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: even think.draithe Chidese:are about: armies of the various viceroys—a natural attack Peking.. Large reinforcements have enough position for him to take, and one reached":Taku; butt:fùrther ieintorcements which shows the necessity of an underare now beng cảMed' for: 'On Tuesday standing among the allies about future morning of this week an unconfirmed and purposes and acts. Practically, there is improbable rumor from St. Petersburg no Government in China to-day; the great asserts that the allies in Peking have been problem is to establish or recognize a defeated with a loss of 1,800. The Rus- Government with which we can deal. sians are steadily advancing southward with a large army, but are meeting resistance; they have occupied two more towns

Lord Roberts is

The War in South Africa on the Amoor River, and have refused a

once more carryrequest from China for a suspension of ing out one of his rapid and exceedingly hostilities. Germany, also, in several ways active movements. His strategy in South has given indication that she expects to Africa from the beginning has seemed to carry on an extensive campaign against consist of sudden rushes followed by interChina, and reports have been rife during vals of some length, during which the counthe week that both Russia and Germany try newly taken possession of is pacified will act in the final settlement independ- and cleared of the enemy. He is now at the ently of the other Powers.

front himself, moving apparently against Botha's forces northeast of Pretoria. On

Sunday he was engaged with the Boers, The facts just stated he reports, “over a perimeter of thirty International Relations

foreshadow inevitable miles” near Belfast; and was stubbornly difficulties in the final settlement of the opposed. He says the Boers are making Chinese question. Talk of withdrawing a determined stand in country well suited American troops is at present premature. to their tactics. General Roberts's advance Our Government has done well, however, is in three columns, one under the command to make still clearer its disavowal of terri- of General Buller and one under General torial greed, and its purpose only to French. General Olivier, called by Lord secure order and safety, present and Roberts the moving Boer spirit in the southfuture, for Americans in China. The eastern portion of the Orange River district, landing of a French armed force at Swa- has been captured. A Boer attack on Wintow, of the British in the Yangtse region, burg has been repulsed. The Boers have and of the Japanese at Amoy, may mean scored a success during the week by the nothing more than this on the part of capture of a detachment of British soldiers France, England, and Japan, but it at numbering one hundred or more; on the least is questionable in intention. The other hand, General Baden-Powell is reUnited States is acting in the line of its ported to have released at least an equal professions in issuing a circular-note to number of British prisoners. General De the Powers suggesting immediate arrange- Wet appears to have abandoned the inments to bring about harmonious action. tention of moving to the northeast of PreSo also is it moving in the right direc- toria and joining General Botha, if, indeed, tion when it refuses to negotiate with Li- he has ever had such an intention, and is Hung-Chang while it is yet uncertain now believed again to be west of Pretoria, what authority he has, what constitutes and possibly south of the Vaal River. the present Chinese Government or what Opinion even in London is divided as to is its capital, and while Chinese troops the expediency of the execution of Lieuare still making war against us. So, too, tenant Cordua, who met his fate bravely. an offer by the Viceroys of Nankin and There is no doubt that he conspired to Wuchang to safeguard foreigners if the abduct General Roberts, but the conallies would guarantee certain things has spiracy was a clumsy and futile undertaknot been received with favor, because the ing, and it is, we believe, admitted that time has not come to make pledges. It Lieutenant Cordua was purposely led into has been followed by a threat from the it by a British agent who schemed to entrap Viceroy of Hankow to resist any attempt him; these circumstances seem to many to extort territory or to interfere with the to have made the case one where leniency


Minor Political News

would have been a graceful act; on the rupling of the standing army, the increased other hand, Lord Roberts probably holds taxation of the masses, and the diverting that a severe and striking lesson is needed of public attention from domestic reforms to prevent some Boers from engaging in to foreign entanglements, but also the secret conspiracies and violating the oaths repudiation of the basic principle of dethey have taken to abstain from hostility. mocracy, and loss of America's influence on

the side of popular government through

out the world. " When such an issue is Mr. Bryan's address at raised,” said Mr. Bryan, “there can be Mr. Bryan to the Topeka last week accept- only two parties—the party, whatever its Populists

ing the nomination of the name be, which believes in a republic, and Populists took up all the issues upon a party, whatever its name, which believes which the Democrats and Populists are in an empire; and the influence of every united, and emphasized their number. citizen is, consciously or unconsciously, The silver issue was presented first, but intentionally or unintentionally, thrown not given the first importance. Mr. upon one side or the other.” This came Bryan tacitly admitted that the need of very near being a call for a realignment of the remonetization of silver to increase voters upon an issue which did not exist the currency is not at present so great as it when the Populist party was organized. was four years ago. His most characteris- Whether or not it will seriously divide the tic sentence on this subject was as follows: party cannot now be determined. With a " If an increase in the volume of the cur- close approach to unanimity (92 to 3), rency since 1896, although unpromised the Populist National Committee has by the Republicans, and unexpected, has accepted Mr. Stevenson as its Vice-Presibrought improvement in industrial con- dential candidate. ditions, this improvement, instead of answering the arguments put forth in favor

