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and habit of self-assertion. Men think it un- powers,” if it were not true that temporal aumanly to admit any claim looking to superiority thority is, in part, designed to illustrate the in their fellow-men. This feeling is often car. sovereignty of God; — still, we ought to feel ried so far as to end in a spirit of unreasoning that the offices dignified by the labors of Wastopposition to such as are placed in authority, ington, Jefferson, Franklin, and the Adamses, merely because they are in authority. Even the can never become wholly common and unclean youth in our schools, and the "help" on our until the country is prepared to take that fearful farms and in our kitchens, are very impatient leap into the gulf of revolution which France under legitimate restraint or command. They took in 1789. must be deferred to, and their inclination ap- It has been a popular notion that every man peased by such sweet phrases as “if you please," was fit for any position to which he could pro“if you have a mind to,” when service or obe- cure his election or appointment. The question dience is required of them. The commanders was not, am I capable, am I honest, am I the of our regiments recently encountered this un- best man to be found; but, cán I be elected ; yielding spirit, and had a difficult task to mould and not even that, but can I procure my election such a mass of stubborn will into cheerful obe- by using any or every means — by descending dience. Their men lacked neither courage, ca- to acts which, in a sound commonwealth, would pacity or endurance. They would not blench forever politically, as they do morally, disqualin the face of a battery, and were pleasantly af- ify their author from holding any position of fected by the risks of a scouting expedition. honor, trust or emolument. A man might have But to submit to rigid rules; to bend or con- been a gambler, a horse-jockey, or circus-clown form their will to that of another was the most yesterday, yet, without character or culture unpalatable part of the subordinate soldier's above the demands of such a vocation, you duties; and to secure it, perhaps the most diffi- would find him a candidate for Congress or the cult part of the officer's work. But this same Presidency, to-day. And, if he could secure unpalatable military rule, with its terrible in- the requisite number of votes, you would find flexibility, will, in the end, break down all in- this man troubled with no scruple upon the subordination; and its exacting demands come subject of incompetency. He would assume to us somewhat providentially, in this respect, to the duties of the post with a confidence inverseteach us that there must be authority, restraint, ly as his capacity. Many regard this as the unquestioning obedience, not only as a theory glory of our institutions, that the poorest has of Christian ethics, but as a practical element in an equal chance of preferment with the most national life. We shall thus be taught positive- favored. Properly understood, this is a grand ly, from army discipline, and negatively, from distinction between our own and all other gorthe dire results every where apparent by reason ernments. But are poverty and obscurity alone of the flagrant act of disobedience and insubor- sufficient qualifications for responsible office dination of which the sloyal portion of the Must we always dignify “ need, greed and vancountry is guilty.
ity,” by giving them the noblest prizes in the And we shall learn, not only how to obey, gift of a free people ? As I conceive, the notion
under consideration has wrough: us incalculabut also, how to respect those placed in authori
ble injury in almost every relation of life. It ty over us. Was the lesson needed? I think,
has, for instance, placed in command of troops as a national trait, we had nearly lost the sus
in the dread issue of war, men who might have ceptibility of reverence; and, generally, the
been able to fill a brief, who were able to demonsurest way for a man to forfeit all claim to re
strate their celerity in running away from the spect and public esteem was to run for or attain
foe; but with no other perceptible element of office. It is true, there was, often, little to re
fitness for office than those questionable ones. spect in the character of public officers; but,
It has made us so superficial in matters of pubthen, the people, having deliberately chosen
lic polity, and even in the ordinary transactions such men to represent them, should not, by exposing and decrying their unfitness, contribute
of mercantile, manufacturing and professional
life, that about the only thing we could be said to depreciate civil authority and to lessen the influence which civil government, from its na
to do thoroughly was to humbug. We almost ture and objects, should exercise over the mind.
merited the application of the couplet originally If we had not been taught by the Apostle that
designed for that famous English prince,
• Who, in the course of one revolving moon, “every soul should be subject unto the higher
Was fiddler, statesman, chemist and buffoon."
