Industry in England: Historical Outlines

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Methuen & Company, 1896 - 479 páginas

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Contenido

Physical Aspect of PreRoman Britain
17
CHAPTER II
21
Roman Roads
22
Roman Towns in Britain
23
The Romans and Agriculture
25
Celtic and NonRoman Influence in Agriculture
27
Commerce and Industry in Roman Britain
31
CHAPTER III
34
The Saxon Village and its Inhabitants
37
Village Life
38
Methods of Cultivation
40
SECTIOX PAGR 22 Isolation of Villages Crafts and Trades Markets
41
Foreign Commerce and the Danes
43
Summary of Trade and Industry in the Saxon Period
46
CHAPTER IV
47
The Mark Theory and the Manor
48
Criticisms of the Mark Theory
49
Vinogradoffs Evidence on the Manorial System
52
Evidence from Manorial Courts and Customs
55
The Customary Tenants
56
The Evidence of Village Communities
57
A Survey of the Origin of the Manor
58
The Feudal System
60
PERIOD II
61
CHAPTER V
65
The Population given by Domesday
66
The Wealth of various Districts
68
The Manors and Lords of the Manors
70
The Inhabitants of the Manor
71
The Condition of these Inhabitants
73
Services due to the Lord from his Tenants in Villeinage
74
Free Tenants Sokemen
75
The Distinction between Free and Unfree Tenants
76
SECTION
77
Illustrations of Manors from Domesday
78
Cuxham Manor in the Eleventh and Thirteenth Centuries
79
Description of a Manor Village
80
The Decay of the Manorial System
84
CHAPTER VI
86
Rise of Towns in England
87
Towns in Domesday
88
SECTIOX PAGB 51 Special Privileges of Towns
89
How the Towns obtained their Charters
90
The Gilds and the Towns Various kinds of Gilds
91
How the Merchant Gilds helped the Growth of Towns
93
How the Craft Gilds helped Industry
94
Life in the Towns of this time
96
CHAPTER VII
98
Foreign Trade The Crusades
100
The Trading Clauses in the Great Charter
101
The Jews in England
103
Flemish Weavers
104
Economic Appearance of England in this Period Population The North and South
106
General Condition of the Period
108
PERIOD III
109
CHAPTER VIII
111
Agriculture the Chief Occupation of the People
112
Methods of Cultivation The Capitalist Landlord and his Bailiff The Stock and Land Lease
113
The Yeomen
114
The Tenants Communal Land and Closes
115
Ploughing
116
Sheep
117
Increase of Sheepfarming
118
Consequent Increase of Enclosures
119
CHAPTER IX
120
Wool and Politics
121
Prices and Brands of English Wool
124
English Manufactures
125
PAGE
131
CHAPTER X
134
The Great Fairs
140
Growth of Industrial Villages The Germs of the Modern Fac
146
The Effects of the Plague on Wages
152
The Statute of Quia Emptores
158
The Renewed Exactions of the Landowners
164
The Result of the Revolt
170
THE CONDITION OF THE WORKING CLASSES
176
Drawbacks
177
SECTION
180
PERIOD IV
197
Condition of the Agricultural Population
198
CHAPTER XIV
199
England still mainly Agricultural
200
The Domestic System of Manufacture
201
The Dissolution of the Monasteries
202
Results of the Suppression
203
Pauperism
205
The Issuing of Base Coin 127 The Confiscation of the Gild Lands
207
Bankruptcy and Rapacity of Edward VI s Government
209
The Agrarian Situation
211
The Enclosures of the Sixteenth Century
213
Evidence of the Results of Enclosing
215
Other Economic Changes The Finances
218
Summary of the Changes of the Sixteenth Century
220
SECTION PAGE 138 Trade with Flanders Antwerp in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries
228
The Decay of Antwerp and Rise of London as the Western Emporium
230
The Merchants and SeaCaptains of the Elizabethan Age in the New World
231
Remarks on the Signs and Causes of the Expansion of Trade
232
Disastrous Effects of the New Industrial System
233
CHAPTER XVI
234
The Restoration of the Currency
