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consultum was adopted without any oppo-presidency of M. Barthélemy. M. Lambsition :


and moved “that the Emperor “A provisional government will be established, Napoleon and his family had forfeited the authorized to administer the affairs of the country, throne, the constitution having been despoand to present to the Senate such a project of a tically trampled on by him, and that, conconstitution as may seem best for the French peo- sequently, the French people and the army ple. This government to be composed of five were released from their allegiance to him.” members, to wit: MM. de Talleyrand, de Beur. This motion was supported by the entire nonville, Compte de Jaucourt, the Duke de Dal Republican party, and by the friends of the berg, and the Abbé de Montesquiou. The ap. pointment of this government 10 be notified to the provisional government. Some senators, people by an address from the members of the personally devoted to the Bonaparte dynasty, government.”

quitted the Assembly. The question, without

debate, was immediately put to the vote, M. Talleyrand having observed that the and carried by a large majority. The proprovisional government, when it would have visional government were authorized to prepared the draft of the constitution, make public this important resolution. would give notice to the Senate, with a Immediately after this, the Senate proview to receive its enlightened aid in so ceeded to the Hotel Talleyrand, and were important a work: whereupon the Senate introduced by Talleyrand to the Emperor replied, that it charged the government to Alexander. The Czar still continued to declare, in its address to the nation-Ist. manifest the same state of uneasy exciteThat the senate and legislative body should ment, ever seeming to consider himself be declared integrant parts of the projected called upon for self-justification. constitution, with such conditions as would ensure liberty of suffrage, and the free ex- “ Messieurs” (said he, to the senators), “ I am pression of opinion.—2d. That the army ambition nor the desire of conquest that has

delighted to find myself among you. It is neither should retain its rank, pension, and bonors. brought me here. My armies have entered France -3d. That the national debt should be only to repel an unjust aggression. Your Empe. guaranteed.— th. That the sale of the ror has brought war to my very gates, when I national domains should be irrevocably earnestly desired peace. It is just and wise to give maintained.—5th. That no one should be to France strong and liberal institutions.” prosecuted for any political opinions he may have expressed. -6th. Freedom of Among the members of the provisional conscience and of the press to be esta- government, M. de Montesquiou alone was blished.

a devoted partisan of the Bourbons; but Such were to be the bases of the new even he admitted that no government, in constitution, to which the provisional go- the existing state of opinion, could hope to vernment was to pledge itself in its address stand which would not give some guarantee to the people. There were sixty-five mem- for the public liberties. The first meeting bers of the senate present at this meeting, of the members took place on the evening who, at its close, affixed their signatures to of the 1st April, the day of their appointthe procès-verbal, and thus pledged them- ment. Their first care was to put the Naselves to the views of the provisional go-tional Guard, then the only recognised vernment.

public force in the capital, under the comNot a word had yet been uttered as to mand of a chief devoted to the new order of the head of the future government, nor any things. General Dessolle, a friend of Moallusion made to the Emperor, then at reau, then in retirement, received this imFontainbleau, with a large and devoted portant charge. After a provisional minisarmy. It was necessary, however, that a try was formed, proclamations were issued, decided and immediate step be taken-in announcing to the army that although it nó short, the forfeiture of Napoleon must be longer was under Napoleon, it did not

It proposed; and, to effect this, Talleyrand, therefore cease to belong to France. as we have already said, directed his views was invited to submit to the authority of to the Republican party, whom he flattered the senate. In fine, the following proclawith the prospect of a very liberal consti- mation, prepared by Talleyrand, was istution. One of that party readily offered sued : to make the proposition in the Senate.

“ F1

!-Emerging from the civil discord, That body was accordingly convoked again you selected as your chief a man who appeared the following evening, 20 April, under the upon the theatre of the world, surrounded with the

characters of greatness. In him you placed all

In him you placed all government. Talleyrand, however, desiryour hopes. He has disappointed you. He has ing still to give his proceedings every legal not governed in the interests of the nation, nor

sanction, which, in such an emergency, was ism has ceased! The allied powers have

occupied attainable, urged the members of the legisthe capital. The senate have declared that Na- lative body to assemble and express their poleon has forfeited the throne. The country is collective opinion on what had been done. not for him. Frenchmen, rally round us! Peace This body had some time previously been is going to put a term to the confusion of Europe. dissolved by Napoleon, and contained a The august allies have pledged themselves to this. strong party opposed to him. A large The country, after its long agitations, will have number of its members were now dispersed repose ; and having been enlightened by the trials in the provinces, but still a considerable through which it has passed, first of anarchy and then of despotism, it will recover its happiness in pumber remained in the capital. These, the return to a paternal government."

by the instigation of Talleyrand, assembled

propria motu, and passed a resolution in Meanwhile, most of the civil authorities of accordance with that already adopted by Paris gave their adhesion to the provisional the Senate.