But, it is to be hoped, we are in a fair way to enlarged and comprehensive wisdom which inbe relieved of this mischievous idea. It is be- cludes education, knowledge, religion, freedom, ginning to dawn upon many minds that a man with every influence which extends, and every must have a military education and military ge- institution which supports them. nius or aptitude to command men on the field Thus, if we make a proper use and applicaof battle. The resignation of one hundred and tion of the stern lessons we are receiving, we fifty commissioned officers recently, self-convict- shall stand, at the close of the rebellion, greated of incompetencey, will not be thrown away er, purer, and stronger than we ever have been. in matters not military. The value of special We shall have expended hundreds of millions training will appear in a favorable light from the of dollars, and thousands of brave lives shall importance which is attached the services of have been offered upon their country's altar; West Point graduates. And will not the exam- but in return, we sha!l be enriched, in every ination to which candidates for army appoint- element which can compact, liberalize and esments are subjected, lead to the impression that tablish a State - in self-sacrifice, self-respect, there are other tests of fitness for office besides patriotism, love of justice and consistency; and personal popularity, or party popularity, or par- these United States, no longer a house divided ty availability, and that many things are requir- against itself, but united indeed, shall become ed to qualify a man for the duties of public life and be forever, one in interest, one in sympathy besides a certificate from the clerk of elections, and one in endeavor. This is the ideal of the and an oath to support the constitution ? true patriot to-day, and it is none too high or
It is likely, then, from these and similar con- visionary; for beneath the outward events of siderations, that we shall learn to respect spe- the world — the battles of parties, the schemcial fitness, personal worth, skill and talent: ings of factions, the elevation of peoples and the that we shall seek ou: these qualities and press fall of kings, the doings of the active and the them into the public service.
theories of the speculative—the sure providence We shall be as deeply disciplined in heroism of God is operating in the depths of humanity, as ever a nation was before. Look at the deeds inspiring its powers, guiding its destiny and of devotion and self-sacrifice which daily find preparing it to vindicate everywhere the Divine their way through the press to every family cir- likeness in which it was originally created. cle in the land. Such teaching as this, of itself, might energize and regenerate a country infinite- The Tools Great Men Work With. ly more apathetic and depraved than ours has
It is not tools that make the workman, but ever yet been. A nation, like a man, becomes
the trained skill and perseverance of the man heroic when it dares to suffer, when it chooses
himself. Indeed, it is proverbial that the bad to suffer ; when it prefers an appalling risk to an ignoble safety; when we see that what it en- asked Opie by what wonderful process he mix
workman never yet had a good tool. Some one dures it prefers to endure in obedience to some ed his colors. “I mix them with my brains, great principle of Right; when it can let the
sir," was his reply. It is the same with every last drop of its life-blood go before it can let
workman who would excel. Ferguson made justice, honor and self-respect go. And this is
marvellous things - such as his wooden clock, the stand this nation is taking at the present time. Let us be thankful that such heroism has
that accurately measured the hours — by means
of pen-knife,- a tool in everybody's hand, but its being in our day.
then everybody is not a Ferguson. A pan of Doubtless we shall be instructed in many oth
water and two thermometers were the tools by er respects. We shall learn that modesty which
which Dr. Black discovered latent heat; and a lets another praise it and not its own mouth."
prism, a lens, and a sheet of pasteboard enabled We shall see clearly, in the issues, sacrifices and
Newton to unfold the composition of light and sufferings of the present war, that it is never
the origin of color. An eminent foreign savant safe to depart, in the smallest degree, from prin
once called upon Dr. Wollaston, and requested ciple; that
to be shown over his laboratory, in which sci" To side with Truth is noble, though we share its bitter
ence had been enriched by so many important crust, Ere its cause bring fame and profit, and 'tis prosperous discoveries, when the doctor took him into a to be just."