During the past fortof bimetallism, only confirms the conten

night each of the Nation of those who insisted that more money tional Committees has been giving out would make better times.” There was lists of prominent men who have changed no discussion of the question of ratio, but their party allegiance because of the new instead there was a sharp attack upon issues of the pending campaign. The the Republican party for its alleged aban- list of accessions to the Republican party donment of bimetallism and readiness to consists largely of Silver Republicans retire the greenbacks and give over the from the mining States, and includes issuing of paper money to the banks. Senator Stewart, of Nevada, ex-Senator Turning to other questions, Mr. Bryan Mantle, of Montana, and six of the eight gave a few words each to the income tax, Colorado delegates who bolted from the the abridgment of "government by in

“ government by in- Republican National Convention in 1896. junction," the more frequent resort to Senator Teller and Mr. Williams, the direct legislation, the enlargement of the negro delegate, are the only two members powers of the Inter-State Commerce Com- of the bolting delegation from Colorado mission, the creation of a Department of who remain in the Silver Republican Labor with a Cabinet representative, and party. The Democratic list, with the the direct election of United States Sen- exception of John J. Valentine, of San ators. To the trusts a good deal of space Francisco, the President of the Wellswas given, Mr. Bryan urging that there Fargo Express Company, consists almost was no inconsistency between the Demo- entirely of men from the Central and Eastcratic and Populist demand for an in- ern States. The most prominent names are crease in the currency to raise prices in those of Senator Wellington, of Maryland, all industries, and their opposition to ex-Secretary Schurz, of New York, and the trusts, which raise prices in certain ex-Secretary Boutwell, of Massachusetts. industries at the expense of others. Several men in the Democratic list have The issue presented last, however, was as yet gone no further than to state that declared to be the first in importance. they will oppose President McKinley, The colonial policy of the Administration leaving their support of Mr. Bryan to be was alleged to involve not only the quad- inferred. Of the State Conventions last week the most important, perhaps, was change such law. Yet a mob of perthat of the Union or Addicks Republi- haps fifteen hundred people, many of them cans in Delaware; they indorsed the elec- ordinarily peaceful and law-abiding cititoral ticket of the Regulars and empow- zens, attacked the Akron City Hall, which ered the management of the faction to contained a jail, although they had been effect a fusion with the Regulars upon assured that the prisoner was not there, the candidates for other offices. In Wis- and the authorities had even allowed two consin the Democrats adopted a platform committees of the mob to search the condemning the present caucus system of premises. Dynamite-sticks were thrown nominations, and virtually indorsing the into the building, which was almost totally system of direct primaries which the Re- destroyed, together with one adjoining, publican candidate for Governor, Mr. La while during the reckless and really aimFollette, has for years championed. The less rifle-shooting two little children, a boy Democratic platform also demanded a of eleven and a girl of four, were shot and revision of the tax laws by which all prop- killed. In the eye of the law and in erty within the State, whether corporate the light of common sense these children or individual, should be taxed equitably were murdered as truly as if their deaths and without discrimination. This also had been designed. They and the eightis a reform which Mr. La Follette has een or twenty men who were wounded, championed, so that the campaign must one it is thought fatally, were the victims be fought entirely upon National issues. of that spirit of lawless vengeance so easy The Democrats nominated for Governor to arouse, so difficult to restrain even Louis G. Bohmrich, a prominent German within the bounds marked out for it by lawyer, and put the emphasis of the plat- its own purpose. However much human form upon militarism. In New York nature may be willing to excuse to passion State Mr. Odell, for several years Senator aroused by atrocious crime and to the Platt's chief lieutenant, has been agreed craving for the immediate and certain upon as the Republican nominee for Gov- punishment of the wrong-doer, it must erpor. In the Democratic ranks ex-Sen- never be forgotten that the brutalizing ator Hill and State Chairman McGuire effect of lynching on the community and are fighting to secure the nomination of the resulting loss of respect for law and Comptroller Coler, while Mr. Croker order are permanent and permeating inand ex-Senator Murphy are fighting to fluences for evil. prevent this nomination. If it should be made in spite of Taminany opposition, the Ramapo issue would be pushed to the

