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prayers. They will fell down our woods, and break all our gods."

"Alas, dear Zaboy! thy song comes from the heart, and goes to the heartto a heart drowned in bitterness. Like Lumir, minstrel of yore, who enraptured Wyszogrod, and all the lands around; so thou hast touched me and all my brethren here. All good min strels are beloved by gods: from them thou hast thy song, to awaken courage against the foes."

Zaboy threw a look on Slawoy's kindled eyes, and retook his song:

"Two sons, whose voices to manly strength had grown, went often to the wood. There they exercised their skill, in sword, battle-axe, and spear; there they concealed their weapons; but when their arms and mind gained strength, they with joy retook them to take the field against the foe. Followed they were by other manly brethren, and together gave front to the foe. There was a fight like a stormy heaven, but the bliss of former days returned to their home."

All at once they sprung into the dale towards Zaboy. Each one pressed him in his sinewy arms. Then, from breast to breast they passed their hands, and exchanged gathering words. And the night approached to the dawn. They left the dale, each going lonely. To every thicket to all sides of the wood they went. One day passed, and so another; and whilst the night darkened on the third, Zaboy proceeds to the woods, and through the woods behind him follow hosts of warriors; each of them true to his chief; each with a heart too stubborn to obey a foreign king; each with a sharp weapon.

"Now, Slawoy, dear brother! on to yon blue mountain's brow; its summit overlooks all the lands around. On, let us bend our steps from the hills to the morning sun, (to the east). There is a gloomy wood; there our hands may plight faith. Now, go thou thi~ ther with fox's steps; I'll follow thee


"Ah, Zaboy! trusty brother! why is it, that our swords must, from the top of the mountain, begin dreary battles? Rather from this spot let us seek our foes, king's slaves!"

66 Slawoy! dear brother! wilt thou crush a viper, on its head put thy foot, and there is the head."

Dispersed to the right and to the

left, the warriors proceed through the wood. Here they range at the words of Zaboy, there at the words of Slawoy, their chiefs; and so move, beneath the gloom of the trees, onward to the blue heights of the mountains; and, after three suns had passed, they reached to each other their vigorous hands, and spied, with the fox's look, the king's warriors.

"Ludeck, range thou thy warriors unto one (battle). Ludeck, thou art slave above all slaves to the kings. Tell thou thy savage tyrant, that his orders are smoke to us.'

And Ludeck kindled in wrath.Straight with one call gathers his warriors. Full light is beneath the heavens. Each way in the sun-beams the spears of kingly power glitter bright. Ready they are to go where Ludeck goes, and to strike where he commands.

"Now, Slawoy, dear brother! haste thither with fox's steps. I'll go and strike them in the front."

And Zaboy struck in the front like hail; and Slawoy struck in the side like hail.


Alas, brother! they are those who have broken our Gods; felled down our groves; scared away our hawks. Gods will give us victory."

And a front of numerous hosts, headed by Ludeck, rushes against Zaboy; and Zaboy, with flaming eyes, rushes against Ludeck. Like oak against oak, seen both above the other trees.

Zaboy presses to Ludeck alone.→→ Ludeck strikes with a heavy sword, and cuts through the threefold fells of his shield. Zaboy strikes with an axe. Ludeck swiftly avoided the blow. Towards the tree fell the axe. The tree falls down on the warriors, and thirty of them go to their fathers.

Ludeck in wrath: "O thou baleful seed! thou great monster of serpents! with a sword fight with me.'

Zaboy grasped the sword, and cuts from his foe's shield a corner. Ludeck, too, grasped his sword; but the sword slips down the iron shield. Both kin dle in fire to wound each other. They cut in rags all they had on; spread with blood all around them-with blood all the warriors, and all that was in that gory battle.

The sun passed the noon, and from noon to the evening half way-yet they fought. Neither here nor there

yielded any one; every where lasted Slawoy's deadly strife.

"O, thou foe! Fiend is in thee; wherefore dost thou drink our blood?" Zaboy grasped his axe, and Ludeck sprung back; he lifted the axe up, and threw it at his foe. The axe flies; to shivers breaks the shield, and beneath the shield Ludeck's breast.-The soul shrunk at the heavy blow. It chased the soul from the body, and flew five furlongs amidst the army.-Fright out of the throats of foe forced shrieks; and joy rung from the lips of Zaboy's warriors, and sparkled in their eye. "Now, dear brother! Gods gave us victory. One band of your's may speed to the right, one to the left. Let them bring coursers hither, hither from every dell." The horses neigh in all the woods-"Zaboy! dear brother! Thou art a lion without fear. Cease not from the bloody work."