study, and, pointing to an old tea-tray on the We shall be made to feel that the true greatness table, containing a few watch-glasses, test-paof a nation consists solely in wisdom; — in that pers, a small balance and a blow-pipe, said ;
“ There is all the laboratory I have !" Stothard
From the Indiana Echool Journal. learnt the art of combining colors by closely The Cramming vs. The Drawing-Out System. studying butterflies' wings ; he would often say
BY THOMAS J. VATER. that no one knew what he owed to these tiny insecte. A burnt stick and a barn door served This case has been pending for many years; Wilkie in lieu of pencil and canvas. Berwick has been passed upon by many courts, but has first practiced drawing on the cottage-walls of never had a final judgment rendered. And I his native village, which he covered with sketch. hope it never will. New trials have been grantes in chaik; and Benjamin West made his first ed, appeals taken, and new advocates secured, brushes out of the cat's tail. Ferguson laid him- almost without number, and still it remains an self down in the fields by night in a blanket and open question ; and, as one against the other, made a map of the heavenly bodies by means of I'm confident it ever will. It is now before the a thread with small beads on it, stretched be court of Indiana Teachers, has been discussed tween his eye and the stars. Franklin first rob- variously by the advocates of Loth plaintiff and bed the thunder-cloud of its lightning by means defendant, and seems as far from settlement as of a kite made with two cross-sticks and a cross
Indeed, I see no way to settle the dishandkerchief. Watt made the first model of pute save that of compromise. the condensing steam-engine out of an old an
In this, as indeed most all cases at law, both atomist's syringe, used to inject the arteries pre-parties are right, and both wrong. Each right vious to dissection. Gifford worked his tirst
in what it claims for itself, and wrong in what problem in mathematics, when a cobbler's ap. it denies the other. Let the "C. S.” and the prentice, upon sinall scraps of leather, which
“ D. 0. S.,” brothers as they are, grant this he beat smooth for the purpose ; while Ritten
point as they should, and the dispute is at an house, the astronomer, first calculated eclipses end; a compromise is effected; the case dison his plow-handle. - Smiles' Self-Help.
missed from court; and they both will move on
harmoniously and effectively in the work of Love of Country.
educating mankind, whose necessities demand BREATHES there a man with soul so dead, that the unnatural hostility should cease; and Who never to himself hath said,
that the advocates of each should unite them in This is my own my native land!
the prosecution of their noble purpose of eleWhose heart has ne'er within him burned,
vating and improving the human mind. As home, his footsteps he hath turned From wandering strand ?
The Cramming System, which means the sysIf such then breathe, go mark him well;
tem of putting in — filling up — is a very imFor him no minstrel raptures swell;
portant element in the education of our kind. High though his titles, proud his name, Indeed, it is a most important - nay, absoluteBoundless his wealth as wish can claim ; ly essential one — and must not be dispensed Despite those titles, power and pelf, with. Else, all applications of the Drawing The wretch concentred all in self,
Out System will result in utter failure ; for the Living, shall forfeit fair renown,
very simple and apparent reason, that nothing And doubly dying, shall go down
can be drawn out from the thing into which To the vile dust from whence he sprung,
nothing has been previously put. Unwept, unhonored and unsung.
The Drawing Out System, which means the
leading of the mind to make an application of EDUCATION IN NEW JERSEY.—The annual the facts and principles of which it is possessed report of the Superintendent of Public Schools — using knowledge – is also a very important shows that the number of these in operation and practical element in our education, and
1st year was 1669, which were attended by 137,578 pupils, or 58.264 on an average. In for- must by no means be dispensed with. Else the ty-two cities and townships the schools are free. application of the Cramming System will be of The amount of money raised and expended in no avail; for knowledge unapplied, is an article 1861, was $549,123, an increase of $17,383, as without the least particle of value to the poscompared with 1860. Of this sum $80,000 was appropriated by ths State for the support of sessor. We think these facts are indisputable, public schools, $10,000 for the Normal School, and so, almost, self-evident that they need no and $1200 for the Farnum Preparatory Insti- application. It is very important that children tute. The remainder was mostly raised by 10cal taxation, $40,440 having been derived from should learn to think ; to reason from what they “other sources,"
know to what they do not know; and it is evi
SIR WALTER SCOTT.
