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my first wish was to pay my respects to of L.H.D. conferred on him by Lafayette my old teacher, whose lectures had brought College is a good example of his kindly me to Oxford, Dr. Stubbs, the sometime correspondence. The matter referred to Regius Professor of Modern History, then in the first sentence was a delay which Bishop of Oxford. With a merry twinkle had somehow occurred in the receipt of in his eye, referring to the Bishop's well- the diploma : known deficiencies in Oriental scholarship, he said: “It is always a great de

7 Norham Gardens, Oxford, 31 March, '94. light to me to take people to call upon a

Dear Mr. Warfield: I have put oft writing

to you because I was under the impression bishop of the great Church of England that you had mentioned an official notification who cannot read his Bible.”

as coming to me to contirm the honor which That he met with wide recognition as a your illustrious College has conferred on me man and a scholar was the natural result

on the occasion of my fifty years' Doctorate. I of his ability and his temperament.

was truly gratified to receive this recognition

He of my labors from one of the American colresponded to every honest advance, and leges, particularly as I fel: that it was owing frankly showed the pleasure he took in to your initiation that this compliment had every honor conferred upon him and in been paid to me. Though I have many friends

in America, your College is the only one that every distinction given. Few learned men

has taken any notice of my jubilee. Please to have received so many degrees from col- accept my best thanks for yourself, and please leges and universities, so many honors to convey the same to your colleagues, partic. from learned societies, and so many deco- ularly to Professor March, and to all who

have approved of your proposal. rations from sovereigns. At the time of

I am always glad when I can welcome stuhis jubilee he made a record of these dis- dents from America in our old Oxford, and I tinctions that was truly amazing. It was

feel particularly gratified when I hear them my good fortune to be able to do some

speak of Oxford as their old University. So

it is and I hope it always will be. thing toward honoring him at this time,

Believe me yours very truly and gratefully, and his letter acknowledging the degree

F. MAX MÜLLER.

The Paris Exposition: Historical Aspects

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By William Elliot Griffis
ID storms she wrestles, nor destruction and the fertilizing principles

ever sinks," is our free trans- of the new growth associated with the

lation of the motto of the city Revolution. Here glow and pale the fig. of Paris—" Luctuat nec mergitur.With ures of the great and the little Napoleon. calamities frequent enough to overwhelm To-day, as the century and the thirtieth her again and again, Paris still keeps year of the Republic end, we wonder what afloat, always going ahead. From Cæsar's will come next. Here we behold a mighty time, “ when Labienus left for Lutetia, the people, supreme before the world in art fortress of the Parisii, with four legions," and taste—so much so, indeed, that beside until our own day, the city on the Seine her great garden of culture and her galhas been one of the world's famous places. leries of painting every other collection of Hither in 1900 all roads lead.

canvas, marble, or bronze seems but an To Paris point finger-boards of history annex. Verily, the French nation is great also. Here was first raised, as early as in many, perhaps in most, things, except the fifth century, that red, white, and blue religion and self-government. Possibly in flag (colors often copied by other peoples) these, too, France will yet surprise the which ushered in the new ages of the world. Franks, of feudalism, and of Gothic archi- I saw Paris first in the gold and glory tecture; and here for centuries have been of the Third, even while I enjoyed the the seat and inspiration of art. Here, in centennial celebration in honor of the the long perspective of the centuries, First, Napoleon. I saw its gilded but appear the struggles between king and monotonous architecture again after the nobles and the splendors of monarchy. desolation wrought by the Commune, and Out of this crater issued both the volcanic when the unhealed war-scars made by

.

Prussian cannon were not yet covered up. knowledge, called sorcery or miracles, to Nor had Nature yet “healed and recon- realities. ciled to herself by the sweet oblivion of The gem of the Exposition was the flowers" the battlefields of 1870. In bridge of Alexander III., which has no 1900, even though the whole British nation peer in all the world for beauty and glory. seemed to have boycotted the Exposition, As one stood on it midway over the Seine I, with thousands of fellow-Americans, re- one could see how the French genius joiced in her honors paid to Paris of being flowers in art. Here are people that still the unchallenged center of taste and love beauty both for its own sake and art, and again the hostess, for the third delight also in the application of it to the time, of the nations. Whatever defects, common things of life. On this bridge, faults, of vulnerability to criticism, there also, one ceases to wonder why the Pope may be in the Exposition, here is the high- of Rome, once sovereign ruler of the water mark of civilization. Glad to see world (as known to Europeans), took or again the sign of the ship afloat, I greeted inherited (by appropriation) as his highest in it the symbol of humanity, of the world's title Pontifex Maximus—the greatest of history.