At this Zaboy threw away his shield. In one hand he takes an axe, in the other a sword, and wielding them from side to side and forward, cuts a way amidst the enemies. They shake with fear, and flee the field. Fright out of the throats of the foe forced shrieks. The horses neigh through all the woods.

"To horse, to horse! On horses pursue the foe! Through all the lands drive them. Let us carry amongst them terror and destruction."

And fierce they sprung on their fiery steeds. Hard behind they press upon the foemen. Wound on wound they inflict; heap slaughter on slaughter. The vallies, the hills, the woods pass by-to the right and to the left-all flies behind.

Lo! There the holy river murmurs by. Wave towers over wave. The warriors shout shrill, and close step in step press on each other. Together they cross the foaming stream. Its waves had borne many a foreigner,

(foe) down; but their own friends in safety carried to other banks.

The cruel kite spreads in breadth and length its long wings over the lands, and keenly darts on each bird. The warriors of Zaboy, dispersed in bands, chased the foe far and wide over the country. Every where they killed and crushed them beneath their horses' hoof. In the night, under the moon, they hung on their back; in the day, under the sun, they hung on their back; and again, in the dark night, and after the night, in the dawn of the day-every where they hung on them.

The holy river murmurs by. Wave towers over wave. All shout shrill, and close step in step follow each other. Together they cross the foaming stream. Its waves had borne down many a foreigner, (foe); but their own friends in safety carried to other banks.

"Go on! thither to the grey mountains. There will end our vengeance! O, Zaboy! dear brother! behold the mountains; already they are not far off, and few are our foes; and even those implore our pity. Turn to yonder side; thou hither, I thither, to knock down all that is kingly! The winds blow destruction through all the villages: the armies bring desolation through the villages-through the villages to the right and to the left. On, warriors, on! with broad strength, and with cry of joy.

"O, dear brother! There the broad top of the mountain. Gods gave us this victory; and there many a soul lingers, hovering unsteady on the trees -a terror to the birds and timorous beasts; the owls alone they fear not them. There upon this summit let us bury the dead, and give food to the pious. There let us bring rich offerings to Gods, who gave us again our freedom. Let us sing them pleasing words, and heap up the spoils of the conquered foe.'


THE state of society in Arabia seems to have continued nearly the same since the first mention of that country in history. The population is divided into tribes, or clans, which are each sprung from one stock, and governed

A. D. 1819-20.

by an independent chief, the head of the family.

There are two principalities, however, in the peninsula, which may be considered innovations on the patriarchal form of government. The one

situated on the Persian Gulph is subject to the Imaum of Muscat, the other on the Red Sea to the Imaum of Senna. These appear to have had their origin in the changes produced by the introduction of commercial habits; and the new form of society and government, which arose from the consequent division of occupations, and the acquirement of fixed property. The remaining part of Arabia is occupied by tribes, who acknowledge no superior beyond their patriarchal leader, and who, for the most part, have no fixed habitations, and no property that is not moveable. The country is too arid to promise much from cultivation, and the inhabitants subsist chiefly on the produce of their flocks, which they drive from place to place, as circumstances may require. Like all people in a similar state of society, they are given to plunder, and their predatory habits have made them warlike.

The tribes which settled on the coast seem to have lived for a considerable time in a manner perfectly similar to those in the interior, but as the use of boats obliged them to chuse for their residence situations where these could be accommodated, they were induced to build houses, to plant date trees, and cultivate the soil; the incursions of their neighbours forced them to erect fortifications for the defence of their property, and thus they fixed themselves permanently to the spot where they had first taken up their abode.*

As their form of government was not changed, and as they retained many of their former habits, and amongst others, their predatory tendencies, they were induced by the prospect of a richer plunder, to carry on their depredations by sea, rather than by land; thus they became pirates. In doing so, however, they could not be said to have changed their habits, but only the element on which they followed what they considered to be their original and natural occupation. These tribes, therefore, differed widely from a body of persons of various nations and occupations, who had separated themselves from an organized and civilized society, and without any other bond

of union had associated for purposes of plunder. The Arabs had a nationality which could not belong to such a community; and their habits were predatory, not from choice, but as the natural and necessary consequence of the state of society amongst them. These habits, therefore, did not necessarily vitiate their moral character in its domestic relations, otherwise than as war in general has a tendency to vitiate; for when they confined their depredations to attacks on the Persian vessels, they differed in nothing from a nation at war with Persia, and when they became more bold, and attacked all vessels of whatever country, they differed in nothing from a nation at war with all the world.

