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THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS

OCCUPATION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY

AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO
PRESERVE PEACE_Continued

Date and number

Subject

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1931 Oct. 31

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Oct. 31

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Oct. 31

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Nov. 1

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From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Note from the President of the Council to Yoshizawa (text
printed) in reply to Japanese declaration of October 26, indi-
cating confidence that as China has given pledges covering
the various fundamental principles raised by Japan, the latter
will proceed with the withdrawal of troops and the appoint-
ment of representatives to carry out details of the evacuation.
To the Ambassador in Peru (tel.)

Advice that the Department prefers to refrain from com-
mitment on the appointment of observers until action has
been taken by League members,
To the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Information that British Minister in China has instructions
to hold representatives in readiness to proceed to Man-
churia as observers, and instructions to inform Department
of further action by that or other governments.
From the Minister in China (tel.)

From Mukden: Removal by Japanese armed guard of Salt
Administration funds from Bank of China to the Provincial
Bank, Newchwang.
From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Letter from Sze to Drummond (substance printed) citing
Chinese concern over Japanese efforts to incite so-called inde-
pendence movements in Manchuria.
From the Ambassador in Turkey (tel.)

Information that on October 21 the Turkish Government
sent identic telegrams invoking the Kellogg Pact.
From the Minister in China (tel.)

Request from the Acting Foreign Minister that U. S.
representatives be designated in accordance with League
resolution.
From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Drummond's receipt of a communication stating that
Chinese were dispatching troops to occupy evacuated areas
and neutral observers were considered essential; Drummond's
reply that October 24 resolution is not binding, as it was not
passed unanimously, and Chinese should proceed with pru-
dence.

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Nov. 1

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Nov. 2

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contemplate action similar to the British, early announcement
of such decision would be helpful.
From the Consul General at Nanking (tel.)

Announcement by the Foreign Ministry of a Commission,
with Wellington Koo as Chairman, to negotiate in connection
with the reoccupation of Manchuria, as provided by League
resolution of October 24; Chinese desire to know if United
States intends to appoint observers.

THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS OCCUPATION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY

AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO PRESERVE PEACE—Continued

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1931 Nov. 2 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State

Inquiry from British Ambassador as to U. S. approval of League action; Under Secretary's concurrence with Ambassador's observation that including the date of withdrawal in

the resolution was unfortunate.
Nov. 2 Prom the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
(274) Conversation with Drummond, who reviewed the situation

in the light of the lack of juridical force of October 24 resolu-
tion, and observed that if the United States could induce Japan
to agree to the conversations concerning evacuation, it would

be helpful.
Nov. 2 Memorandum by the Minister in China

Conversation with Dr. C. C. Wu, who outlined developments in negotiations between Nanking and Cantonese delegates; Minister's assurances that U. S. policy was one of non-inter

ference in domestic questions. Nov. 3 From the Consul General at Nanking (tel.) (93)

Inquiry by the Acting Foreign Minister as to accuracy of
remarks attributed to the Under Secretary concerning per-
manent Japanese occupation of Manchuria and disapproval of

League resolution.
Nov. 3 "Conversation between Drummond and Sze, the latter pre-

From the Consul at Geneva (tel.) (276)

senting note from Chinese Government and accompanying
memorandum (texts printed) outlining Japanese actions not in

accord with their pledges.
Nov. 3 From the Minister in China (tel.)

Request by T. V. Soong that Department influence the
Council to meet in Geneva instead of in Paris, as traditional
French policy toward China has been contrary to Briand's at-

titude at Geneva.
Nov. 3 | From the Minister in China (tel.)
(862) Report from Mukden that Antung, electric plant remains

closed, preventing American company's collection of monthly
payments on equipment supplied; explanation of Japanese mili-

tary that their action was and is a military necessity.
Nov. 3 'Report of closing of other Chinese electric plants in Man-

From the Minister in China (tel.)
churia, with the indication that Japanese plan a monopoly of

electric power.
Nov. 3 To the Consul General at Nanking (tel.)
(106) Clarification of Under Secretary's remarks, in reply to

inquiry in telegram No. 93, November 3. Nov. 4 | From the Minister in China (tel.) (867)

From Harbin and from Mukden; Report of military activities around Tsitsihar and ultimatum to Chinese to withdraw from Nonni River.

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THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS OccupatION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY

AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO PRESERVE PEACE-Continued

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1931
Nov. 4 From the Minister in China (tel.)
(868) From Mukden: Report from Japanese military that radio

station has been restored to working order and Japanese
Consulate General will be advised of particulars regarding

operation.
Nov. 4 From the Minister in China (tel.)

From Nanking: Note from the Acting Foreign Minister to the American Minister (text printed) advising of the organization of a commission for the evacuation, and inviting the

U. S. Government to appoint its representatives.
Nov. 4 From the Minister in China (tel.)
(870) From Harbin: Report of Japanese intentions to repair

bridges on the Nonni River, and of Chinese intentions to
prevent clashes between Japanese and Chinese troops if

possible.
Nov. 4 From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
(204) Advice from Vice Foreign Minister that his Government is

preparing a statement for the League Council meeting, No-
vember 16. Opinion that United States should not associate
itself with League resolution, as Japanese public believes other
powers put through the resolution with the intent to damage