From Fraser's Magazine.



* How many hours have I trifled what we should call, in modern parlance, away, seated on an angle of one of its tur- his shooting-box, there. This, in time, rets, gazing on the flat but smiling scene grew into a sort of mansion, or, as our forebelow, unheeding, meantime, as the dews fathers called it, worthe, signifying a house; of evening fell around me, that the bat sped and here poor Sir William Dugdale, that by me, beating its wing on my forehead, best and most prosy of men, stops short. and that the starling had gone to its rest! Here is half a name, but he cannot find the And this was from one of the Lancastrian other half. He, therefore, observes that, towers, the centre of the ruined buildings, doubtless, the name Kenilworth came that portion which had once rung with from some ancient possessor of the place ;" shouts of revelry when Elizabeth tarried but whether “ his name were Kenelm or there, and where the lordly Dudley had Kenulph,” he cannot say; or whether this reigned supreme in his dark councils. fine bold forester, sometimes called Richard

Yet was not Kenilworth Castle the first Chinew in documents too old to think of of its name, for before the Conquest there without a headache, were the original stood, on the banks of the river Avon, owner, he does not determine. Certain it within the then royal demesne of Stonely, is the place has been called Kenil-worthe a castle in the woods opposite to the Abbey from time immemorial, and certain it is that of Stonely, or Stoneleigh. But in the wars it will be so for ever, since we shall now of King Canute's time that parent edifice have chronicles in railway-bills and histowas destroyed, and none arose in its stead rians in policemen. until the days of the lettered Henry I. The woods and the lake might please

At this period let your chronicler picture Richard Forestarius, and they seem also to to you all this district covered with thick have pleased the monarchs of England, who woods, save and except where, in the hol- quietly took possession of them after their low beneath a rising eminence, called by accustomed fashion. But no new castle the inhabitants of the village in Dugdale's arose in place of that ancient fort on the time the High Town, a lake flowed, aug- banks of the Avon, until a certain Norman mented (I wish I could improve its name) knight, named Geoffrey de Clinton, received by a stream denominated the Sow. And the manor as a present from his sakereign, in these woods hunted a certain Richard Beauclerk. Now this De Clinto found it, Forestarius, who had his dwelling-house,' doubtless, a very convenientes de from his

own place, Clinton in Oxfordshire, his clothed, they solemnly paraded, as their first abode in poor, pillaged England, to need might be, the stately chambers of the Kenilworth ; and coming into the woods, Clinton buildings. I feel myself shiver at and observing what Dugdale calls “ that the thought, for dark were sometimes their large and pleasant lake" (gone now, soaked hearts as well as their garments. up for ever!), he built there, adds the anti- De Clinton died, and when he was conquary, warming with his subject into a sort signed to that dast from which, as Dugdale of eloquence," that great and strong castle, expresses it, he so manifestly sprang, his which was the glory of all these parts, and, son succeeded to his honors and employfor many respects, may be ranked in a third ments. And now, in the troublous times place, at the least, with the most stately of the second Henry, Kenilworth rose in castles of England.

importance as a fortress; many people, Geoffrey, it seems, notwithstanding that paying a rent, obtaining leave to reside in our dear lover of the aristocracy, Dugdale, it for the security of their persons and must needs own him to have been of mean goods; and even the king found it expeparentage, and, indeed, raised from the dient to fortify Cæsar's Tower, and to re

dust,a strong word for our author, by plenish its stores of provisions, and evenKing Henry, was a man of extraordinary tually to take possession of it altogether. parts ; and being promoted to the office of So it passed out of the hands of the ClinLord Chamberlain and Treasurer, together tons, Geoffrey, the son of its founder, poswith the seemingly incongruous post of Lord sessing it scarcely seven years. In short, Justice of England, he might be worthy, the sheriff of the county, an office then perperhaps, to set his mean and dusty foot in petual, took upon himself the charge of the Warwickshire.

castle in the king's name ; and, among De Clinton forthwith began erecting other suitable additions, that of a gaol those strong, dauntless towers, which have formed a main feature in the items expendsurvived their younger and fairer sisters. ed upon Geoffrey de Clinton's edifice. The But such was his piety, that he did not canons, meantime, had prospered : manors, think it seemly to build his castle without farms, mills--that, for instance, at Guy's a monastery accompanying. Together with Cliff, near Warwick-had been added to the thick walls of Cæsar's Tower, which he their appurtenances; and still they fished built, arose those of a monastery of Black in the pool, still claimed their tithes. Canons; and there still remain the relics Their hour was not yet come. In those of that monument of superstition, or work ages which were reputed dark in our younger of faith, begun“ for the redemption of his days, but which we know, on the testimony