The Convention of

Negro Business Men front, and more split tickets would be

“ The National Negro voted than have been polled in years. Business League” held in Boston last

week brought together upwards of a

hundred delegates, representing over The lawlessness at Akron, twenty different States. The members of Mob Violence

in Ohio, last week, like that the Convention made an excellent imat l'rbana in the same State three years pression upon the representatives of the ago, and like that in New York City two Boston press, both by their appearance weeks ago, shows that race hatred, fol- and the intellectual quality of the speeches. lowed by indiscriminate violence and The League was organized upon the defiance to established authority, may take initiative of Booker T. Washington, and the same course in the North as in the his common-sense philosophy permeated South. In the Akron case a negro who had most of the addresses. Had these been been charged (and we judge truly charged) made at a gathering of white leaders, they with an atrocious crime was promptly might justly be condemned as materialarrested and imprisoned. There was no istic. Indeed, one of them, glorifying the reason to suspect at the full rigor of “almighty dollar” as the “new king that the law would not be applied, and if the has been born,” should be so condemned. law does not provide a sufficiently severe

But in the main the emphasis put upon punishment for an offense it rests with the acquiring of property sprang from the the people through the Legislature to desire to lift up the manhood of the to the eye.

negro race; for there is a moral difference necting the original City of London with between the advocacy of money-getting the West End has been opened to the to secure independence and the advo- public, and the claims of its friends have cacy of money-getting to secure power. been abundantly fulfilled. The London Economic independence is to-day as correspondent of the New York “ Evening much needed for the further advance- Post ” describes in the following language ment of the negro race as was emancipa- the contrast between the new system tion from slavery for the advance which and the old: “ The old underground,” he the present generation has witnessed. says, “ may be counted the dismalest place Even so uncompromising an opponent of out of Tophet. You approach it by materialism as Mr. William Lloyd Garri- murky, grimy, and sulphurous stations ; son recognized this and emphasized it your third-class compartment is little better in his address to the Convention : “ The than a horse-box, and usually carries pirticular word I wish to leave with you,” twice the number of persons it is intended he said, “is this : Aim to be your own to accommodate. Your second class is employers as speedily as possible. If you practically the third class with a piece of are farmers, do not rest until you control carpet on the seat, and your first class the land from which you gain your living does not rival in comfort the third class If you are mechanics or traders, seek first of the great lines. The traveling is to own a home without a mortgage, fore through stuffy tunnels, and detestably going many desirable things until you are slow. The new underground is in no free from debt. Independence and debt sense a rival. The stations will bear lookcannot long keep company. But, in the ing upon, being architecturally pleasing South, as in the North, possession of hon

The interiors are lined with estly earned property will surely bring white tile, and there are lifts (elevators) respect and increase personal security.” to take one down to the platform. As for Among the negro speakers were several the trains, they are a revelation. There men who have been remarkably success- is but one class, and that is first. The ful-among others, a slave of Jefferson seats are armed chairs, so that there can Davis, who is now Mayor of his little town be no overcrowding. The trains are in Mississippi. The speeches of some lighted and driven by electricity. The of these men telling of their early strug- fare is 'tuppence' for any distance, and gles were full of encouragement to negroes as the railway isobuilt on the tubular syseverywhere. The fact that some negroes tem, the cockney has already dubbed it have succeeded in business, as well as the the • Tuppenny Tube.'” The great sucfact that some have succeeded in litera- cess of this new line in London, following ture and art, forces all men to distinguish the success of the short subway in Boston, between negroes and negroes, and opens ought to dissipate all doubt as to the the door of opportunity to all negroes future of the underground system which who aspire.

the city of New York has set about to construct. According to the view of Mr.