Japan's interests in China.
Undated Memorandum by the Secretary of State of a Conversation With

the Japanese Ambassador, November 4, 1931
Advice by the Secretary that United States is making repre-
sentations to Tokyo regarding Japan's refusal to evacuate
until she has concluded negotiations on long-standing contro-
versies, many of them unrelated to present situation in
Manchuria. Ambassador's version of Japanese occupation

of Tsitsihar.
Undated Memorandum by the Secretary of State of a Conversation With

the French Ambassador, November 4, 1931
Presentation to the French Ambassador of an aide-mémoire
(text printed) of V. S. representations to Japan, showing
U. S. concurrence in Council action and pointing out that
negotiations brought about by military pressure are treaty
violations; suggestion that, if necessary, Briand might suggest
the use of neutral observers in negotiations as compromise

measure.
Nov. 4 To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
(218) Instructions that Department's representations should be

delivered as soon as possible, not as a note, but as a memoran-
dum, and should be read to the Foreign Minister prior to being

handed to him.
Nov. 5 From the Minister in China (tel.)
(873) From Harbin: Lack of evidence of Russian aid to Chinese at

Tsitsihar, and opinion that reports of such aid are Japanese
propaganda; information of clashes near Tsitsihar.

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371 THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS OCCUPATION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO PRESERVE PEACE_Continued

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1931
Nov. 5 From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
(278) Communication from Sawada to Drummond (text printed)

citing Chinese request to Japan for settlement of details of
evacuation in accordance with resolution of October 24, and
Japanese reply that the resolution was not adopted, but that
Japan is ready to negotiate an agreement on fundamental prin-

ciples and on the withdrawal of troops.
Undated From the Consul General at Nanking (tel.)
(Rec'd Statement by the Foreign Office of Chinese reply (text
Nov. 5) printed) to Japanese note of October 31, inviting Japan to
(99) nominate representatives for the evacuation commission and

indicating willingness to negotiate on questions of fundamental
principles, but reiterating that before the completion of evac-
uation, negotiations must concern only evacuation and

reoccupation,
Nov. at (.)

gram from Nanking (texts printed) concerning Japanese seizure

of salt revenue. Nov. 5 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) (206) Notification of delivery of Department's memorandum to

the Foreign Office. Undated Memorandum by the Ambassador in Japan of a Conversation

With the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs, November

5, 1931
Delivery to Shidehara of the memorandum of November 3;
Shidehara's résumé of Japan's attitude toward China and of the
five points which Japan insisted should be settled before with-

drawal of troops.
Nov. 5 From the Minister in China (tel.)
(874) Opinion of Dr. Wellington Koo that his commission is ac-

ceptable to Japan, and his intimation that it might have to deal
with problems more serious than those for which it was ap-

pointed.
Nov. 5 From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
(280) Information that Briand has given publicity to his note to

Yoshizawa (contained in telegram No. 270, October 31, from

the Consul at Geneva) in view of Japanese delay in replying. Nov. 5

To the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
(126) Transmittal of Department's memorandum of November 3

to Japan and of background explanation, with instructions to
inform Drummond; suggestion that Drummond inform
Council members only that United States has made repre-
sentations supporting Council's position relative to evacua-

tion.
Nov. 5 To the Minister in China (tel.)
(409) Instructions to inform Acting Foreign Minister, if neces-

sary, that Department is noncommittal on the question of observers and prefers not to initiate action; information that Chinese have been advised by League officials to exercise prudence, as October 24 resolution lacks binding force.

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THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS OCCUPATION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY

AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO PRESERVE PEACE_Continued

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1931 Nov. 5 To the Minister in China (tel.) (410) Instructions to secure from Mukden the particulars con

cerning the plan for operation of the radio. Nov. 6 From the Minister in China (tel.) (877) From Harbin: Report of Japanese crossing of Nonni River

and ensuing clash with Tsitsihar troops. Nov. 6 From the Minister in China (tel.) (878) From Mukden: Message released by Japanese headquarters

(substance printed) regarding the fighting at Nonni River.
Nov. 6 From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
(282) Receipt from Drummond of copy of a memorandum by the

Chinese Government (substance printed) in reply to Japanese
declaration of October 26, reiterating Chinese ability to pro-
tect Japanese nationals in proportion as the evacuation is
effected, and suggesting settlement of other questions by con-

ciliation.
Undated Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State of a Conversation

With the Japanese Ambassador, November 6, 1931
Explanation by the Ambassador of the fighting on the
Nonni River and assurance that Japan has no intention of
sending troops to Tsitsihar, as it desires no conflict with the

Soviet.
Undated Memorandum by the Secretary of State of a Conversation With

the French Ambassador, November 6, 1931
Inquiry by the Ambassador as to the outcome of U. S.
representations to Tokyo, his concern over the increasing
strength of the military, and observation by the Secretary

that the other nations should preserve a united front. Nov. 6 From the French Embassy

Information from Paris that, in compliance with October 24 resolution, the French Minister in China has been instructed to inform Chinese Government of readiness of French repre

sentatives when their presence is required. Nov. 6 From the Consul at Geneva (tel.) (284) Information that Drummond has received a note from Sze

commenting on Japanese reply to identic telegrams sent from

Geneva invoking the Kellogg Pact.
Nov. 7 From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
(285) Report of informing Drummond of Department's repre-

sentations to Japan and of his satisfaction; Drummond's ob-
servations concerning pro-Japanese feeling in France and fear
that Briand is not receiving accurate information as to Depart-
ment's position; suggestion that clarification of the American
position for London and Paris through the Embassies might be

considered.
Nov. 7 From the Minister in China (tel.)
(883) From Mukden: Further report of engagement at Nonni

River.

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