An arch, overgrown with ivy, of great philosophic writers around, to have standing isolated over a pathway which been light, their power was pre-eminent. leads from the village below the castle to Farewell to the Clintons, who, returning to the church, is yet to be seen and pondered their village of Clinton, now called Glimpupon, and, it is hoped, reverenced. From ton, and enjoying other estates, founded this, ere yet Geoffrey de Clinton was that great family of which his Grace the gathered to his forefathers, emerged grave Duke of Newcastle is the present represenmen, with eyes uplifted, canons regular of tative. the Order of St. Augustin, clad in white The castle, nevertheless, flourished; coats with linen surplices under a black Henry III. taking an evident delight in that cloak, with a hood covering their heads and fort, which is said to have given him shelnecks, nd reaching to their shoulders, ter from the treasons of the profligate John. having under it doublets, breeches, white And, therefore, the king chose to line the shoes or slippers ; these, when they walked chapel with wainscot : he made seats there abroad, visiting their patron, perchance, at for himself and his queen; he repaired the the castle, or going to shrive some wounded tower wherein the bells rang, and he reknight, or to sing mass in the church, or to newed the walls to the south, where still ride over to Warwick, or to visit the Grey they stand in honor of his memory: But Friars of Coventry, assumed a three-cor- ill was he repaid, and those very walls were nered cap, which surmounted their shaven soon barricaded against him. crowns; or wore, perchance, as the weather The career of Simon de Montfort is well dictated, a broad hat; and thus arrayed, known : a course of oppression varied by a and looking, it may be presumed, sackcloth journey to the Holy Land was the prelude and ashes, though they were so comfortably to the insurrection of the barons, of which De Montfort was the very soul and spirit. abbey-steeple, that he might have a better He had not, however, during that turbulent view. By this time, Edward had taken career, neglected to provide for the security down the young De Montfort's banner, and of his castle, which contained his dearest erected his own. The alarm was soon given, hostage, Simon, his son and heir. He for- and De Montfort, assembling his troops, tified that place, and appointed Sir John told them it was for the laws of the landGiffard, a knight of renowned courage, its yea, for the cause of truth and justice, that governor; and that the neighboring castle they were to fight.” But God, says Dugof Warwick might not interfere with its se- dale, owned “him not in this un-Christian curity, De Montfort made no scruple of enterprise.” surprising it, and carrying off the earl, The young and gallant Henry de Monthis wife, and family, prisoners to the gaol fort was in this engagement. His father of Kenilworth. But his knowledge as well had dressed him in his own armor, and as his power was formidable, and he intro- placed him in the van of his army; for De duced many new warlike engines for the de- Montfort had lost, ere the battle began, fence of the now kingly fortress ; " so that his ancient confidence and courage. “ May it was,” says the historian, “wonderfully God receive our souls, our bodies are in the stored."


hands of his enemies !” was his expression, The career of Simon de Montfort subse- as the conflict began. Then Edward's quently belongs to history. The events of troops found out the disguised Henry; yet the battle of Lewes, the detention of the he resisted them ; and, rushing through the king a prisoner at Hereford Castle, affected, host, protected his father. No quarter however, the importance of Kenilworth as a was given; and throughout that long sumcastle. For, in those stirring times, it mer's evening, for it was in August, the formed a refuge for the disaffected and va- battle went on. As the sun declined, setcillating barons. “Twenty banners," writes ting for ever upon the fated De Montfort old Dugdale, “and a great multitude of and his son, the gallant pair were found soldiers, were brought to this castle, which vainly resisting their foes. The veteran they made their station for awhile." Ken- warrior asked for quarter ; he was told ilworth, therefore, remained unscathed; for that none was given. Then he rushed it was now defended by the younger Simon among his foes, repeating, “God have de Montfort, who already began to rival mercy on our souls !" with a resolute dehis father in valor.

spair, and perished. His gallant son was The battle of Evesham destroyed, how- also slain. Guy, bis younger brother, was ever, effectually the fortunes of the De made a prisoner. Seven hours bad this Montfort family, three of whom perished battle lasted, and the Battle-well was, acin that engagement.

cording to tradition, choked up with blood. In the abbey of Evesham, Simon passed Many of the fugitives from Évesham hasthe anxious days before the battle ; but his tened to Kenilworth, where Simon, now heart was heavy, and his energy quite sub- the head of his haughty and valiant family, dued. Edward, the gallant and royal received them. And here, guarded by an youth, escaping from the hands of Morti-effective garrison, he continued to live in mer, was now advancing from the vicinity almost regal power. His castle was the of Kenilworth to face his own and his fa- very centre of discontent and sedition, and ther's foe. He planted himself on the brow it became the seat of arbitrary feudal power. of a hill near the town, the rear of his army From the stately tower of Cæsar the reckextending nearly to what is still called the less De Montfort, now the second Earl of Battle-well, a puddle down in a hollow in Leicester, sent forth his bailiffs and officers an orchard. De Montfort's observations like a king; his soldiers spoiling, burning, were, meantime, directed to the advancing plundering, and destroying the houses, and host. To disguise himself and his follow- towns, and lordships of their adversaries. ers, the prince bore the banner of young He led, in short, a sort of Rob Roy warDe Montfort, which had been taken at fare ; carrying off cattle, imprisoning many, Kenilworth. As he advanced, one Nicho- fining them for their liberty. las, a barber attending on De Montfort, But this could not endure for ever ;