bridge builders. Entranced, we gazed on Right in the heart of the great city and the glory of arch and column, of orb and on both sides of the Seine rose the splen- pinion, of bold and splendid figures of did edifices which were themselves the man, bird, and beast, winged, helmed, or indexes of varied civilization. In the air, in the apparent glory of overflowing life. on the water, and under the earth were The perfection of the art almost made shown the varied deposit of man's thought one forget that here were stone and steel and the results of his toil during the long and gold, rather than living eagle or man, life of the race on earth. The raw mate- a reality resting on piers and not a dream rials, gathered together and effectively floating in air, a bow of masonry and not arranged in appropriate storehouses, re- of prismatics. vealed the riches of the earth and its Yet even here I could not forget the treasures. These show the world as man first twisters of strands for the suspension finds it. Art, architecture, literature, in- bridge, the primitive makers of arch or ventions and appliances, show the world cantilever. In this first triumph of the as man has made it. The various gather- art of the pontifex, one can look through ings held in the Palais des Congrès made a long perspective of the work of the men grand interpretations of the material reali- who made highways over gorge and river. ties. Archæology showed us the discarded Yet he may not forget their dangers, their tools and inventions, the first rude attempt toils, and their triumphs even while he at man's mastery of nature, and the meth- reads the story of their mastery of mateods by which victory was won and results rial, for in a bridge one perceives the achieved. In the ruins restored for us index of national taste and the record of in “staff," in the far-off temples brought character. Who can look at the bridges under our eyes in models, we looked on the across the Thames and the Seine, and shells of the old and dead civilizations. not discern in them sure proofs of the There was really nothing new under the varying character of Briton and Gaul? sun, even of sunny France, but rather in In the one is a solidity as of Assyria, every case the clearer apprehension, the Egypt, or Rome, while yet lacking highest fuller expression, of the old ideas. The beauty. The eye of the builder was for new fulfilled the old. I confess that the a permanence as of æons. In the other, very ancient, the prehistoric triumphs of retined taste and a delight in harmony mind over matter, seem to me just as with appropriate surroundings are prewonderful in their way as the last new eminently manifest. «« For glory and for product of Westinghouse, Edison, Tesla, beauty,' even if for a season," seems to or Marconi. The French genius never have been the craving of those who shows itself in more charming expression spanned the Seine. than when it demonstrates clearly the In the vastness of its details the Exhievolution of man's thought and labor in bition was confusing. In the clearness the triumphs of to-day, and the reduction and strength of its total effect it was one of what were once, in the twilight of of the best of teachers. It was eloquent

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in lessons which need to be learned, yes, working in concert, of men through all and often impressed, and which some of the ages in the world's broad harvest-field us are glad in fresh forms to receive. “ binding in unconscious brotherhood the Knowledge of history, which is the best self-same sheaf." preparation for enjoyment either of Europe The twentieth-century man has his foror its chief cities, is in itself also a fountain ward foot on a new and greater era than of youth. It makes a young man old with- the world has ever seen. With torch in out feebleness. To go even a little fur- hand, he is eager to plant it far afront, to ther than the gilding, the paint, and the kindle beacons on the headlands of the staff of the great show was to pluck some once unknown. Yet he is tempted to of the best fruits which this tree, whose forget the past, and doubtless he often root is that of all science, bears on its does, though the discoverers of the first branches. It was as exhilarating, almost, order and the real inventors are perhaps as if one were in a Western prairie town, far less likely to do this than the comwhere things are in a perpetual boom, to mercial gentleman who is eager to sell. hear the young men of the twentieth cen- Exhibitors are very apt to think and tury sound the praises of the last new behave very much like children born into invention or appliance which they “repre- the world to-day, who imagine that elecsented." Each brand-new device bore its tric push-buttons, and telephones, and stamp of “patent,” or “ patent applied Empire State expresses were always here. for," as if Father Time lived mostly in Yet, philosophically speaking, the inventor Washington and was to be pulled by the of the wheel and the plow was as great foremost hair of his forelock and made in originality as he who gave us the teleto talk like a drummer. I could of course phone or the electric light. easily believe that this or that last new In fact, it is impossible for an inventor bolt, hinge, plunger, drill, or lathe eclipsed to live or to die unto himself alone. In everything else that went before it; for mythology and romance this may happen, did not Mr. Glib Tongue say so ? But, but not in true history. The Exposition's all the time, I could see only the dwarf wonders in war and peace, in propulsion on the giant's shoulders.

