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gress, 583.

Free and slave, populations of, com- ecutive and legislature, 611. Protec-
pared, 420. Relation of, to Confed- tion of, against domestic violence,
eration, 427. Whether Coustitution 613. Equality of, in Senate, forever
could be ratified by governments of, guaranteed by Constitution, 616. Re-
428. Voting by, history of practice fusal of, to comply with requisitions
of, 460. Equal representation of, in of Congress, 676. See New States.
Senate, just, 464. Union desired by, State Constitutions, formation of, 80, 82.
from different motives, 509. Com- State Governments, how formed, 25.
mercial legislation of, under Confed- State Sovereignty, early assertiou of,
eration, various, 514. Revenue and 63.
paper-money systems of, under Con- Stop Law8. See Debts.
federation, varions, 514. Rights guar- STORY, JOSEPH, views of, respecting
anteed to, by Constitution, 517. Pow- president's power to adjourn Con-
er of, over slave-trade, anterior to
Constitution,517. Ports of any one of, Suffrage, Rule of, Governor Randolph's
not to be preferred to those of another, resolution respecting, 335. Change
522. Compacts between, outside of in, opposed by Delaware, 335. In
Articles of Confederation, 537. New, Continental Congress, 339. In Con-
temporary governments for, Madi- federation, 339. In Senate, 343. For
son's motion respecting, 540. Admis- House of Representatives, great de-
sion of, number of votes requisite for, bate on, 398. According to Virginia
540; by dismemberment of state, 540;

plan, 405.

Different in different
by junction, 541; difference in cases states, 425, 441. Not universal in
of, 543; provisious for, general, 544. any state, 612.
Restraints on political power of, 547. SULLIVAN, General, president of New
Issuing of bills of credit prohibited Hampshire convention, 656.
to, 548. Laying of duties and im- SULLIVAN, JAMES, governor of Massa-
posts by, 550. Cannot lay duty on chusetts, 656.
tonnage, 552. Keeping of troops or Superintendent of the Finances appointed,

ips of war 552. Agreements 116. See ROBERT MORRIS.
by, with another state or foreign Supremacy of United States, meaning

When may engage in and scope of, 556, 557. Of states, ex-
war, 552. Governments of, how far tent of, 556, 557. Of Constitution, as
supreme, 557.

May be multiplied affecting national growtlı, 559.
indefinitely under Constitution, 560. Supreme Court, tenure of office of, 356.
Levying war against, not treason Judges of, not removable by address,
against United States, 561. Certain 357; compensation of, 357; by whom
controversies between, proposed to appointed, 357. Judges of, proposed
be tried by Senate, 586. Constitu- appointment of, by Senate, 357, 457,
tional restrictions on, 591. Laws of, 462, 577. Appointment of, proposals
constitutionality of, how determined, concerning, 465. Sole interpreters of
595. Courts of, not likely to admin- Constitution, 558. Judges of, to be
ister justice to foreigners, etc., 597. nominated by president, 581 ; tenore
Different, controversies between citi- of office and salaries of, 585. One,
zens of, 597 ; grants of lands by, juris- under Constitution, 585. Original and
diction of cases respecting, 599. One appellate jurisdiction of, 586. Ap-
of a party to a suit, jurisdiction in pellate jurisdiction of, ambiguity
cases of, 599. Foreign, jurisdiction in concerning, 588. Doubts about con-
cases of, 599. Full faith given to acts, ferring power upon, to declare law
etc., of, 601. Have exclusive regula- unconstitutional, 592.
tion of domestic institutions, 603. May

exclude foreigners, 606. Republican
government guaranteed to, object of, TALLEYRAND, Prince, opinion of, re-
610. Domestic violence in, applica- specting Hamilton, 276.
tion to general government in case Taxation, right of, denied to Parlia-
of, 610. Competency of, to abolish ment, 14. How distinguished from
constitutions, 611.

Must have ex- regulation of trade, 14. Inseparable

power, 552.

on, 548.

from representation, 14, 413. Diffi- dent's power to pardon, different
culty of applying combined rule of views respecting, 579.
wealth and numbers to, 414. Report Treasury Department, first established,
of committee of detail respecting, 22.
501. By general government, Mason's Treaty of Alliance with France, 104.

objections to, 666. See Colonies. Treaty of amity and commerce with
Taxes, odious to the people of United Frauce, Sweden, and the Netherlands,

States, 120. Power of Congress to 188. Negotiations for, with the Neth-
collect, 518.

erlands, 189; with Sweden, 190.
Tender, state laws respecting, restraint Treaty of Peace signed and ratified, 104,

125, 158, 160. Objects secured by, 168.
Tender Law of Massachusetts, 181. See How violated by certain states, 171,