dent they cannot think, without something to comes knowledge. The mind is capable of graspthink about ; cannot reason from what they ing grand and mighty principles, and deinonknow nothing.
strating almost with absolute certainty, certain Education is development; development is results from certain relations ; but the relations growth. The most perfect education is the must first be a matter of knowledge. From most perfect development; the most perfect de- certain facts have been deducted principles ; velopment is the most perfect growth; and the but the facts were those well known. most perfect growth, is that which in form, size Thus I discover both systems are essential to and adaptation is best calculated to render its a perfect education, and neither can be dispenspossessor useful or give him the ability to be ed with. If I omit the Cramming System, there useful.
is a want of knowledge of facts and things, from By the usages of society, education is divided which to make deductions. If I omit the Drawinto three branches, viz., Physical, Mentul and ing Out System, there is a want of application Moral. Of the first the modus is most apparent, of knowledge possessed, to make it useful. although it has occupied no considerable atten- So the question should not be, when begintion of our people. It is simple; food and ex- ning the work of an education, upon which sysercise. The first is the Cramming, the second tem shall I proceed ? but shall I use them both the Drawing Out System. First obtain the at once, or one at a time: If one at a time, strength by absorption, then use it and increase which first? These are important questions, it by diffusion; by expending it on surround- upon the correct solution of which depends the ing objects. Observe. You may develop with success of my labors in the noble work of inbut little exercise, by mere absorption, by feed- structing. I would answer always, one at a ing, but the development will be imperfect and time. One thing at a time should be the prinprofitless. You may, also, develop with but ciple upon which the teacher works. One thing little absorption, by exercise, but it will be an at a time; that done well, begin another. Do inferior, defective development thus attained. not try to pour in and pour out at the same time; You may develop by food and little exercise; or I shall be sure to do neither very effectively. you may develop by exercise and but little food; The more distinctly the time for each thing is but in either case the development is so imper- brought before the mind of a child, the more fect as to be almost, if not quite valueless. But readily will it perceive and know and do its you cannot have a complete and perfect devel- duty. opment without both food and exercise, of the To the question, " which first," it seems to right kind and quality, at the right times. Per- me there can be but one answer. The Cramfect Physical education is obtained, then, and ming first, then the Drawing Out. obtained only, by the application of the two There is a very simple, yet perfect, instrument systems, – the Cramming and Drawing Out. for emptying fluid from a cask, called a siphon. Eitber, alone, will not accomplish it, but com- It consists merely of a tube bent in form similar bined they are all-sufficient.
to a lady's hair pin, with one arm a little longer This, then, seems to be a law of development. than the other. By filling this tube with water So far as I know, a law of all kinds of physical and immersing the short arm in the cask till it development,- man or beast, animal or vegeta- reaches the bottom, the long arm passing outble. And I see no reason for thinking the law side and reaching below the bottom, the fluid of mertal and moral development differs very in it will pass through the tube, from the botmaterially from it. In fact, observation and tom, over the top and oui, until the cask is enexperience convince me that the laws governing tirely empty. each, are identical in fact, and uniform in action. The Siphon, alone, has no power; but it has
All acquired knowledge is relative and not capacity. And if I will but fill it once, it will absolute. We know what we observe or expe- draw for me a million times its own contents, rience. And we observe or experience that if there be so much within its reach. But obwhich comes of our relations to the world about serve, I must first fill it; must first put someus. Then from what we know, we reason to thing in, before I can draw something out. Yea, what we do not know; and this deduction is if need be to express it in its true form, I must only conviction or belief. Time resolves this cram it full to overflowing; and then I can draw into the observation or experience of some one, out what I wish. it may be the same, or another, and it then be-l I have thought, and the thought presses it. self upon me, that the infant mind is not un- structures; but to know them as they are prelike that instrument. It has wonderful capaci- sented