Charles Stewart Smith, of the New York During the long agitation Rapid Transit Commission, who is now London's “Tuppenny Tube" in this city for the mu

in London, the New York system will be nicipal construction of an

as attractive as that of London, and far underground railway system, the objection more rapid. Mr. Smith's statement respectmost persistently urged was the fact that ing speed, as cabled to the Associated the old underground railway in London Press, is as follows: was dark and uncomfortable. The advocates of the New York underground had The distance from the Bank of England to great difficulty in convincing the public Shepherd's Bush is 400 yards short of six that the disagreeable features of the Lon- including thirteen stops. This is done by

miles. This is covered in twenty-five minutes, don system were in no way essential to

means of two single-track tubes, which, of underground transit, and that they were course, prevents the running of express trains. being successfully avoided in the new

The New York line will contain four tracks, lines which London was constructing.

and express trains will run from the City Hall

to the northernmost end of the island (twelve Now the new underground system con- miles] in from eighteen to nineteen minutes.




Per cent. Increase

of 1880 1890. Increase. to 1890.

38 31 54 108

24 24 451,770 27 28 261,355 255,664 2946,908 238.617


12 40 21 35

27 36 161,129 27 30

33 26


of age.

St. Paul.


In the public schools that never in the United States have they Education in Porto Rico

of San Juan there received so many little tokens of apprecihave been during the past year nine or ation and respect. ten American teachers, and forty more American teachers are scattered through

The census reports the public schools of the island. Although

The Census Returns these public school teachers are not neces- fully establish our generalization that the

given out last week sarily agents of religion in general and of population of our cities has increased less Protestantism in particular, they have rapidly during the past decade than durexercised a silent, perhaps, but in many ing the decade preceding. The returns for cases an equally great religious influence

the principal cities thus far published are with that of the missionaries themselves.

as follows: The educational influence which has been introduced into the island during the past year must have a singularly far-reaching Greater New York. 3,437,202 2,492,591 effect. Of the million inhabitants of Porto Chicago.

1,698,575 1,099,850

Philadei hia 1,293,697 1,046,964 Rico, only one-tenth can read or write, St. Louis


381,768 and no less than eighty-five per cent. of Buttalo....

352,219 the adult population is illiterate. The Cincinnati

325,902 Pittsburg

321,616 public and private schools so far estab- New Orleans.

287,104 242,039
285,315 204,456

77 lished in Porto Rico can accommodate but

278,718 230,392

56 thirty thousand of the two hundred thou

246,070 181.830

33 Jersey City.

206,433 163,003 sand children from five to sixteen years Louisville


Minneapolis.. 202,718 101,738
For educational purposes Porto

250 Providence

175,597 132,146 Rico is divided into fourteen districts,


169,164 105,436
Kansas City.
163,752 132,716

138 each with an American supervisor in

163,632 133,156

225 Rochester 162,435 133,8%

50 charge of from thirty to forty schools. Toledo, ()..

131.822 81,434 62 54 These supervisors are obliged to journey Allegheny.

129,896 105,207

Columbus, O). 125,560) 88,150 continually, riding horseback over poor Omaha..

102,555 140,425 -27 roads and poorer mountain-trails in their New York is the only one of the great inspection of the schools and of the native cities which is reported to have increased teachers. All reports from the island in- more rapidly in population than during dicate that the children there are showing the preceding decade, and this report only themselves as bright as Anferican children, recalls the belief in scientific circles ten so far as perception and memory are years ago that the census of 1890 underconcerned. They prove weak in the de- stated its population. It is very easy, in partment of mathematics, however, and a great city with a large floating populathey do not seem to be naturally good rea- tion and a still larger population of recent soners or thinkers; but they are anxious to immigrants in overcrowded tenements, to come to school, and will sacrifice much to omit from the rolls thousands who should get sufficient wearing apparel to make as be counted, and New York probably sufgood an appearance as other children. fered in that way in 1890. It is not, Before and after school children may be however, so easy to account for the overseen roaming the streets barefooted and enumeration which seems to have taken ragged and dirty, but all reports indicate place in Omaha in 1890. Even if all the that they do not come to school in this transients were counted and the hotel condition; they save their shoes and their records copied for months back, it is difficlothes for school, and are seen there cult to understand how the enumerators usually fairly clean and fairly well dressed. in 1890 found 1+0,000 people where toOur teachers also report interesting indi- day there are only 102,000. The people cations of a tropical temper. The chil- of Omaha were not sensible of a decline dren show little power of self-control. in population, the Omaha “ Bee” of

They are very sensitive, they are easily August 22 anticipating that the new cenoffended, and their lack of will-power and sus would show an increase of over twenty perseverance is pathetic ; on the other thousand. The new figures, however, hand, they are instantly grateful for any must be accepted as accurate, for no census service rendered, and the teachers report bureau would report that a city had lost

34 71 360

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