173. Southern boundary of the United
Territory, power of Congress over, un- States fixed by, 210. Accompanied by

der the Confederation, 97. Authority a secret article, 210.
of Congress over, under Constitution, Treaty Power under the Confederation,
532; purpose of provision respecting, 219.
542; diverse views concerning, 544. Treaties, supreme law of land, 422, 553,
See Western Territory and Northwest- 554. Proposition that Senate should
ern Territory.

make, 457. Negotiation of, by numer-
Territorial Governments, power to frame, ous body, embarrassing, 463. Making
in Ordinance of 1787, 535.

of, proposals concerning, 465. Pro-
Theory, danger of adhering too firmly to, vision respecting, origin of, 468; how

modified, 579. Of peace, question re-
THOMPSON, CHARLES, secretary of first specting, 581. Rule of Confederation
Continental Congress, 8.

respecting, 581. May be proposed by
TICKNOR, GEORGE, cited for a saying of Senate, 581. Jurisdiction over cases

Jefferson concerning the Revolution- arising under, 589. Cases arising un-
ary Congress, 44 ; for a saying of Tal- der, how settled, 596. Power to
legrand about Hamilton, 276.

make, under Confederation, 596.
Tonnage, duty on, states probibited to Trial by Jury, of the vicinage, one of

lay, 551 ; proposed exception respect- the rights of the colonies, 14. Under
ing, 552.

Constitution, 586. Provision for, in
Tories, how dealt with by Continental civil cases, not in Constitution orig-

Congress, 23; in New Hampshire, 45. ivally, 588; supplied by amendment,
Washington's opinion respecting, 45. 588. Guarantee of, required by many
Movements of, in the neighborhood states, 589. For crimes, provisions re-
of New York, 45; how met by Washi- specting, 590. Omission to secure, a
ington, 46, 48. Steps taken by Con- strong argument with some against
gress to disarm, 47. Misunderstand- Constitution, 628.
ing respecting, between Washington TUCKER, GEORGE, cited about Madison,
and Congress, 49. Subject referred 282.
to local authorities, 49. Relations of TYLER, JOHN, opposed to Constitution,
persons and property of, to the Union, 633.

Trade, inter-colonial, before the Revo-

Intion, 5. Regulation of, by Parlia- Union, origin of, 1. Unknown to the
ment, distinguished from taxation, 14. colonial condition, 4. Proposal of, in
With colonies prohibited by Parlia- 1754, 4. Power to form, a result of
ment, December, 1775, 24. See Colo- the Revolution, 5. Proposed in 1773,
nies, Commerce, Continental Congress, 6. Virgivia recommends, 7, 321. As
and Parliament.

established by the Confederation, 98.
Treason, definition of, in Constitution, Saved by the proposal of the revenue

origin and purpose of, 561. Nature scheme, 126. Of the people, idea of,
of evidence of, 562. Punishment of, 252. Change in character of, 315.
to be declared by Congress, 562 ; how Preservation of, essential to indepen-
limited by Constitution, 562. Presi- dence of states, 319. Necessarily re-
publican, 320. Purposes of, at first Third, 485. History of, in Constitu-
indefinite, 321. Previous history of, tional Convention, 486. Meaning of
important, 321. “Exigencies of," 321; "two thirds” in provisions respect-
how only to be provided for, 325. Ob- ing, 486. Power of, proposed to be
jects of, embraced in two classes, 321 ; given to Couucil of Revision, 595.
how ascertained, 321 ; different views Vice-President, ex-officio president of
respecting, 338. Proposed power iv, Sevate, 484. Has only casting vote
to protect and uphold governments of in Sevate, 484, 568. Reasons for har.
states, 361. Dissolution of, Madison's ing, 567. Ultimate election of, by Sen-
views respecting, 399; Hamilton's ate, 568, 571. When to act as presi-
views respecting, 399; at one time dent, 568, 571. Changes in appoint-
probable, 402. General interests of, ment of, 571. Qualifications for, 571.
power to legislate for, 422. Success Virginia, a provincial government, 2.
of, to what attributable, 558. Sover- Advises a Continental Congress, 7.
eignty of, and of states, no conflict Elects delegates, 7. Constitution of,
between, 558. Capacity of, for ter- formed, 83. Effect of claim of, to
ritorial expansion, cause of, 559. western lands, 91. Cedes the north-
Theory of, respecting domestic insti- western territory, 94, 199. Repeals
tutions of states, 603.

her act granting imposts, 117. Stop-
" United Colonies," term of, first adopted, law of, 171. Action of, concerning

western posts, 174. Opposes the sur-
United States of America, title of, adopt- render of the Mississippi, 212. Action
ed, 36, 98.

