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strikes and lockouts are in progress recently had been in unusual vigor of involving twenty-five or more cotton-mills. body and mind, and gave promise of Last spring Mr. C. P. Davis was commis- renewed service to the city in its coming sioned by the American Federation of struggle to free itself from bondage to Labor to organize unions among all of the Tammany Hall. . Beginning with small textile industries of the South. He began opportunities and limited capital, by integwork first in North Carolina, his native rity, industry, and sagacity, Mr. Strong State, and met with surprising success. came to occupy a position of great promiThe first clash between these unions and nence in the commercial world of New the mill-owners took place at the Proximity York, and to discharge many trusts in Mill near Greensboro'. Learning of the connection with public and private organexistence of a unicn among the employees, izations. He was a strong Republican, the president immediately closed the mill, but he believed in honest and capable and declared that, having fled from labor municipal government. When the invesagitators in the North, he would not oper- tigation of the Lexow Committee, six years ate a day with union operatives. In two ago, showed that Tammany Hall was weeks the mill resumed, each employee practicing its ancient vices of theft and being required to sign an agreement not connivance with crime of every kind, Mr. to join any labor organization. The next Strong was carried into office as a repredisturbance occurred early in October at sentative of the popular revolt against the Thomas Holt Mill at Haw River, bad government. His administration Alamance County. The discharge of a stands out conspicuously for integrity and union operative in that mill precipitated a efficiency. Mayor Strong was not an strike, and caused all of the mills in the idealist, but he had an honest scorn for county, numbering about twenty, to de dishonesty and incapacity. Under his clare against union labor. On the 15th leadership the city government was reof October, by concert of action, all of the organized. Colonel Waring gave us clean union laborers were shut out. The fol- streets, and left a record which even Tamlowing day they assembled at the town of many has not dared to disregard. When Graham, and, after parading the streets, the Grand Army, in foolish resentment listened to stirring speeches by Organizer of a hasty remark of Colonel Waring, Davis and others. It is believed that all attempted to secure the resignation of of the mills in the State have combined the Street Commissioner, Mayor Strong against union laborers, as the operatives promptly and courageously refused to shut out in one place have not been able yield to popular pressure. In the hands to obtain positions elsewhere. The lock- of Mr. Roosevelt, as President of the out having been in progress now several Board of Police Commissioners, decency weeks, the resources of the unions are reigned in the city. The police force rose running short, and many families are in rapidly in self-esteem and in the confidence distress. The avowed object of the unions of the community, and crime was promptis to obtain better wages for adults, so that ly and relentlessly punished. Great imthe children from five to twelve years may provements were made in almost every be sent to school instead of being worked department of administration, and the in the mills. Thus far neither the mill- facilities of the city for education, traffic, owners nor the unions seem inclined to and pleasure were enormously enlarged. yield, and the contest promises to be pro- The election of Dr. Low as his successor longed and bitter.

was strongly supported by Mr. Strong, but the opposition of Mr. Platt, who pre

fers the rule of Tammany to that of an New York City has lost a independent and capable man, secured Ex-Mayor Strong

representative citizen to the defeat of Dr. Low and the return to whom she owed much for the illustration power of an organization which has done of sound and intelligent public service by much to degrade New York in the eyes the death of ex-Mayor William L. Strong, of the world. Looking back over the which occurred at his home in this city present administration, with its terrible on Friday of last week. Although well record of connivance with vice and of past his seventieth year, Mr. Strong until general inefficiency, the three years of Mr. Strong's administration as Mayor tion; Colorado and Washington have stand out in conspicuous relief. His grown faster than Maine; while Florida, failures were few and unimportant, his Washington, and Oregon have grown successes many and of immense value to faster proportionately than Maine, Verthe city. He was a great citizen. In the mont, and New Hampshire; Wyoming conflict upon which New York must enter and Nevada still have less than 100,000 as soon as the Presidential campaign is people each, and Nevada is the only finished, the memory of what Mayor State in the country to show an actual Strong did will be one of the most prac- decrease in population. Extremely importical incentives in the difficult task which tant questions relating to the reapportionawaits the city. His counsels in the ment of Representatives in Congress will struggle will be greatly missed.

