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JAPAN

TRANS-PACIFIC FLIGHT FROM JAPAN TO THE UNITED STATES OF CLYDE E.

PANGBORN AND Hugh HERNDON, JR.

Date and number

Subject

Page

1931 Apr. 2

(50)

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Apr. 13

1047

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1048

Apr. 21

(65)

June 11

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11"

1048

To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)

Instructions to obtain the necessary permission for proposed
flight over Japanese territory of Clyde E. Pangborn and Hugh
Herndon.
From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)

Japanese Government's desire to know definitely the route
of the Pangborn plane before issuing the permit.
To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)

Information that permission is requested for the flight over
Japanese territory in case of an emergency.
From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)

Information that permission has been granted for emergency
landing or flight over Japanese territory if necessary, subject
to usual restrictions against flying over fortified zones or carry-
ing firearms or cameras, subsequent flights to be made only at
the direction of Japanese officials.
From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)

Report that Herndon and Pangborn landed in Japan with-
out a permit after flying over several fortified zones and taking
moving pictures, that they have had a bad week-end with the
police but have not been actually arrested.
From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.).

Information that Pangborn and Herndon have been fined
2,050 yen each or 205 days in prison.
From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)

Japanese confiscation of camera and films belonging to Pang-
born and Herndon.
To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)

Inquiry as to whether the question of Herndon and Pang-
born's flying their plane from Japan has been settled, and if
not, instructions to urge upon authorities that they permit the
flight in the interest of good will.

Aug. 10

(117)

1048

1049

Aug. 15

(122)

1049

Aug. 15

(123)

1049

Aug. 15

(135)

26 Promo matmahathiado the questionely Herndon and Pangborn's

the Ambassador in Japan (.)

1049

Aug. 16

(124)

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Aug. 23

(126)

permit to fly the Pacific has not been raised, but that the
Embassy will try to have permission for the flight by the time
necessary alterations to the plane are completed.
From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)

Report that the Embassy has applied for a permit for the
Herndon-Pangborn flight to depart, that the Foreign Minister
himself is now handling the matter, and that the customs
require a guaranty in the nature of a bond for payment of duty
before releasing the plane.
Memorandum by Mr. Ransford S. Miller of the Division of Far

Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Japanese

Counselor of Embassy
Discussion of the Pangborn-Herndon case and of possible
helpful action by the Japanese Embassy, especially in view
of the pending decision concerning permission for the resump-
tion of the flight.

=

Aug. 25

1050

JAPAN TRANS-PACIFIC FLIGHT FROM JAPAN TO THE UNITED STATES OF CLYDE E.

PANGBORN AND Hugh HERNDON, JR.- Continued

Date and number

Subject

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1931
Aug. 27 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State

Visit from the Japanese Ambassador, who was advised by the
Under Secretary that some decision should be reached as to
Herndon and Pangborn flight; assurance from the Ambassador

that he would urge his Government to allow the men to leave. Aug. 28

Memorandum by the Assistant Chief of the Division of Far

Eastern Affairs of a Conversation With the Japanese

Counselor of Embassy
Information that the Japanese Ambassador, after his con-
versation with the Under Secretary on August 27, sent a
further telegram to his Government requesting favorable action
on the issuance of the permit to Pangborn and Herndon to fly

from Japan.
Aug. 30 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
(129) Information from the Communications Minister that it was

necessary to consult the Army and Navy in the Herndon-
Pangborn matter and that there were a number of legal points
involved but that he would make every effort for early action

and believed it would not take long.
Sept. 1 From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese
(140) Minister for Foreign Affairs

Reference to earlier communications and discussions concerning permission for Pangborn and Herndon to fly from Japan, and further assurance that such permission would pro

duce a favorable impression in the United States.
Sept. 11 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
(141) Information from the Foreign Office that permission for the

Pangborn-Herndon flight would be issued but that the Japanese
Government would prefer postponement, possibly until spring,
in view of opposition. Request that the Department consult
the supporters of the flight and communicate instructions, as

the flyers object to postponement.
Sept. 14 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
(162) Advice that Department has consulted flight supporters, as

1053

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well as Herndon's mother, and considers early issuance of the
permit desirable. Instructions to present the further note ask-

ed by the Foreign Office requesting early issue of the permit. Sept. 14 From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese (146) Minister for Foreign Affairs

Expression of hope for early Issuance of the permit.
Sept. 15 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.)
(145) Conversation with Herndon and Pangborn in which Am-

bassador requested them to make every effort to allay any
resentment against Japan incidental to their visit. In-
formation that the Foreign Office reply to the letter of Septem-
ber 14 asks delay until spring, but that the fliers request a

permit for immediate flight. Sept. 19 From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)

(154) Information that the permit has been granted.
(Oct. 6?] From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs (tel.)

Expression of warm congratulations on the success of the
Pangborn-Herndon flight.

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1056 notion of

JAPAN

ADMISSION INTO THE UNITED STATES OF JAPANESE TREATY (TRADE) ALIENS

Date and number

Subject

Page

1931 June 19

1056

Memorandum by Mr. Ransford S. Miller of the Division of Far

Eastern Affairs
Account of conversations of June 15 and June 17 with Mr.
Midzusawa of the Japanese Embassy concerning the difficulties
relating to the admission into the United States of Japanese
treaty (trade) aliens.

