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The Night Schools of New York,

Separating the Sexes in School,

384 The Old Ferule...... How to Think,

268 Paper Made from Corn Leaves, The History of Object-Teaching,

269 The Teacher as a Talker,

277

EDUCATIONAL INTELLIGENCE. There are no Trifles, 166...Comfort at Home, 176 Annual Meeting of the Alumni Association of The School-Boy's Composition,

176 N. E. Yearly Meeting Boarding School 213 Teaching, A Profession,

179 Convention of the Normal School Association

183. The Teacher's Reading.

305

at Bristol.-Mr. Goodwin's Address, Teaching as a Profession, 195 Commencement,

314 The Pedagogue's Fishing Excursion,

199 Education in the State of New York, Three Methods of Instruction,

200 Forefathers' Day, 50.... Education in India, 53 The Laws of Childhood,

211 Meeting of the Rhode Island Institute, 84, 165 Thoreau's Writings, 225... Learn to the Last, 236 R. I. Teachers' Institute at Peacedale, The Care of the Eyes,

227 School Exhibition in North Scituate, The Normal School.... National Uses of War, 231 Speech of Mr. John Swett, The First Silk Mill in England,

239 Scientific Progress Made in Europe during the The Slory of Little Patchy,

241 Year, 52.... Speeches at the Inauguration The Younger Days of Gibbon, 257... Success, 261 of the Liverpool School of Science, 53 Teachers should have a Rank,

141 The Public Schools of Providence, The Useful and the Beautiful,

100 Teachers' Institute at Chepatchet, The Adulteration of Bread, 101 The Public Schools of Roxbury,

51 The Honor Due to Industry,

102

PhiloLOGY. The Dying Swan's Song,

106 The Tools Great Men Work with,.

71 Analogies in Language, 114......Syntax, 293 The Cramming vs. The Drawing-Out System,

12 Gender in Grammar, 210...... Orthography, 244 Thought Dressing, 75....Fruits of Kindness, 79 Improvements in Studies Allied to Grammar, 332 The School Teacher, 5....Cyclopædias,

13 Methods of Writing English while Studying The Common School Teacher 21 Grammar,

358 Teaching the Deaf-Dumb in Common Schools. 17 Reformers in Grammar, 182...... Etymo'ogy, 262 The Wingless Grasshopper of California,

18 School Songs...... Synonyms, The Art of Grammar and its Philosophy, A5 The Bible in Chaucer,

113 The Importance of Normal Schools,

The Brevity of Literary Fame, Temperature of the Earth,

08 The Use of the Dot, The Study of Latin, 353... To Young Teachers, 354 The Semicolon, Colon and Dash, Text-Books, .......Henry Ward Beecher on

The Origin of Newspapers, “The Education of the People,"

356 The Use of the Comina, 58...Grammar Study, 154 The Celestial Army.... Women as Teachers, 364

NATURAL SCIENCE. Vacations, 97.... The Teacher's Grave, 99 A Primary Lesson in Natural History, 283 What is Heat Lightning ? 264... Self-Control, 267

A Peep into the Dock,

26, 56, 187, 217, 231, 318, 314, 377 Who are the Best Advisers and Teachers ?

2 Flowers, 58.... Flowers and their Teachings, 251 Writing, 129.... A Chapter from Richter,

10 Hail, 93...... Prof. Agassiz on Clams,
133

111 What do our Schools Need?

* Insects Injurious to Vegetation,"

150 Writing for Children

251 What will the War do for us in an Educational

88 The Monitor, 108......Sunlight in Houses,
The Sphinx Quinquemaculatus,

246 Point of View ? o The Study of Nature,

247 Winter Thoughts....Miscellany,

QUESTIONS FOR WRITTEN EXAMINATIONS. “ Your Majesty," 296 ...... A New Sculptor, 292

Arithmetic,
EDITORS' DEPARTMENT.

