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The Tribe of


Benjamin Restored.

(23) And the children of Benjamin did so,

thence at that time, every man to his and took them wives, according to their

tribe and to his family, and they went number, of them that danced, whom

out from thence every man to his inthey caught: and they went and re- ch.17.6; & 18.1: heritance. turned unto their inheritance, and re

(25) a In those days there was no king in paired the cities, and dwelt in them.

Israel :

: every man did that which was (24) And the children of Israel departed

right in his own eyes.

& 19. 1.

Benjamites) have not received every man his wife once more by way of apology for the lawless crimes, through the war.

terrible disasters, evaded vows, and unhallowed excesses At this time.-Rather, perhaps, in that case (i.e., of retribution, which it has been the painful duty of “ if

you had given them your daughters in marriage, ye the sacred historian thus faithfully and impartially to would be guilty”). We are left to assume that the narrate. Out of these depths the subsequent Judges, appeal of the elders to the parents whose two hundred whose deeds have been recorded in the earlier chapters, daughters were thus seized was sufficient to pacify partially raised their countrymen, until the dread lesthem.

sons of calamity had been fully learnt, and the nation (25) In those days . This verse, already oc- was ripe for the heroic splendour and more enlightened curring in chaps. xvii. 6, xvii. 1, xix. 1, is here added faithfulness of the earlier monarchy.



It may be regarded as certain, from the testimony of tions (Antt. viii. 8, § 4). Aaron in proclaiming the Scripture itself, that the calf of Aaron and those by feast at the inauguration of his golden calf distinctly which the rebel king

calls it a feast to Jehovah (Exod. xxxii. 5). It was the

well-understood purpose of Jeroboam not to introduce a "Doubled that sin in Bethel and in Dan, Likening his Maker to the grazed ox,"

new worship, but to provide a convenient modification

of the old ; and it appears from 1 Kings xxii. 16 that the were not idols in the ordinary sense of the word, but prophets of the calf-worship still regarded themselves, were intended as symbols of the one God. The calf. and were regarded, as the prophets of Jehovah; but the worship was a violation not of the first, but of the fate of Amos is sufficient to show that they must have second commandment. The main element of the four. sanctioned, or at least tolerated, the use of these unau. fold cherub was certainly an ox, as is clear from the thorised symbols, against which, so far as we are in. comparison of Ezek. x. 14 with chap. i. 7, 8; and the formed, not even Elijah or Elisha ever raised their knowledge of this cherubic emblem was not confined to voices, though the former was so implacable a foe to all the Jews, but was spread at least through all Semitic idolatry, and the latter lived on terms of close friend.

That the calf was intended to be an emblem ship with at least one of the northern kings. (See of God seems to be the opinion of Josephus, who in the articles Calf,” by the present writer, in Smith's such a matter would represent creditable Jewish tradi. | Dictionary of the Bible.)



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THE Hebrew word Teraphim is always simply trans- as do the two renderings of the Targums, images and literated as in our version, or rendered by " images,” (Hosea iii. 4) announcers. with “teraphim” in the margin, except in 1 Sam. 1. Teraphim are first mentioned in Gen. xxxi. 19, xv. 23, Zech. x. 2, where it is represented by "idola- where Rachel steals her father's “images," and suctry,” “ idols.” The singular of the word, “a teraph,” cessfully hides them from his search under the hiran on does not occur in Scripture, although it is clear that which she was sitting-the coarse carpet used to cover only one can have been put into David's bed (1 Sam. the wicker-work pack-saddle of her camel. Josephus xix. 13–16). The LXX. adopt many different ren. supposes that she was actuated by idolatrous reverence; derings, as does the Vulg., but they all point to Iben Ezra that she expected oracular guidance from idolatrous images or the implements of necromancy, them; others that she stole them because of their JUDGES.

intrinsic value. She probably shared the superstitions | worship. Hence, perhaps, arose the notion that the of her father, and regarded them as sacred (Gen. xxx. teraphim were in some way connected with the Urim and 14, xxxi. 30), as being the figures of ancestral divinities Thummim, which led to the rendering of the word in (Gen. xxxi. 53). It is not impossible that they were this passage by oñaoi (LXX., “ bright gems”), and by among the “strange gods » which Jacob ordered his DWTIOuOùs ( enlightenments,” Aquila), and by “imple. family to bury under “ the sorcerer's oak” – Allon ments of priestly dress” (St. Jerome).

This is the Meonenim (chap. ix. 37). But that Jacob's right theory maintained most unconvincingly, though with feeling in the matter was not permanent is proved only great learning, by Spencer in his De Legibus Hebræ. too clearly by the conduct of Micah (chap. xvii. 5) and orum, lib. iii., pp. 920—1038. the Danites (chap. xviii. 3), although, unlike Jeroboam, But if these passages show that even in religious they could not even plead the poor palliation of political families teraphim were sometimes tolerated as material motives.

adjuncts to an Elohistic worship, on the other hand we 2. The next definite notice of teraphim occurs in 1 find them unequivocally condemned by Samuel (1 Sam. Sam. xix. 13–16, where Michal, in the dark eastern xv. 23), by Josiah (2 Kings xxiii. 24), and by the prochamber, conceals her husband's absence by putting the phet Zechariah (Zech. x. 2 ); and in Ezek. xxi. 21 the teraphim in his bed, with a bolster of goat's hair for use of them is attributed to the heathen Nebuchadnezzar. a pillow. The use of the article shows that even in The general inference seems to be that the use of David's fainily the use of the " teraphim ” was perfectly the teraphim involved a violation of the second com. well known. Nor can we rely on the vague conjecture mandment, but that this use of symbols, this monotheistic of Thenius, that barren women (Rachel and Michal) | idolatry, which is very different from polytheism, were especially addicted to their worship, or on that of arises from a tendency very deeply ingrained in human Michaelis, that Michal may have possessed them unknown nature, and which it took many years to eradicate. If to David. The passage seems to show that they had at centuries elapsed before the Jews were cured of their least some rude resemblance to the human shape, whence propensity to worship “other gods," we can feel no Aquila renders the word by protomai (“ busts”), which surprise that “image worship” continued to linger is used of figures like the ancient Hermae. This is among them, in spite

of the condemnation of it by the not the place to enter into the curious reading of the stricter prophets. The calf-worship, the toleration of LXX. on this verse, by which they seem to connect teraphim and consecrated stones (baetylia) and high the worship of teraphim with what the ancients called places, the offering of incense to the brazen serpent, extispicium-i.e.,

divination by means of the liver of the glimpses of grave irregularities even in the worship sacrifices, as in Ezek. xxi. 21. Josephus follows the of the sanctuary, show that it was only by centuries of same reading, and dishonestly suppresses all mention misfortune and a succession of prophets that Israel was of the teraphim.

at last educated into the spiritual worship of the true 3. The next important passage is Hosea iii. 4, where God. the prima facie view of every unbiassed reader would The reader will find further remarks on this subject be that the image” (mat sebah) and the teraphim are in the article on " Teraphim," by the present writer, in mentioned without blame as ordinary adjuncts to religious i Kitto’s Biblical Cyclopædia.

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