and transportation, illustrated the old If such a collection of mind-shadows, story again that no one man either inor of materialized human thought, suggests vents or creates. He happily catches anything, it is to illuminate the past. It gleams and sees visions of what already tells of the labors of those who have exists. He adds another link to the rested, but whose works follow. Names chain, looks over the shoulders of the will perish but results endure. Multi- players and lights upon possibilities of tudes of minor changes and improvements improvement which he may make actualiare made by unknown men, and wait to ties. Though every man who has lived be fused into unity by some “genius." before him may be Greek or barbarian, Those who had visions and spoke or yet in reality the last comer is debtor to wrote, or who reduced their thoughts to all these. “Our civilization is largely the metal or wood, left an inheritance to be product of the forgotten.” One of the first gathered up by some one who shouid things which the obtainer of a patent, or receive the glory and the reward. Often the maker of money from a machine which it is as when Professor Morse, who did he imagines he has invented, ought to nothing whatever electrical, gathers on his do is to build the tombs of the forgotten bosom the stars and medals from many prophets. He should erect a great monusovereigns and stands forever associated ment in honor of the men, known and with a story as long and glorious as that unknown, who have helped him to win. from amber to Marconi, from electron to He has been made able to see because wireless telegraphy. Whether it were a thousands of dead men have reared out Westinghouse air-brake, or a new gener- of their brains a Darien peak for him to ator of electric power, or the model of a stand on, as he discovers some new ocean steamship, as of the Deutschland, that to which, perhaps, he would fain give his was to be the arrow shot by steam across the ocean, I could not but see behind the I was delighted to find in the American present phenomenon a host of toilers section of the Palais de l'Electricité a few manuscripts and prints which hinted at The various national buildings expressed the work of Moses Farmer, who, away back their history in a nutshell. " There are in the forties, did by electric power and living and there are dying nations.” his own devices blow up a submarine There are those, also, that have a name mine, light a house, run a passenger-car and a reality which are quite different many miles, and, as his own shop and from each other. To discern and recoghome-made models at Greenacre, Maine, nize in the various edifices not only varystill show, anticipated many things since ing traits and history, but expressions of

own name.

, made commonplace. Yet where is the the feeling and temper of them in this cyclopædia or reference-book that even decade, was a fascinating study. One who mentions his name? What American knew Spain or Russia, Japan or China, for book tells, or boy knows, of him?

example, in the other world's expositionsThe Paris Exposition is eloquent of the whole story of which, since the first humanity's shining host--of those who in the London Crystal Palace, is not yet gave something to the world. I enjoyed fifty years old—could easily do this.

greeting these even more than the exhibi- Turning from the United States edifice tors who had an eye to glory and dollars. most naturally to that of Spain, its near

It is said that the difference between neighbor on the Street of All Nations, a gentleman and a trader—and the say- fronting the Quai d'Orsay overlooking ing is true whether we mean parsons, the Seine, we see a pavilion in the Renaislawyers, and doctors, or green-grocers sance style. It shows at once the pride and shoemakers-is that while the lat- and poverty of the quondam ruler of ter has something to sell, the former America and the Indies. Within, grand has something to give. The world's and gloomy, are empty rooms. The walls gentlemen have enriched humanity by are lined with the tapestry, faded but their gifts. This truth on a larger scale inimitable, of the sixteenth century, with a is also seen in that nations, too, bestow as few trophies of old armor and weapons, well as trade. I, for one, was delighted but in the main telling of glories gone, with the United States building, its idea suggesting what is preterit rather than and atmosphere. I am glad I found what is of promise. Near by it rises the nothing to sell there, that everything was pavilion of Peru, which in size and geninviting and comfortable, open to every- eral impression outshines, we might say body alike, with polite attendants ready outglares, the Spanish edifice. On the to give help, comfort, and information, other hand, Great Britain is represented

, while seats and rooms were abundant to by the most solid of all the foreign buildyield welcome, coolness, and comfort. ings, an exact reproduction of an old EngIt was every American's club-house, rich lish manor-house of Jacobean time and with a home feeling. There was none of style-one of the stately homes of mighty the shop air or talk, or clinking of money England. Built on a framework of steel in the drawer. Thus the world saw that and covered with cement, it suggests all the “free heart's hope and home,” called that is fine, rich, and massive in the old, by ignorant foreigners “ The Land of while yet furnished and fitted throughout the Almighty Dollar," had in Paris a with all the modern comforts and applihome for its people, and put its shops elsewhere.