ARRANGEMENT BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND JAPAN REGARDING RECIPRO

CAL RECOGNITION OF LOAD-LINE CERTIFICATES EFFECTED BY EXCHANGE OF
NOTES SIGNED FEBRUARY 13, 1931, March 19 AND 30, 1931, August 25, 1931,
AND SEPTEMBER 7, 1931

1931 Feb. 13

46

1059

Mar. 19 | From

Charge in Japan

1060

30/C1

Mar. 30 | Prom Minister for Foreign

Affaires

1061

(59)

From the American Chargé in Japan to the Japanese Minister

for Foreign Affairs
Inquiry whether the Japanese Government would be willing
to continue the arrangement of 1922 concerning ship load-line
certificates pending the coming into force of the international
load-line convention of July 5, 1930.
From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American

Request for assurances that American Chargé's note of
February 13 may be interpreted to mean that, pending the
coming into force of the international load-line convention of
1930, the Japanese Government will continue the 1922 arrange-
ment and the U.S. Government will recognize as valid load-line
certificates issued by competent Japanese authorities and
organizations.
From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese

Advice that the United States is recognizing the load-line
marks approved by the Japanese Government.
From the American Ambassador in Japan to the Japanese

Notification that the U. S. Government has confirmed the
assurances given in note No. 59 of March 30 and has accepted
the proposal of the Japanese Government to continue the
present arrangement pertaining to load lines; information
that the U. S. Government also has authorized, in particular
cases, the marking of load-lines and the issuance of certificates
therefor, on American vessels, by certain shipping bureaus,
which it is desired be recognized by Japanese authorities.
From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American

Ambassador in Japan
Non-objection of the Japanese Government to the recogni-
tion of load-line certificates issued to American ships by ship-
ping bureaus in so far only as they are issued under authority
granted by the U. S. Government.

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Aug 35 Prominister for foreign

Afairs

25

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Sept. 7 (97/C1)

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OCCUPATION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE
MILITARY AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND
OTHER POWERS TO PRESERVE PEACE

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793.94/1792
The Consul at Mukden (Vincent) to the Minister in China (Johnson)?

No. 440

MUKDEN, August 20, 1931, SIR: I have the honour to submit for the information of the Legation a brief account of the execution of the Japanese army captain, Nakamura, and his party between Taonan and Solun, by Chinese soldiers. The details of the incident were given me by Mr. Hayashi, Japanese Consul General at Mukden.

Early in June Captain Nakamura obtained from the Mukden Special Delegate of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs a "huchao” for travel in Manchuria. This “huchao” excluded the territory between Taonan and Solun (Hsingan Colonization Area) from travel by the Captain. At Harbin, however, a second “huchao” was secured which, according to the Japanese Consul General, gave the desired permission to travel in the Taonan-Solun area.

Captain Nakamura conducted “investigations” along the Chinese Eastern Railway at Manchuli, Tsitsihar, Angangchi, and Hailar. He secured the services of a Mongolian and a Russian interpreter, and also that of a Japanese named Isugi, a retired Japanese army sergeant who kept an inn at Angangchi. This party of four left Pokotu on the Chinese Eastern Railway about the middle of June, their immediate destination being Taonan. On June 27th the party were arrested by Chinese troops at a place called Suokungfu, a small place east of Solun between that town and Chalaite Wangfu. Although the place and manner of execution have not yet been fully established, it is believed that the party were taken to Solun where they were shot on July 1st and subsequently burned. The execution was carried out

*For additional documents on this subject for the year 1931, see Foreign Relations, Japan, 1931–1941, vol. I, pp. 1-75. Papers printed in that volume are Dot reprinted here.

Copy transmitted to the Department by the Consul in his despatch No. 29, August 20; received September 14.

• For summary of the Nakamura incident, see League of Nations, Appeal by the Chinese Government, Report of the Commission of Enquiry (C. 663. M. 320. 1932. VII, Geneva, October 1st, 1932), pp. 63 ff.

1

by order and in the presence of Kuan Yu-heng, commanding the 3rd Regiment of the Hsingan Reclamation Army during the absence in Mukden of Colonel Chao Kuan-wu, the regular commander.

Japanese suspicions were aroused when the party failed to appear at Taonan at the scheduled time. Japanese newspapers in Manchuria were the first to secure rumours of the fate of the party. After the appearance of a news report about July 15th, the Japanese took steps to suppress all accounts of the incident pending a thorough investigation. For this reason it was not until August 17th that the first newspaper account of the execution appeared in the Manchurian papers.

Consul General Hayashi has within the past few days taken up the case with General Tsang Shih-yi, Chairman of the Liaoning Provincial Government. He is demanding an indemnity, apology, punishment of the responsible Chinese army officers, and assurance of future protection. General Tsang Shih-yi has expressed a readiness to comply with these demands. Mr. Hayashi has confidence in his sincerity but very little in his ability to enforce execution of his orders.

Mr. Hayashi assured me that the negotiations were entirely in his hands in spite of rumours to the effect that the Japanese military authorities were to interfere in securing a settlement. He deplored the attitude of military officials, mentioning a call which Major Mori, a Japanese army officer, had made upon General Tsang Shih-yi on July 17th. Major Mori is of the Japanese General Staff Office and was sent to Mukden by the Japanese Army apparently to investigate the case.

He informed General Tsang Shih-yi of how seriously the Japanese Army viewed the incident and gave out the following report:

"In dealing with so serious a case, nice diplomatic courtesies could not satisfy the Japanese Army, and I am here to see for myself what amount of sincerity is shown by the Chinese side handling the case. It goes without saying that, once we are satisfied of lack of sincerity on the Chinese side, the Japanese side might enforce its demand”.

This incident is believed to be the first in the history of Sino-Japanese relations where a Japanese army officer has been arrested and executed by the order of Chinese military authorities. The Japanese press in Manchuria is making much of the incident and Mr. Hayashi tells me that the outspoken indignation of the military authorities in Japan is exciting the Japanese populace. He did not indicate what action might be taken in the event the Chinese did not meet the demands he has presented but I was led to believe that he is seriously concerned over the effect which protracted negotiations might have on Japanese feelings.

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