As they were not strong enough to put down opposition by their power, or to carry on their depredations where they were frequently opposed, they were induced, like other barbarians in similar circumstances, to practise a system of terror, and endeavour to prevent opposition by the dread of their vengeance. They accordingly put to death all who opposed them, of whatever nation or persuasion, and committed every description of barbarous outrage. Thinking it necessary to justify such proceedings, they found religious pretexts for what they had done, and declared such deeds to be meritorious and pleasing in the sight of God. When it is remembered for what execrable purposes religious pretexts were often found amongst Christians, even in our own country, such a circumstance will appear the less extraordinary and inexcusable.

The Arabs at first confined their predatory excursions to the Persian Gulph, and the coasts near its entrance; but being almost invariably fortunate, success made them more bold, and more powerful, till at last they issued forth from their inland sea, and infested the whole coast of India, as far as Cape Comorin.

During the progress of these depredations, there arose in Arabia a new sect, calling themselves Wahabees, from their leader Abdul Wahab. They taught that the religion of Mahomed had been degraded, and the true faith hid in a mass of impure doctrine, little

* Rasul Khymah, which, literally translated, is "The Promontory of Tents," grew in this manner into a considerable town out of the incampment which gave it its name.

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better than the religion of the heathen: They condemned the use of the name of Mahomed in prayer, and above all, denied him any supernatural power or assistance. They considered him a devout and enlightened man, and they followed his faith and his doctrines with more strictness and attention than any amongst the Mussulmen. They trusted themselves to the guid ance of the one God, whom they worshipped, and would not associate any other name with his. They believed themselves to be under his particular protection, and expected, or pretended to expect, his special interference in their behalf, as the reward of superior devoutness and holiness.

Abdul Wahab claimed no temporal authority, but he collected large sums of money for religious purposes, and became virtually a ruler in Arabia over a numerous but scattered tribe. Missionaries were sent out in every direction, and were successful wherever they went. A great part of the tribe Johafsim, or properly Gohafsin, a powerful piratical tribe on the coast, were converted to the faith, and the Bedowins were following their example.

The Imaum. of Muscat, one of the most powerful chiefs in Arabia, and an ally of the British government, was tottering on his throne. The Imaum of Senna was in danger, and Deria, the chief place of the Wahabees, had become one of the first towns or cities in Arabia. Many from amongst the pirates having become Wahabees, this sect supported the predatory system, and were supported by the pirates in their turn. In a short time they gained so great an ascendancy on the coast, that they became the ruling power, and being engaged constantly in predatory excursions, the terms Pirate and Wahabee were almost considered synonymous in the Gulf.

In the year 1809, the Imaum of Muscat begged the assistance of the Bombay government against the people of Rasul Khymah, and of several other ports, which were either in possession of the Wahabees, or associated with thein, and under their influence. As these pirates had molested the trade of India for several years, and even at tacked the Company's armed cruizers, the government were inclined to cooperate with the Imaum in reducing them; and an expedition under com

mand of Colonel (now General) Lionel Smith, proceeded to and attacked Rasul Khymah, drove the Arabs from the town, burnt the boats, and destroyed all the property in the place. They proceeded also to the other ports, and returned, having executed all that was required by their instructions.

It was supposed that the Wahabees and Johafsims would not again attempt to molest our trade, but this calculation proved to be erroneous; they were strong on the sea in a few years, and became bolder, more formidable, and more successful than ever.

The Bombay marine having been much reduced, was inadequate to the protection of the coasts; even in the vicinity of Bombay, a boat was not safe a mile from our harbour. In the year 1819, the insurance rose to such a rate, that the premium to Kutch, five days sail, was as high as to England; and the merchants of Bombay sent up to government a petition praying for the remission of a tax of one per cent. on imports, which was levied expressly and exclusively to defray the expenses of an establishment for the protection of the coasting trade.

