worthy the important scattered dwellers in the southern part of Canaan. In place they occupy in the Book of Samuel, and they a former chapter-in his rescue of the men of Keilahcertainly were not chosen with a view to exalt David's it was the corn growers ; in this section it is a great character.

sheep-master whose herds and flocks he is represented

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