29, 60, 92, 117, 152, 189, 216, 252, 286, 320, 379 A New England Convention, 30... Thank You, 118 Geography, Convention 30. Thank Yom u19 Geography,

152, 189, 216, 252, 286, 320 Agassiz and Oken Dining on Potatoes, D Grammar.-Oral Examination,

346 Defects Existing and Improvements Needed

Grammar, 61, 92, 117, 153, 189, 216, 252, 286 in the Schools of Massachusetts,

191 History,

190, 216, 252, 286 Funeral Services of the Late Lieut. Pierce,

160 Mental Arithmetic,
159

117, 189, 189, 320 Lecture on Humboldt, 352... Evening Schools, 31 31 Strange Geographical Paradoxes,

153 Lieut. H. R. Pierce, 119.... Contributions,

126. Words to be Defined, 92, 153....Spelling, 118, 190 Live and Let Live, 16......Our Cover, 158

Mathematics. Military Training in our Schools,

62 An Arithmetical Puzzle, Meeting of the Institute at Centreville, 120

Oral Lessons in Arithmetic, Meeting of the Am. Institute of Instruction, 224

27 Principles Employed in Finding the Cube Root 349 Object-Teaching, 190... Teachers' Association, 1917

The Zero Exponent-Its Fallacy, Our Country's Call, 222....Contributions, 192, 222

219, 288 Our Vacation Days are Nearly Over.

HOME DEPARTMENT. Report of Supt. of Providence Pub. Schools, 95 Better than a Man, 144......Politeness. 146 Report of Brooklyn Supt. of Public Schools, 253 n Supt. of Public Schools, 253 Home, the Residence,

145 Report of Trustees of the Normal School,

62 The Little Pilgrims....Sorrows of Childhood, 143 Thé Roll of Honor..... Piano-Fortes The Penny Contribution,

MORAL CULTURE. The School Commissioner's Report, 94 Christian Schools..... Wanted,

220 We must again put on the Harness for Labor, 185 School Ethics. The Rhymer's Knot Untied,

381 Meeting of the R. I. Inst. of Instruction,

Our Book TABLE. Meteorological, 383.... Total Eclipse of Moon, 384

30, 63, 95, 127, 223, 287, 350

68

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381

The R. J. Schoolmaster.

JANUARY, 1862.

VOLUME EIGHT.

NUMBER ONE.

For the Schoolmaster.

meteorological investigations. The deductions The Smithsonian Report.*

are in themselves important, and will form the

basis for subsequent deductions upon the subThe Temperature at Providence - Prof. Caswell's

ject. Observations - Comparison with Temperature

The record of the observations themselves ocof Arkansas Dr. Smith's Observations.

cupies one hundred and seventy-nine of the largThe twelfth volume of the Smithsonian Con

est quarto pages which can be introduced into

the volumes of the Smithsonian Contributions. tribution to Knowledge has just been completed

“ They comprise a record of the barometer and published. It consists of five distinct works,

and thermometer made three times a day, the embraced in 537 large quarto pages : 1. Astronomical Observations in the Arctic

direction and force of the wind, and the face of

*the sky for the same period; also, the depth of Seas, by Elisha Kent Kane, M. D. II. On Fluctuations of Level in the North

rain, together with a column of general remarks

on casual phenomena. The series is terminated American Lakes, by Charles Whittlesey.

by a number of general tables - the first giving III. Meteorological Observations made al Providence, Rhode Island, for twenty-eight and one

the monthly and annual mean height of the half years, by Prof. Alexis Caswell.

barometer during the whole term of years; the IV. Meteorological Observations made near

second, the monthly and annual mean height of Washington, Arkansas, for twenty years, by

barometer at sunrise or 6 A. M., 1 or 2 P. m., and

10 P. M.; third, monthly and annual mean temDr. Nathan D. Smith. V. Researches upon the Venom of the Rat

peratures, deduced from the three observations tlesnake, with an investigation of the anatomy

daily; fourth, monthly and annual mean tem

perature at sunrise or 6 A. M., 1 or 2 P. m., and and physiology of the organs concerned, by Dr.