In no other of the world's expositions The United States at the Paris Exposi- that I can remember have the edifices tion appeared as the gentleman among been so characteristic of the people who nations. Here was an index of a true erected them. For the most part, the evolution, of a State founded by men, and shops and trading-places, which show the by women too, who could leave even dear commercial phases of life, are placed elseold England and the comforts of Leyden where. The United States and Spain are in order to give and not sell something to not alone in their strong peculiarities. the world and for all time.

Japan, too, has resolved to put her marketThe American house was not the only place on one site and what she stands for one which showed that more than one —as leader of the art, the taste, the progpeople had come to full consciousness of ress of Asia-elsewhere. Chipa lets the themselves in the family of the nations. Frenchmen direct her exhibit at Paris,

ances.

and make of her temples and palaces its story of climate, physical environment, trading-places for tea and crockery. tradition, taste, and history. Spite of its hoary antiquity, China has In a survey politically, there was everynot thus far come to national conscious- thing to cheer. One needed no actual or ness. The race has not yet reached the metaphorical glance from the top of an evolutionary stage of a nation. Japan, Eiffel tower to learn how the world has which thrills with newness of life, seeing moved since the first universal exhibition herself anew in the mirror of her own his- was held in London in 1851. Then the Turk tory, has done more wisely. In 1876, at dominated southwestern Europe, and millPhiladelphia, the Dai Nippon, with a na- ions of Christians lay groaning under his tional unity then only eight years old, heel. Then Russia was in the chains of was known as a shop, a pleasure garden. diplomacy. Even France had joined hands In 1900 Japan asks, as asked her own with the Turk and “perfidious Albion” poets a thousand years ago, for the to keep her bound. China was unknown world's admiration of her art, which is as a participator in anything social that her soul. She wisely erects in Paris her might interest Occidentals. With millions model, not indeed of a Kioto temple, for of banners, she had no national fag. The Japan's genius does not lie in religion, pitiful apology for a government would but of a Kioto pavilion that was once not recognize any subject that once left gorgeous in gilt and decoration, even as the borders of the Middle Kingdom. its lines are now charming to the eye that China cared nothing for her own people has looked lovingly on its pagodas and abroad. Her interest in Western nations the work of its native craftsmen at home. was a minus quantity. Japan was still a Nothing of the shop is here, but one sees hermit, excluding the alien and so includher superb paintings of natural scenery, ing her own people that they could escape her marvelous inlaid armor, her severe abroad only in secret and on pain of and chastened taste in decoration-as death, while all her forts were ordered to well as the hideous and the monstrous fire on the American rescue ships returnwhich lurk in her traditions. Japan has ing ocean waifs to their inhospitable her Caliban and oni, as well as her Kobo home. Other peoples, now free nations, and her “angels "--unwinged ladies in. lived in lands that were then mere geostead of the plumed females of our de graphical expressions, and were unreprebased and unbiblical notions.

sented. But now, behold a more social Wisely, too, have the northern nations, world. Relaxed is the grasp of the dying those that yet live close to the forest, Turk, of the Spaniard, and of the mighty Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Russia, ecclesiastic once claiming temporal power, erected their pavilions and edifices in while even a Chinese Emperor has awakwood, while those of the south, where ened to duty and reform. the sunshine is perennial, have used It is positively exhilarating to the lover stucco and staff abundantly, with open of human progress to find here the nations and airy verandas and porticoes. Our of the Balkan peninsula present in the many-windowed northern houses seem rapture of freedom and the thrill of joyous traps to catch sunbeams, and our “living- achievement. How happy seem the Bulrooms " crave more light. In the south garians and Roumanians, Bosnians and lands, comfort means seclusion from the Herzegovinans, to show themselves and sun.

Whether it be Hungary and Ger- their products in the family of nations! many, whence feudalism seems loth to Was it all imagination, born of "the wisretire, with their lofty towers and turrets, dom that comes after the event,' that Austria and Roumania with their edifices discerned in the faces of both men and set lower, the Ottoman, Servian, and Rou- women a contagion that keeps even the manian pavilions with their domes, the Armenian hoping for like blessings? The open edifices of the African Dahomey Turk as yet will not have Armenia to be and the Ivory Coast, which seem built even as much as a term in geography, but merely to corral a little of all outdoors, to her sons the ancient name is not im. the exquisite and richly decorated civic personal. It stands for a vitalizing entity. hall of Belgium, a model of that at Oude. It may be that her turn will come. Even narde, or the Tyrolean House, each tells Greece seems to be recovering from that

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