and skilful in ensigns, dispatched a message to presently it was found that the royal forces his master that his son's forces were coming, had advanced to Warwick, there to await refor he knew the banner. But De Montfort, inforcements, and then to attack Kenilincredulous, desired the man to ascend the worth.

That princely building was still however) king's terms. No undue advantage of spared. Simon fled to France, for he saw their misery was taken by the merciful that his ruin was impending; and he left Henry; the governor had four days allowed the castle under the control of Henry de him to remove his goods from the castle ; Hastings, telling him to defend it stoutly, and Henry, journeying to Osney, near Oxand assuring him that he should be relieved. ford, celebrated the nativity of our Saviour On the day after the Feast of St. John the with great joy. Baptist, however, it was begirt by the king's Henceforth Kenilworth was to become a troops; and a message was sent to sum- royal residence ; for Henry bestowed it on mon it to surrender.

his younger son, Edmund, created after the But the garrison was inflexible; the mes-death of De Montfort, Earl of Leicester sengers were repulsed with engines casting and Duke of Lancaster. And here, with great stones; and the king, and even the a modified and respectable degree of power, pope's legate, Ottabon, who excommunicat- this young prince seems to have made himed them at once, did not daunt De Has- self comfortable enough. He had his two tings and his men.

mills standing on the lake; and several A wise and merciful resource for storm- freeholders, who held of him by suit and ing the castle was then adopted. For the fealty. He owned two woods; the one king dreaded again" imbruing the kingdom called the Frith the other the Park, then in streams of blood.” He therefore called common. He had his court-leet, his galtogether, under the authority of the legate, lows, assize of bread and beer, and a mara convention of the clergy and laity, to de- ket—or as my dear and respected Sir Wiltermine what was to be done with the es- liam Dugdale, Garter King-at-Arms, writes tates of those who were disinherited; and it doubtless with great propriety,"mercat” hence was framed the famous Dictum de on Tuesdays. Not only was this everyKenilworth, published in 1266, in the fifty-day power exhibited to the enthralled tenfirst year of Henry III. Of this, the chief antry, but galas were held, such as we article of import to our subject is the pow- moderns would give half our fortunes-such er given to every disinherited person to re-as have any, since the railroads—to have deem his land, by a fine, proportioned ac- witnessed. I mean the famous Round Tacording to the nature of his offence; and ble, which was established at Kenilworth, this dictum was proclaimed in the col- in 1279, by Roger Mortimer, earl of March, legiate church of St. Mary, at Warwick, its chief, " and the occasion thereof." Now the following Sunday, the king, his coun- the Round Table was a knightly game, cil, and a great auditory of all estates and consisting of one hundred knights and as degrees attending.

many ladies, who, for exercise of arms, So Kenilworth stood in all her integrity came together to assemble in the stately and beauty, and again set her foes at de- chambers of Kenilworth. fiance. But the De Montforts owned it no cause and spirit of this institution were de

Still danger threatened the noble rived from feudal pride and power. It was pile, for De Montfort contemptuously re- suggested in order to avoid contention jected the proffered mercy of the king, about precedency, and was rather a reviwhich travelled after him to Ely, and dis- val than a novelty, the custom of the Round claimed the authority of the council, since Table being one of great antiquity. Gaily "he had no voice in it ;"! “ at which the and gallantly were the games conducted, king," writes our grave and loyal historian, from the feast of St. Mathew the Apostle, “was greatly moved, and gave orders to even unto Michalmas. The tilt yard was storm the castle."

thronged with brave competitors, and the He issued, therefore, a special writ to hall with ladies dancing, and clad, when the sheriff of Warwickshire to bring in all they assembled round the table, in silk manthe masons and other laborers within his tles to show their degree. The banquet precinct (now called pioneers), with their was afterwards held at the Round Table. hatchets, pickaxes, and tools, to North- Many knights came from foreign countries ampton, to await his orders.

for the exercise of arms. The Round TaMeantime, however, an epidemic raged ble was eventually perpetuated by Edward within the towers of Kenilworth, and the III., who built at Winchester a house callhearts of the garrison sank within them. ed the Round Table, of “an exceeding Their provisions became scarce, and, after compasse to the exercise of like, or farre some deliberation, they agreed to the greater chevalry within."

And the very


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