10 P. M. ; fifth, monthly and annual maximum S. W. Mitchell.

and minimum temperatures and range; sixth, We wish, in this brief article, to call the at the number of days in each month in which the tention of Rhode Island teachers to some de

e de prevailing winds came from each of the four ductions from the third of these contributions,

quarters of the horizon; seventh, mean force of relative to the temperature of our State, and to the wind at the different hours of observation, institute a comparison between the temperature and

perature and for the month and year; eighth, mean of the latitude of 420 on the Atlantic coast and cloudiness of the sky at the different hours of the latitude of 34° in the Mississippi valley. observation, and the mean for the month and

This series of observations made by Professor year: ninth, monthly and annual number of Caswell will be found of great value in future here

uture days in which the weather was clear, variable,

or cloudy – on which rain or snow fell; the * We are indebted to Hon. James F. Simmons, Senator tenth. monthly and annual quantity of rain and from Rhode Island, for the “ Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, for the sh

snow in inches. year 1860."

“From the records themselves an account of

M

.

the weather on any day for twenty-eight years the data, the necessary facts for a vast amount past may be obtained. From the general tables of deductive reasoning. we can determine the connection of the varia- These deductions extend to many departments tions of the barometer with the changes of the of natural science -- meteorological, chemical, weather, and deduce rules of practical import- mechanical, agricultural, astronomical. ance as well as of scientific interest. From the

the A valuable commentary on the well known tables of the records of the thermometer, we

principle that valuable knowledge is only gained find that the mean temperature of Proridence;

by great labor, and an illustration of that other for the whole time is 48° 19', and that during

& fact, that by means of books each generation inthe twenty-eight years of observation the oscil-he lation on either side of this, with the exception ho

che herits all the wealth of knowledge accumulated

xception by all the past. of four years, is within a single degree.”

The observations by Dr. Smith were made at How Wordsworth Looked Commonly. Washington, Hempstead County, Arkansas, lat. 33° 47', long. 160 421 west from Washington.

In a new English novel, called “ A Family This place is the summit of the dividing ridge History," there is a description of Wordsworth between the waters of the Red River and those and his daughter, which is worth copying : of the Washita. From this ridge there is no " He came in, a tall, gaunt man, wearing a higher level for a long distance. From the ob- huge pair of blue spectacles, with side goggles servations of Dr. Smith for twenty years the to them. He looked rough and weather-beaten, mean daily temperature is found to be 61.81o. more, I thought, in outward appearance, like At Providence the coldest year was 1836.

a shrewd old dale farmer than a great poet. In Arkansas the coldest year was 1843.

• Take off those nasty things, papa,' said Dora, At Providence the warmest year was 1848. gomg up to him, and trying to take on his spe In A-kansas the warmest year was 1854.

tacles ; “who can see what you're like in them? At Providence the coldest month is February. He laughed and complied. Altogether, even In Arkansas the coldest month is January.

when the goggles were removed, his appearance At Providence the warmest month is July.

disappointed me. I saw nothing in his looks In Arkansas, the same.

that distinguished him from other men, as a The mean annual amount of rain at Provi- great genius. I could not have picked him out dence is 40.38 inches ; Arkansas, 64.70. as the poet, as I once picked out Alfred Tenny

At Providence the greatest amount of rain son at a ball from ar ong some hundred other falls in August; and the least amount in Feb. persons, long before any print of him had ever ruary.

been published. Wordsworth's features were At Washington, Ark., the greatest amount heavy, large and coarse; his light gray eyes had falls in April ; the least in September.

no fire in them; his nose was straight, broad At Providence the coldest single month of the and massy; his mouth wide and rather sensual ; whole period was January, 1857. The warmest thought it betokened irritability. Only the month of the whole period was August, 1848; calm, high to

ole period was August, 1848. calm, high forehead indicated the lofty mind and the next warmest was July, 1838.