of, leading to a general commercial
United States, character of, at stake, convention, 230, 231. Appoints and

120. Laws and treaties of, supreme instructs delegates to the Convention,
law of states, 422,554. Guarantee by, 248. Measures of, respecting com-
of state institutions, 426. Became

merce, 229, 284. First to declare for
proprietor of crown lands, 540. Title Union, 321. Plan of government pro-
of, to vacant lands, 543. Officer of, posed by, 368; Hamilton's doubts re-
not to acce

preseut, etc., from for- specting, 374; inconsistency in, 376,
eign king, etc., 546. Resolutious re- 377; reported to Convention, 381;
specting supremacy of government vote on, 381; chasm in, 397. Opposed
of, 553, 554. Supremacy of, meanivg to election of senators by state legis-
and scope of, 555. Government of, latures, 398; to equality of suffrage
unlike any other, 557; determines in Honse of Representatives, 400; to
its own powers, 557; safeguard of, equality of states in Senate, 403, 407,
558; success of, to what attributable, 418, 453. Had ten ropresentatives in
558; Constitution, no impediment to first House, 408. In favor of census
growth of, 560.

Treason against, of free inhabitauts, 410; of esecu-
definition of, 561. Importance of tive holding office during “good be-
preserving federal character of gov- havior," 424. Vote of, respecting
ernment of, 566. Relation of govern- citizenship as qualification for office,
ment to citizens of, 591. A party to 448; money bills, 453, 454. Opposed
a suit, jurisdiction of cases of, 599. to each state having one vote in Seu-

ate, 460; to impeachments being

tried by Senate, 482 ; to taxing ex-
Valuation. See Land and Contribution. ports, 505. Vote of, respecting slave-
Vermont, provision for admission of, trade, 511. Cession by, in 1784, 534.

543, 544. Within asserted limits of Strong opposition to Constitution in,
New York, 543.

632. Statesmen of, 632, 633. Charac-
Vessels, entry and clearance of, 522. ter of people of, 632. Great influence
Payment of duties by, 522.

of Washington in, 632. Effect of ac-
Teto, an essential power, 349. Bill may tion of New Hampshire on, 636. Con-

be passed notwithstanding, 484. Of vention of, meets at Richmond, 661,
president qualified, 485. Of king of 662; parties in, nearly balanced, 636,
England absolute, 485; how signi- 648, 673; anxiety respecting action of,
fied, 485; in disuse since William the 657, 661; eminence of members of,

662; responsibility resting on, 662;
discussion on Constitution in, 664.
Had ratified Constitution before news
from New Hampshire, 680. Conven-
tion of, final propositions of friends of
Constitution in, 681. Ratification of
Constitution by, how fiually effected,
681. Form of amendinents and Bill
of Rights proposed by, 682. Address
prepared by opponents of Constitu-
tion in, 682. Adoption of Constitui-

tion by, rejoicing at, 683.
Virginia and Maryland, efforts of, to

regulate the trade of the Potomac and

the Chesapeake, 230.
Virginia Reservation, note on, 199.
Voters, qualifications of, in different
states, 441.

War, power to declare, proposed to be

given to two branches of Congress,
463. To be declared by Congress,
527, 578. When states may engage
in, 552. Ships of, not to be kept by
states in time of peace, 552. And
peace, power of president to make,
577. To be prosecuted by president,

WASHINGTON, appointed and commis-

sioned commander-in-chief, 21. Ar-
rives at Cambridge, 21. Mode of his
appointment as commander-in-chief,
27. Previous history and character
of, 27, 29. Embarrassments of, in the
early part of the war, 38. Opinions
and actions of, respecting Tories, 45.
Urges Congress to establish prize
court, 52. On the necessity for a
standing army, 63. Leaves Boston
for New York, 63. Compelled to aban-
don New York, 63. Retreats through
New Jersey, 67, 68. Complains of his
situation, 67. Asks for extraordinary
powers, 69. Dictatorial powers con-
ferred on, 69; apology for, 70. Proc-
lamation by, at Morristown, in 1777,
73, 74. Requires oath of allegiance
to United States, 74. Powers con-
ferred on, in 1776, jealousy respect-
ing, 73, 74. Opinion of, respecting an
oath of allegiance, 75. Third effort
of, to raise a new army, 76. Embar-
rassments of, 76. Thwarted by the
local authorities, 77. Adheres to a
plan for the campaign, 77. Anxious
about the falling off of Congress, 88.

Letters of, to the states, in 1782, 105;
to the president of Congress, 107, 109.
Situation of, 106. Warns Congress
respecting the officers, 112. Painful
position of, 112. Proceedings of,
upon the Newburgh Addresses, 113.
On the waut of a revenue power, 122.
Relations of, to the country during
the war, 135. Opinions of, at the
close of the war, 135. Address of, to
the states, ou resiguing, 135. On a
peace establishment, 147, 148. Re-
signs as commander-in-chief, 158.
Address to, 159. On the insurrection
in Massachusetts, 184.

