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want of repose, induced him to lead his army to & place of security on the road to Morristown. Cornwallis in the morning broke up his camp, and alarmed for his stores at Brunswick, urged the pursuit. Thus the military genius of the American commander, under the blessing of divine Providence, rescued Philadelphia from the threatened danger, obliged the enemy, which had overspread New Jersey, to return to the neighborhood of New-York, and revived the desponding spirit of his country. Having accomplished these objects, he retired to Morristown, where he caused his whole army to be inoculated with the small pox, and thus was freed from the apprehension of a calamity, which might impede his operations during the next campaign.
On tlie last of May, he removed his army to Middebrook, about ten miles from Brunswick, where he fortified himself very strongly. An ineffectual attempt was made by sir William Howe to draw hin' from his position by marching towards Philadopbia: but after Howe's return to New York, he moved towards the Hudson in order to defend the passes in the mountains, in the expectation that a junction with Burgoyne, who was then upon the lakes, would be attempted. After the British general sailed from New York and entered the Chesapeake in August, general Washington marched in mediately for the defence of Philadelphia. On the 11th of September he was defeated at Brandywine, with the loss of nine hundred in killed and wounded. A few days afterwards, as he was pursued, he turned upon the enemy, determined upon another engagement; but a heavy rain so damaged the arms and ammunition, that he was under the absolute necessity of again retreating. Philadelphia was entered by Cornwallis on the 26th of Septen her. On the 4th of October, the American commander made a well planned attack upon the
British camp at Germantown; but in consequence of the darkness of the morning, and the imperfect discipline of his troops, it terminated in the loss of 1200 men in killed, wounded and prisoners. In December he went into winter quarters at Valley Forge, on the west side of the Schuylkill, between twenty and thirty miles from Philadelphia. Here his army was in the greatest distress for want of provisions, and he was reduced to the necessity of sending out parties to seize what they could find. About the same time a combination was formed to remove the commander in chief, and to appoint in his place general Gates, whose successes of late had given him a high reputation. But the name of Washington was too dear to the great body of Americans to admit of such a change. Notwithstanding the discordant materials, of which his army was composed, there was something in his character, which enabled him to attach both his officers and soldiers so strongly to him, that no distress could weaken their affection, nor impair the veneration, in which he was generally held. Without this attachment to him the army must have been dissolved. General Conway, who was · concerned in this faction, being wounded in a duel
with general Cadwalader, and thinking his wound mortal, wrote to general Washington, “you are, in my eyes, the great and good man.” On the 1st of February, 1778, there were about four thousand men in camp unfit for duty for want of clothes. Of these scarcely a man had a pair of shoes. The hospitals also were filled with the sick. At this time the enemy, if they had marched out of their winter quarters, would easily hare dispersed the American army. The apprehension of the approach of a French fieet, inducing the British to concentrate their forces, when they evacuated Philadelphia on the 17th of June, and marched towards New-York, general Washington followed them. Contrary to
the advice of a council, he engaged in the battle of Monmouth, on the 28th, the result of which made an impression favourable to the cause of America. He slept in his cloak on the field of battle, intending to renew the attack the next morning, but at midnight the British marched off in such silence, as not to be discovered. Their loss in killed was about three hundred, and that of the Americans sixty nine.
As the campaign now closed in the middle states, the American army went into winter quarters in the neighborhood of the bighlands upon the Hudson. Thus after the vicissitudes of two years both armies were brought back to the point, from which they set out. During the year 1779, general Washington remained in the neighborhood of New York. In January, 1780, in a winter memorable for its severity, his utmost exertions were necessary to save the army from dissolution. The soldiers in general submitted with heroic patience to the want of provisions and clothes. At one time they eat every kind of horse food but hay. Their sufferings at length were so great, that in March two of the Connecticut regiments mutinied, but the mutiny was suppressed and the ringleaders secured. In September the treachery of Arnold was detected. In the winter of 1781, such were again the privations of the army, that a part of the Pennsylvania line revolted, and marched home. Such however was still their patriotism, that they delivered some British emissaries to general Wayne, who hanged them as spies. Committing the defence of the posts on the Hudson to general Heath, general Washington in August marched with count Rochambeau for the Chesapeake, to co-operate with the French fleet there. The siege of Yorktown commenced on the 28th of September, and on the 19th of October he reduced Cornwallis to the necessity of surrendering with upwards of seven thousand men, to the combined armies of America and France. The day after the capitulation he ordered, that those, who were under arrest, should be pardoned, and that divine service in acknowledgment of the interposition of Providence should be performed in all the brigades and divisions. This event filled America with joy and was the means of terminating the war.
Few events of importance took place in 1782. On the 25th November, 1783, New York was evacuated by the British, and he entered it accompanied by governor Clinton and many respectable citi. zens. On the 19th of April a cessation of hostilities wảs proclaimed. On the 4th of December, he took his farewell of his brave comrades in arms. At noon the principal officers of the army assembled at Frances' tavern, and their beloved commander soon entered the room. His emotions were too strong to be concealed. Filling a glass with wine, he turned to them and said “ with a heart full of love and gratitude, I now take leave of you; I most devoutly wish that your latter days may be as prosperous and happy us your former ones have been glorious and honourable." Having drank, he added, “ I cannot come to each of you to take my leave, but shall be obliged to you if each of you will come and take me by the hand." General Knox, being nearest, turned to him. Incapable of utterance, general Washington grasped his hand, and embraced him. In the most affectionate manner ho teok his leave of each succeeding officer. In every eye was the tear of dignified sensibility, and not a word was articulated to interrupt the silence and tenderness of the scene. Ye men, who delight in blood, slaves of ambition! When your work of carpage was finished, could you thus part with your
companions in crime? Leaving the room, general - Washington passed through the corps of light in. Tantry and walked to Whitehall, where a barge
waited to carry him to Powles' Hook. The whale company followed in mute procession with dejected countenances. When he entered the barge he turned to them, and waving his hat bade them a silent adieu, receiving from them the same last affectionate compliment. On the 23d of December he resigned his commission to congress, then assembled at Annapolis. Here the expressions of the gratitude of his countrymen in affectionate addresses poured in upon him, and he received every testimony of respect and veneration.
In 1787, he was persuaded to take a seat in the convention which formed the present constitution of the United States. In 1789, he was unanimous-ly elected president of the United States. In April he left Mount Vernon to proceed to New York, and to enter on the duties of his office. He every. where received testimonies of respect and love. On the 13th of April he arrived at New York, and ? he was inaugurated first president of the United States. At the close of his first term of four years, he prepared a valedictory address to the American people, anxious to return again to the scenes of domestic life; but the earnest entreaties of his friends, and the peculiar situation of his country, induced him to be a candidate for a second election. At the expiration of his second term, he determined irrevocably to withdraw to the shades of private life. He published in Sep. tember, 1796, his farewell address to the people of the United States, which ought to be engraven upon the hearts of his countrymen.
He then retired to Mount Vernon, giving to the world an example, most humiliating to its emperors and kings; the example of a man, voluntarily disrobing himself of the highest authority, and returning to private life, with a character, having upon it no stain of ambition, of covetousness, of profusion, of luxury, of oppression, or of injuscice.