to it, entire and complete. It cares not ties — capacities almost infinitely beyond our to know the component parts of a loaf of bread; comprehension ! — but no power. It is an emp- or method of its construction, until it is familiar ty, helpless thing, until the warm, gushing love with bread and its use. And it will learn all of a mother, kindly affection of sister and broth- about bread, its use, mode of construction and er, and assiduous care of a teacher, has stored component parts, much quicker by beginning at its mind brim-full of knowledge; knowledge of the right place first than otherwise ; even if it facts and things. It can learn these; they are were possible to teach the analysis of a thing of congenial to its nature. Principles are abstract, which we are entirely ignorant. the child-mind cannot comprehend them : takes Having arrived at this truth, and I think it no interest in them, until it begins to mature. an incontrovertible one, I would have it fully
The process by which the mind obtains a impressed on my mind; carry it with me, and knowledge of the former, is absorbent, entirely; apply it at all times; in every step of educait literally drinks them in, and stores them tional progress. One or two applications, for away, as they present themselves. That by my article is already longer than anticipated, which it obtains a knowledge of the latter is and I am done. purely inductive. It literally draws out from The first step in school education is to learn what it knows. From this thing, and its ac- to read ; but little else can be done until this is tion; this fact, and its relation ; certain princi- accomplished. To learn to read we must learn ples are deduced. This kind of mental labor, words. Words represent things and thoughts ; to the young child, is drudgery. It cannot per- these the child has, before it enters the schoolform it - was not made for it - it has other room. Spoken words represent them to the work to do. Its office is to perceive the appa- ear, and writien, to the eye. With the lat. rent, and not to discover the hidden. “Who is ter representation, as a teacher, I have most to that?" " What is that?" What makes do; and how shall I begin? Shall I follow them do so ?” are ever a child's inquiries.
nature; or, establish custom? Shall I do as Shall it ask for naught? Shall I attend care- my father did; my grand-father did; my great fully to development in the order nature re- grand-father did; my great-great-grand-father quires; or shall I stultify the child by reversing did; Or shall I follow the rules of reason and the order; by endeavoring to improve the plan right? Shall I invert the order of the childpurposed by the Great Author of its being? I mind; or shall I follow its bent? Shall I teach will give the child-mind all it desires. Fill it elements first, then the thing they fornı ; or shall brim-full of just such knowledge as its nature I teach the thing, and then its elements ? Shall demands. I will endeavor to be emphatically a I teach it first letters, (elements) then their comteacher ; one who imparts readily my own in- binations, and lastly the word; when I know it formation, in earnest truthfulness, to the hun. is not natural for the child to receive knowledge gry mind of the child; and not one who labors in this way; or shall I teach it the word first, to fill, by an exhaustive system of drawing out, and assist it to analyze and combine when the that is destructive to my success, and ruinous mind has matured sufficiently to cause it to deto the mind thus tortured. Food first, then ex- sire this kind of information? Think. How ercise. Knowledge first, then deduction. Child- does a child learn words as they represent things hood first, then maturity. And woe be to the and thoughts to the ear? In the elementary or child that has a teacher who labors persistently combined form? Who would think of teachto reverse this order! Woe be to it, and alasing separately the elements of bread, then their for it.
For like a pump in an empty well, the combination, that a child might recognize a loaf more you work — the stronger the suction when he saw it? Who? No one. I would the more terrible the destruction to its capacity apply the principle: teach it words as words, for working efficiently, when properly position- and let spelling and analyzing “ go to grass !" ed. There is no mistake about this; I have until the child's mind was sufficiently matured tried it, and found it too true. Give the child to appropriate, enjoy and profit by the other knowledge. Analysis, nor synthesis is a natur- process; and make much more intelligent and al operation of the infant mind; (and infancy is accurate readers, in little more than half the gauged by the amount of absorbed information, time. When it has become a ready reader, and more than the number of years of existence), has a little knowledge of words by sight, I it does not wish to pick to pieces, or build up'would begin to analyze and spe!) and not before.