Plans com-
munications with Western settle-
ments, 209. Opinions of, respecting
the navigation of the Mississippi, 209,
212. Opinions of, in 1785, on the state
of the country, 224. Connection of,
with the plan of a general Conven-
tion, 230, 285. Pressed to attend the
general Convention, 246, 268. On the
idea of a monarchical government for
the United States, 250. At Mount
Vernon, 265. Views of, on public af-
fairs, 266. Declines to attend the
general Convention, 269; reconsiders
and attends, 270. Reception of, at
Philadelphia, 270. Placed in the
chair of the Convention, 270. Opin-
ions of, 270. Character of, as a states-
man, 272. Meets the Alexandria com-
missioners at Mount Vernon, 230, 285.
Failure of civil power to sustain, 322.
Difficulty experienced by, as presi-
dent, ir preserving neutrality and
excluding foreign influence, 362. In
Couvention, confined himself to du-
ties of presidivg officer, 451. Sugges-
tion of, respecting ratio of representa-
tion in Congress, adopted, 451. In
favor of tax on exports, 497. Early
nominated for president, 565. Re-
ceived no pay as commander-in-chief,
573. Practice of, respecting cabinet,
576. Leading man in Constitutional
Convention, 615. Tradition respect-
ing worils of, before signivg Consti-
tution, 622.

Views of, respectivg
consequences of rejection of Consti-
tution, 622. Unbounded confidence
of people in, 628. Great influence of,
in Virginia, 632. Copies of Constitu-
tion sent by, with expression of opiu-
ion, 635. Opinion of, respecting ac-
tion of Maryland on Constitution,




657. Not a member of Virginia con- Further legislation respecting, and
vention, 662. Justifies course of Fed- further trusts declared, 199. Admis-

eralists in New York convention, 688. sion of states from, 200. Further
Washington, City of, an object of affec- cessions of, urged, 201. Proposition

tion and pride, 492. See Seat of Gov- by Rufus King to exclude slavery

from, 201. Cession of, by Massachu-
WEBSTER, DANIEL, compared with Ham- setts, 201; by Connecticut, 202. Or-
ilton, 281.

dinance for disposing of lands in, 202.
WEBSTER, Noah, recommends a Cessions of, by Virginia, modified,
government, 236.

202; by South Carolina, 202; by
WEBSTER, PELATIAH, recommends North Carolina, 202; by Georgia, 202.
general Convention, 236.

See Northwestern Territory.
Weights and Measures, standard of, fixed West Indies, trade with, 514.
by Congress, 524.

su8, 410.

Williamsburg, convention at, 7.
Jest Florida, secret article respecting, WILLIAMSON, Hugo, viers of, respect-
in the Treaty. of Peace, 210.

ing rule of suffrage for House of Rep-
West Point, academy at, suggested, 147. resentatives, 398; money bills, 454.
Western Lands, claims of the states to, Proposition of, for a periodical cen-

90. Conflicting interests of the states
concerning, 91. Surrender of claim Wilson, JAMES, birth and career of,
to, by New York, 92. Cessions of, 308. Sent to the Constitutional Con-
urged by Congress in 1780, 92. Mo- vention, 308. Services of, 309. Jade
tives of the cessions of, 92, 93, 94. a justice of the Supreme Conrt of the
Surrender of claim to, by Virginia, United States, 309. His defeuce of
94. Become the bond of the Union, the Constitution, 309. Death of, 310.
97. Power of Congress over, under In favor of larger House of Represen-
the Confederation, 97.

tatives, 451; tax on exports, 497. One
Western Posts. See Military Posts.

of the ablest framers of the Constitu-
Western Settlements, position of, after tion, 642. Position and arguments

the peace, 208. Connection of, with of, in Pennsylvania convention, 643.
the Atlantic coast, 209. Alarm of, Views of, respecting Bill of Rights,
about the Mississippi, 214.

Western States, prospective character of, WolcoTT, OLIVER, infinence of, in Con-
508. Vast resources of, 514.

necticut convention, 648.
Western Territory, controversy respect-

ing, before the adoption of Articles
of Confederation, 196. Cessions of, Yeas and Nays, one fifth of members
invited, 197; Congress declares cer- present in either House of Congress
tain trusts respecting, 197. States to may require, 483. To be taken on
be formed in, 197. Cession of, by passing bill over veto, 484.
New York, 197 ; by Virginia, 199. Yorktown, Revolutionary Congress as-
Power of Congress to deal with, 198. sembles at, 79.


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