235
The Growth of Manufactures
236
Restrictions upon Labour
237
The Combination Acts
238
Monopolies of Manufacturing Towns
239
Exports of Manufactures and Foreign Trade
240
The Working of the Assessment System
255
199
256
The Law of Apprenticeship
259
The Elizabethan Poor Law
260
Population
263
CHAPTER XVII
265
Progress in James I s Reign Influence of Landlords
266
Writers on Agriculture Improvements Game
267
Rise of Price of Corn and of Rent
269
Special Features of the Eighteenth Century Popularity of Agriculture
270
Improvements of Cattle and in the Productiveness of Land Statistics
271
Survivals of Primitive Culture Common Fields
273
Great Increase of Enclosures
274
Benefits of Enclosures as Compared with the Old Common Fields
275
The Decay of the Yeomanry
276
Causes of the Decay of the Yeomanry
278
The Rise in Rent
279
The Fall in Wages
280
328
283
CHAPTER XVIII
284
The Beginnings of the Struggle with Spain
285
Cromwells Commercial Wars and the Navigation Acts
286
The Wars of William III and of Anne
288
English Colonies
290
Further Wars with France and Spain
291
The Struggle for India
293
The Conquest of Canada
295
Survey of Commercial Progress during these Wars
296
Commercial Events of the Seventeenth Century Bankingthe Bank of England National Debt Restoration of the Currency
299
Other Important Commercial Events Darien Scheme Union of England and Scotland Methuen Treaty Speculation and the South Sea Bubble
301
CHAPTER XIX
305
Other Influences Favourable to England The Huguenot
307
Distribution of the Cloth Trade
308
Coal Mines
310
Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
311
The Iron Trade
312
Pottery
314
Other Mining Industries
315
The Close of the Period of Manual Industries
316
PERIOD V
319
CHAPTER XX
321
The Coming of the Capitalists
324
The Class of Small Manufacturers
326
The Condition of the Manufacturing Population
327
408
328
1
336
202
341
203
343
The Revolution in Manufactures and the Factories
347
205
348
The Growth of Population and the Development of the Northern Districts
349
206
352
207
354
The Nations Wealth and its Wars 349 352 354
356
209
358
The Mercantile Theory
359
211
361
English Policy towards the Colonies
364
213
367
Outbreak of
368
215
370
218
372
Politics among the Working Classes
376
Political Results of the Industrial Revolution 358 359 361 364 367 368 370 372 376
378
CHAPTER XV
381
Machinery and Hand Labour
383
Loss of Rural Life and of ByeIndustries
385
Contemporary Evidence of the New Order of Things
387
Foreign Trade in the Fifteenth Century 136 The Venetian Fleet 137 The Hanseatic Leagues Station in London 223
388
224
391
225
392
Richard Oastler
394
227
395
Ten Hours Day and Mr Sadler
397
The Evidence of Facts
398
English Slavery
400
The Various Factory Acts
403
How these Acts were Passed
404
THE RISE AND DEPRESSION OF MODERN AGRICULTURE
427
The Agricultural Revolution
430
The Stimulus caused by the Bounties
433
Agriculture under Protection
435
Improvements in Agriculture
436
The Depression in Modern Agriculture
439
The Labourer and the Land
445
The Condition of the Labourer
447
The Present Condition of British Agriculturc 427 430 433 435 436
450
CHAPTER XXVI
453
State of Trade in 1820
455
The Beginnings of Free Trade
456
Revolution in the Means of Transit
458
Modern Developments
459
Our Colonies
461
England and other Nations Wars
463
Present Difficulties Commercial Crises
464
Commercial Crises since 1865
466
The Recent Depression in Trade
467
The Present Mercantile System Foreign Markets
469
Overproduction and Wages
470
The Power of Labour Trades Unions and Cooperation Labour
471
The Necessity of Studying Economic Factors in History
473
388
475
391
476
393
477
397
478

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