grow out of this new census. If Congress fixes the ratio of apportionment as

one Congressman for each 200,000 of The aggregate popula- population, as it will very likely do (inSeventy-six Millions

tion of the United States stead of one member for each 173,901 of as fixed by the new census is 76,295,220, the population as at present), the House as against 63,069,756 ten years ago. The will consist of 377 members, and the gain is something over thirteen millions, Presidential Electoral College of 467 memor nearly twenty-one per cent. These bers. It seems to be considered probable figures, which were given to the public last that this course will be pursued. If it is, week, are gratifying as evidence of growth; Kansas, Nebraska, Maine, and Virginia they have given some surprise to those would lose relatively in their representastatisticians who had computed that the tion, while six States (Illinois, Michigan, ratio of increase of the population would Minnesota, New York, Pennsylvania, and materially diminish in the last decade Texas) would gain two members each, because of the filling up of the country. and twelve States one member each. There are many interesting developn.ents Politically speaking, and basing the conin the relative growth of States and sec- clusion on past elections, this would aptions. Thus, New York State still re- pear to be favorable in some degree to mains much the largest in population, the Republican strength. having gained the fuil twenty-one per cent, of increase, rising in ten years from 5,997,853 to 7,268,009. Of this gain According to Hongkong corre.

China seventy-five per cent. is to be credited to spondents, the rebellion in the adNew York City alone, while it is worth jacent Chinese province of Kuangtung noting that the present city of New York subsided somewhat last week, owing to now contains almost exactly one-twenty- the scarcity of arms and ammunition. fifth of the total population of the entire Serious trouble, however, seems brewing country, and has as many people as the in the Yangtse region further north, four States of California, Colorado, Con- whither the Empress Dowager has sent necticut, and Florida combined; while its emissaries to raise powerful armed bodies populous and prosperous neighbor, the to exterminate converts and to expel forState of New Jersey, has little more than eigners. She has appointed the notorihalf as many people as the metropolis. ously anti-foreign General Yu-Chuan to Without going into exact figures, it may be Military Governor of the entire Yangbe added that Pennsylvania and Illinois tse district. The Powers hope to hasten show rapid growth in population; Ohio the return of the Imperial family to Pehas not gained nearly as fast as the two king by cutting off all supplies from Singan, States just mentioned; while Texas, on the capital of the province of Shensi and the other hand, has made enormous gains the new residence of the Imperial family. in population, and has taken Massachu- Further east, on the Shansi frontier, near setts's place as sixth in population in the the Great Wall, severe fighting has country, the order being New York, occurred between an Anglo-German force Pennsylvania, Illinois, Ohio, Missouri, and the Chinese. The losses were notaTexas, Massachusetts. Kansas has lost ble on both sides. The Chinese were three places in the list of rank of popula- defeated after a stubborn fight. Berlin despatches reporting the event claim that have his Prime Minister's desk at the Forthe Chinese troops have thus far lacked eign Office. Lord Lansdowne, one of his organization and a plan of campaign. most trusted friends, succeeds him as SecWe may guard against too ready an retary. In view of the recent apparent acceptance of such statements, however, breakdown of the War Department under even if this one should prove to be true. Lord Lansdowne, the judgment alike of There has always been too great a belief experts and of “the man in the street" placed in any tale, however absurd or makes the recent War Secretary a scapeself-contradictory, if only applied to the goat and considers that Lord Salisbury, Chinese. This is not altogether surpris- by this promotion, puts an affront upon ing, as, in his just-published book, Mr. the general judgment. While this may Holcombe reminds us that until recently be true, we must remember that Lord the Chinese have been unable or have Lansdowne has a diplomatic rather than not cared to Jefend themselves before the a business man's capacity. His adminworld. For example, if, in 1840, the Brit- istrations as Viceroy of Canada and India ish had been accurately informed of the were successful. The new War Secretary facts, and especially if they had been returns to a career with which he has long made familiar with the protests of the been associated. From 1886 to 1892 he Peking Government, it is not possible to was Financial Secretary to the War Office, believe that her Majesty's Government and only left the Under-Secretaryship two would have been allowed to persist in the years ago to take the position at the opium traffic, and thus to work a cruel Foreign Office vacated by Lord Curzon. wrong upon China. With considerable Ir view of the sweeping reforms necesjustice, Mr. Holcombe claims that too much sary, Mr. Brodrick's appointment is well has been written about China from a purely received among military men. He is a foreign standpoint, and that the world of good debater and a man of marked energy. literature has been too markedly silent The appointment of Lord Selborne, in regarding what China needs for her own succession to Mr. Goschen, is also gensake. He declares that only a fair knowl- erally approved. He has been Underedge of events and influences at work in Secretary at the Colonial Office since the Flowery Kingdom during the past six 1895. He inherits much of the ability of decades is needed to cause wonde', not the late Earl of Selborne, who was Mr. at the Boxer outbreak, but that it has Gladstone's great law officer. The present been delayed so long. Better than that, Earl is a son-in-law of Lord Salisbury. he adds, such knowledge would have pre- Mr. Ritchie, who succeeds Sir Matthew vented the outbreak by destroying the White Ridley as Home Secretary, has been cause.

