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ly distinguished, not only the army under his immediate command, but the different detachments and separate armies, through the course of the war; from their good sense and prudence, he anticipates the happiest consequences, and while he congratulates them on the glorious occasion which renders their services in the field no longer necessary, he wishes to express the strong obligations he feels himself under, for the assistance he has received from every class, and in every instance. He presents his tlianks, in the most serious and affectionate manner, to the general officers, as well for their council, on many interesting occasions, as for their ardour in promoting the success of the plans he had adopted; to the commandants of regiments and corps, and to the other oflicers, for their great zeal and attention in carrying his orders promptly into execution; to the staff, for their alacrity and exactness in performing the duties of their several departments; and to the non-commissioned officers and soldiers, for their extraordinary patience in suffering, as well as their invincible fortitude in action; to the various branches of the army, the general takes this last and solemn opportunity of professing his inviolable attachment and friendship. He wishes more than bare professions were in his power, that he was really able to be useful to them all in future life. He flatters himself, however, they wil} do him the justice to believe, that whatever could, with propriety, be attempted by him, has been done. And being now to conclude these, his last public orders, to take his ultimate leave, in a short time, of the military character, and to bid a final adieu to the armies he has so long had the honour to command, he can only again offer, in their behalf, his recommendations to their grateful country, and his prayers to the God of armies. May ample justice be done them here, and may the choicest of Heaven's fayours, both here and hereafter, attend those, why, under the Divine auspices, have secured innumerable blessings for others. With these wishes, and this benediction, the commander in chief is about to retire from service. The curtain of separation will soon be drawn, and the military scene, to him,will be closed forever..
General Washington to the President of Congress o
resigning his commission December 23, 1783. MR. PRESIDENT-;
The great events on which my resignation depended, having at length taken place, I have now the honour of offering my sincere congratulations to congress, and of presenting myself before them to surrender into their hands the trust committed to me, and to ciaim the inauigence of retiring from the service of my country.
Happy in the confirmation of our independence and sovereignty, and pleased with the opportunity afforded the United States of becoming a respectable nation, I resign with satisfaction the appointment I accepted with diffidence; a diffidence in my abilities to accomplish so arduous a task, which however, was superceded by a confidenoe in the rectitude of our cause, the support of the supreme power of the union, and the patronage of Heaven.
The successful termination of the war, has verified the most sanguine expectations; and my grati- ; tude for the interposition of Providence, and the assistance I have received from my countrymen, increases with every review of the momentous contest.
While I repeat my obligations to the army in general, I should do injustice to my own feelings not to acknowledge in this place, the peculiar services and distinguished merits of the persons who have been attached to my person during the war. It was impossible the choice of confidential officers to compose my family could have been more fortunate. Permit me, sir, to recommend in particular, those who have continued in the service to the present moment, as worthy of the favourable notice and patronage of congress.in
I consider it as an indispensable duty to close this last solemn act of my official life, by commending the interests of our dearest country to the protection of Almighty God, and those who have the superintendence of them to his holy keeping.
Having now finished the work assigned me, I retire from the great theatre of action; and, bidding an affectionate farewell to this. august body, under whose orders I have long acted, I here offer my commission, and take my leave of all the employ. ments of public life.
The Answer of General Mifflin, the President of
· SIRThe United States in congress assembled, receive with emotions too affecting for utterance, the solemn resignation of the authorities under which you have led their troops with success, through a perilous and doubtful war. :*
Called upon by your country to defend its invaded rights, you accepted the sacred charge before it had formed alliances, and whilst it was without friends or a government to support you.
You have conducted the great military contest with wisdom and fortitude, invariably regarding
the rights of the civil power through all disasters and changes: you have, by the love and confidence of your fellow citizens, enabled them to display their martial genius, and transmit their fame to posterity; you have persevered, till these United States, aided by a magnanimous king and nation, have been enabled, under a just Providence, to close the war in safety, freedom, and independence; on which happy event we sincerely join you in congratulations.
Having defended the standard of liberty in this new, world; having taught a lesson useful to those · who inflict, and to those who feel, oppression, you
retire from the great theatre of action, with the blessing of your fellow citizens; but the glory of your virtues will not terminate with your military command; it will continue to animate remotest ages. We feel, with yon, our obligations to the army in general, and will particularly charge our. selves with the interest of those confidential offi. cers, who have attended your person to this affecting moment.
We join you in commending the interests of our dearest country to the protection of Almighty God, beseeching Him to dispose the hearts and minds of its citizens, to improve the opportunity afforded them, of becoming a happy and repectable nation; and for you, we address to Him our earnest prayers, that a life so beloved may be fostered with all His care: That your days may be happy, as they have been illustrious, and that He will finally give you that reward which the world cannot give.
ADAMS, SAMUEL, one of the most distinguished patriots of the American revolution, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on the 22d of September, 1722. His ancestors were among the first settlers in New England. His parents were highly respectable. His father was, for many years, a representative for the town of Boston, in the Massathusetts house of Assembly, in which he was annually elected till his death... A
Samuel Adams received the rudiments of a liberal education at the grammar school under the care of Mr. Lovell, where he was remarkably attentive to his studies. His conduct was similar while he was at college, and during the whole term he had to pay but one fine, and this was for not attending morning prayers, in consequence of having overslept himself. By a close and steady application, he made considerable proficiency in classical learning, logic, and natural philosophy ; but as he was designed for the ministry, a profession to which he seems to have been much inclined, his studies were particularly directed to systematic di. vinity. Why Mr. Adams did not assume the clerical character, so congenial to his views and habits does not appear. In 1740, and 1743, the respective degrees of bachelor and master of arts were conferred upon him. On the latter occasion, he proposed the following question for discussion, to whether it be lawful to resist the supreme magistrate, if the commonwealth cannot otherwise be preserved?” He maintained the affirmative of this proposition, and thus evinced, at this period of his life, his attachment to the liberties of the people. While he was a student, his father allowed him a regular stipend. Of this, he saved a sufficient sum, to publish, at his own expense, a pamphlet, called “ Englishmen's Rights."
He was put an apprentice to the late Thomas Cushing, an eminent merchant. For this profes