About this time, (1818-19,) Mahommed Ally-Pacha of Egypt, percei ving that the power of the Wahabees had grown into a great kingdom, and that they had taken possession of the holy places of Mecca and Medina, led an army against them into Arabia, and defeating them in several battles, made himself master of Deria, and sent their chief, Abdullah, prisoner to Constantinople, where he was beheaded by order of the Porte.

In the days of the prosperity of the Wahabees, those of the sect who resided on the coast paid a tribute to the chief at Deria, which was collected by Hassin bin Ally, by repute a very learned and devout man, who having gone to Deria in his youth, was there converted to the faith of the Wahabees, and returning to his own country in the vicinity of Rasul Khymah, preached the doctrines of his sect to the tribe Gohafsin, to which he belonged, and converting many of them, became a chief of some power and great influence, and settled himselfat Rumps, about six leagues from Rasul Khymah.

Sultan Bin Suggur, chief of the tribe Gohafsin, at one time ruled in Rasul Khymah, as well as in Shyah,

which he still holds; but he was forced, by divisions in his tribe, and by the power of Hassin bin Ally, to give the government of the former to Has sin Bin Rahma, the son of his father's brother, who became a Wahabee on his being put in authority.

After the fall of Deria, the death of Abdullah, and the destruction of the Wahabee power in the interior, Hofsin bin Ally continued to demand the tribute from Hassin bin Rahmah, who refused to pay tribute for a government that did not exist; and thus a dispute arose between the chiefs. But each carried on his depredations by sea, as did also Sultan bin Suggur, till matters being in this situation, the government of India ordered a force to be sent against them, and appointed Sir William Grant Keir to command.

As the Arabs had long dreaded another attack from the side of India, so they endeavoured to prepare themselves against it, and the people of Rasul Khymah put aside one-third of their plunder for the purpose of building a fort to protect the town. This fort was accordingly built, and the defences of the town repaired and improved before the expedition under Sir William Keir had left India.

Hassin bin Ally, too, had abandoned Rumps, which was not naturally strong, and had fortified himself in the adjacent hill of Zyaph.

Such being the state of Arabia, the question arose, What will be the most advantageous course to pursue after the towns and forts of the pirates shall fall into our hands?

Some were of opinion that the atrocities which they had committed demanded retaliation-that a system of persecution, extending to the capture and detention of all the armed persons who could be taken-the total destruction of all property, boats, houses, and plantations-blocking up the creeks and harbours, and doing all that could be done towards exterminating the tribes engaged in piracy, was the mode best calculated to restore peace and order; and they proposed, at the same time, to leave a force at some convenient station in the Gulf, to check any attempt on the part of the Arabs to return to their former habits. The Bombay government seemed inclined to lean to this view of the question rather than any other.

Some however contended, that though

the Arabs deserved retaliation, it was not our interest to retaliate to the extent which might be in our power, though it was necessary to establish our absolute superiority-that it was not advisable to persecute-that the nature of the country was such as would make it impossible for a force, equipped like ours, to follow the Arabs into the interior-that the detention of all the persons we could possibly capture, would not materially weaken the pirates, but only exasperate them -that the destruction of houses and plantations would make them desperate, without driving them from the coast, and would, moreover, entail far more misery on the women and children, than on those who had actually committed depredations-that the destruction of all boats indiscriminately was impolitic, for that they could be replaced, though not for some time, and that the people could not live honestly or peaceably in the mean time, without them-that the destruction of all boats would therefore force them to a continuance of their predatory habits, whereas, if they retained such as were fitted for fishing, they could subsist without plunder. They contended, that to prevent the Arabs from plundering, it was necessary to engage them in some other occupation by which they could subsistthat it was our duty, as well as our interest, to make the transition from a predatory to a peaceful life, as easy and profitable as possible, and that it was therefore desirable to gain their confidence, so soon as we had shewn them our power and superiority in


These opinions, however, were maintained only by a few, and by far the greater number of persons did not hesitate to give a decided preference to the former plan. Of those, however, into whose hands the conduct of the affairs of the expedition fell, several were inclined to the latter, and seemed willing to leave the matter to the decision of circumstances.

The force destined for the Gulf, consisting of about 1400 European, and as many native troops, with artillery, pioneers, and a battering train, was embarked at Bombay on the first day of November, and sailed on the third, under convoy of his Majesty's ship Liverpool, Captain Collier, and Curlew, Captain Walpole. On the 25th, the

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