President of the Board of Trade and has

been responsible íor much domestic legisThe British Cabinet Rumors of impending lation, especially in the reorganization of

changes in the British local government. As a whole, with the Cabinet were officially confirmed last week. continuance of the Premier's personal inQueen Victoria has now approved the fluence at the Foreign Office, the new appointment of the Marquis of Salisbury Cabinet may be said to be well suited to as Premier and Lord Privy Seal, the England's needs. Marquis of Lansdowne as Foreign Secretary, Mr. Brodrick as War Secretary, the Earl of Selborne as First Lord of the

News from the South

A Double Revolution Admiralty, and Mr. Ritchie as Home Sec

American Republics is retary. The fact that Lord Salisbury as- slow in reaching the United States, and sociates with the Premiership the office of as it often comes alternately from the two Lord Privy Seal, a sinecure, makes it prob- opposing political sides, it is not only able that the venerable Viscount Cross, slow but untrustworthy. That a revoluthe late holder, will no longer remain a tion has been going on in Colombia has member of the Cabinet. Lord Salisbury, been known, but the first fully intelligible however, expects still to dominate the account of the situation we have seen is Foreign Office, although retiring from its that given by the United States Minister Secretaryship. Contrary to custom, he will to Colombia upon his arrival in New York last week. Most readers will be aston- a special committee recently appointed to ished to find that the loss in killed and consider the question of larger unity of wounded of the present revolution is action on the part of the six missionary estimated to aggregate thirty thousand. societies of the Congregational Church. This is not far from the number of killed The report was presented at the annual and wounded generally estimated as the meeting of the American Missionary Assoloss of the Filipinos in the conflict with ciation at Springfield, Mass., and was this country, and it is very much larger referred to a committee of that body for than the loss on either side in the recent consideration. The principal recommenwar between the United States and Spain. dations are that a joint annual meeting be That such a war on our own side of the At- held, with delegates chosen on a common lantic should have attracted little attention basis of representation by the churches or is surprising; the cause is probably in the local conferences; that each society have fact that no great questions of principle its separate board of directors and its are involved in this revolution, which, like separate budget of receipts and expenses; most revolutions in South America, springs that cach society have one secretary; that out of the clash of personal ambition and the treasuries be combined in two offices the lack of knowledge of what representa- with two treasurers, one in Boston and tive government should be. At present the one in New York; that the solicitation of revolutionists in Colombia, although they funds shall be under the care of a special have gained some important battles, are sub-committee selected from the boards strategically overmatched by the forces of of the six societies; and that, whenever the Government, and Mr. Hart, our Min- necessary, there shall be such a readjustister, thinks that the insurrection will soon ment of the work or territory of the sociebe put down. Its leader rejoices in the ties as will secure greater economy and poetical name of Rafael Uribe Uribe. prevent two societies from doing similar But, apart from the insurrection, another work upon the same field. There can be political crisis exists in Colombia which no question that a single annual meeting may readily take the form of a second of all the societies of the denomination revolution, if it is not already of that would tend greatly to increase the attendcharacter. The President is Señor San- ance and the enthusiasm in the general clemente; the Vice-President, Señor Mar- missionary work of the denomination, and roquin. The President is somewhat old that in general there is need for such coand infirm, and has been living at Bogota to operation as to secure greater unity of recuperate. The Vice-President promptly action. The details of the plan will need took advantage of the situation, assumed careful working out, and it will take time all the powers of the Presidency, and to adjust all the conditions so that the gained possession of the Government desired result can be achieved, but we buildings. The Marroquin Government have no doubt that a federation of the has been recognized by foreign State

State societies along the lines indicated would Departments as the Government de facto, greatly add both to their efficiency and the Papal See alone declining to do this.

their economy. Both Presidents, by some financial and political arrangement impossible to under

The Council of the Do

The Episcopal stand here, are receiving full Presidential

mestic and Foreign Mis

Missionary Council sal es. In addition to these two revolu

sionary Society of the tions, one bloodless, the other extremely Protestant Episcopal Church has just destructive to life, Colombia is suffering closed its sessions at Louisville, Ky. The from financial difficulties not unnatural meeting has been called the most interestunder the circumstances.

ing ever held in the history of that communion. It was largely attended, and

was in general marked on the part of both The spirit of co-operation is clerical and lay delegates by great cathoCongregational

at work not only in the licity of spirit and breadth of thought. Co-operation

commercial but also in the The President of the Council was Bishop religious world. In the latter domain Whipple, of Minnesota, the foremost misinteresting evidence of this is a report by sionary bishop now living. The ven


erable prelate, also the celebrant at 112 reversal in the methods of missionary service of the Holy Communion which administration ; and (4) enlargement, not preceded the Council, was a picturesquely retrenchment, should be the rallying cry. impressive figure as he administered the We are glad to note the adoption of the sacred emblems to the thirty other bishops sensible resolution introduced by the Rev. present. In order of consecration, Bishop Dr. McKim to secure the necessary enWhipple is now, with one exception, the actment to dispense with the words oldest prelate in the whole Anglican com- “ Domestic and Foreign " in the title of munion. At the two last Lambeth con- the Society. As the General Convention ferences (1888 and 1897), Bishop Whipple will undoubtedly ratify the Council's vote, represented the American Church the title will henceforth read “ The Missenior bishop. He went to Minnesota sionary Society of the Protestant Episcothe year after Statehood had been claimed, pal Church.” nearly half a century ago, and immediately undertook the championship of the abo

The first meeting of

The State Conference rigines. He protected their interests suc

of Religion

this body, deferred last cessfully against wrongful encroachments

April on account of the by individuals or by the Government. Ecumenical Conference, is to be held in He has not only long been a revered this city November 20-22. Its aim is bishop in the Protestant Episcopal Church, one which may count on wide sympathy, but has been looked up to as spiritual the drawing together of the religious and almost as temporal head by Christians forces within the State for co-operative and by citizens generally in Minnesota. effort in a religious spirit toward that In appearance and in life no missionary moral betterment of social life which all realizes to the popular mind more graph- religious men desire. The strongly supically the dignity and power of successful ported initiatory stages of the movement pioneering than does the one who has we reported in June, 1899. A strong list long been known as the Apostle to the of speakers is now announced: among Indians. As in the recent meeting of the them, Presidents Schurman, of Cornell, American Board (Congregational) at St. Raymond, of Wesleyan, G. Stanley Hall, Louis, so at the meeting of the Episcopal- of Clark, Taylor, of Vassar, Gates, recently ians at Louisville the foreign field was of Iowa College; Professors Schmidt, of dominantly to the fore, and was empha- Cornell, Hall, of Union Seminary, Nash, sized by important addresses from Bishops of the Cambridge Divinity School; and Potter and Doane. The Bishop of New Judge Baldwin, of the Connecticut SupeYork declared that the almost universal rior Court. Dr. Wines, of Washington, “ open door " (not only for commercial Dr. Gladden, and the Hon. Bird S. Coler intercourse, but for mission extension) are also announced. Among the more was an inspiring opportunity, but an op- striking topics of the programme we note: portunity for the readjustment of method. “ Demands on a Nation Conscious of a It should be utilized by according a larger Moral Mission," " Dangerous Classes in recognition to the good elements of the a Republic,” “Religion Vital to Democethnic religions. He deprecated an un- racy,' Education by Church and School qualified application of the word “heathen” in Social Righteousness," " The Unused to those religions. He believed that Power of the Churches in Politics." The there is a better opportunity for influencing membership of the Conference is quite 10 higher things the trained minds of their inclusive. Fifteen denominations are devotees than the untrained minds of the represented in its General Committee, savage followers of some purely heathen numbering upwards of a hundred and system. The Bishop of Albany's address sixty. Among Protestant bodies its overmay be summarized as follows: (1) The tures were declined by Lutherans only. whole Church should recognize that the Among Roman Catholics co-operation was duty of missions is the very life of the dissuaded by the attitude of Church individual Christian, as it is of the Church; authorities. The four denominations most (2) it is necessary to abandon all dis- largely represented are the Episcopal, criminating and differentiating adjectives Presbyterian, Congregational, and Uniabout missions; (3) there should be a tarian, in the order named. The specific

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