that had entranced thousands. I saw that Dora

was extremely like him, only the lines that were At Washington the coldest New Year's day

harsh in him were in her softened to beauty, and was 1840; the mean temperature of which was

that she had soft, expressive and beautiful eyes. 22o. The warmest, 1846 and 1855; the mean

When I had had a good look at him, Mrs. temperature of each being 570. The coldest

Wordsworth said, “There, my dear, now you day in the year is the 18th of January; and the

" have seen him as he really is. You shall see warmest, the 15th of July.

what a figure he makes of himself'; you would The amount of labor necessary to these ob- hardly take him for a poet in his walking cosservations, the preparation of the tables and the tume. More likely for a highwayman,' sug. deductions made from them, is immense. Im- gested one of the friends, who had returned agine an observer noting the thermometer, bar- with him. “Yes,' echoed another, that stick ometer, wind, water-guage, &c., three times a is enough to frighten anybody.' Oh, ay,' said day, for twenty or thirty years; recording his he, • I forgot that. I must show Miss Neville observations, averaging each month, each year, my walking-staff. He went out, and returned and for the whole term, and we then have only with a thick knotted stick, which he showed

me, telling me it was invaluable in climbing From “ Education: Intellectual, Moral and Physical," the mountains.' I think he said he had travel

by Herbert Spencer. led twice in Scotland, His daughter smiled,

Intellectual Education. and said, · Yes, papa, and as we went along, the

That in education we should proceed from people on the borders laughed at the “strange mon." He explained to me, who sat at his

hid the simple to the complex, is a truth which has

Ich always been, to some extent, acted upon; not right hand, • Yes, Miss Neville, they did laugh an as me; we travelled in an open carriage; my P

professedly, indeed, nor by any means consist

ently. The mind grows. Like all things that eyes were bad, and so'— Dora, by a merry glance, telegraphed across the table that his eyes grow, it progresses from the homogeneous to the

heterogeneous ; and a normal training system, ailed nothing 80 I wore a veil, as I do now, to shade them. Dora drove, and the people

being an objective counterpart of this subjecused to come out of their cottages and stand

tive process, must exhibit the like progression. looking after us, calling out to one another,

her. Moreover, regarding it from this point of view, Lo'tha, lo'tha, there's a man wi' a veil! an'a

we may see that this formula has much wider

applications than at first appears. For its ralass driving!”

tionale involves not only that we should proceed

from the single to the combined in the teaching How Musical Artists Affect Each Other.

of each branch of knowledge ; but that we

should do the like with knowledge as a whole. The Countess Merlin, in her memoirs of

As the mind, consisting at first of but few acMadame Malibran, gives a charming instance of

tive faculties, has its later-completed faculties this :

successively awakened, and ultimately comes to “The presence," she says, “ of Mademoiselle have all its faculties in simultaneous action; it Sontag, at the Italian theatre, was fresh stimu- follows that our teaching should begin with but lus for Maria's talent, and contributed to its few subjects at once, and successively adding to perfection. Each time that the former obtained these, should finally carry on all subjects abreast a brilliant triumph, Maria wept, and exclaimed, – that not only in its details should education • Mon Dieu ! why does she sing so well?' then proceed from the simple to the complex, but in from these tears sprang a beauty and sublimity its ensemble also. of harmony, of which the public had the benefit. To say that our lessons ought to start from It was the ardent desire of amateurs to hear the concrete and end in the abstract, may be these two charming artists sing together in the considered as in part a repetition of the foregosame opera; but they mutually feared each oth- ing. Nevertheless it is a maxim that needs to er, and for some time the much coveted gratifi- be stated : if with no other view, then with the cation was deferred. One night they met at a view of shewing in certain cases what are truly concert at my house; a sort of plot had been the simple and the complex. For, unfortunatelaid, and toward the middle of the concert they ly, there has been much misunderstanding on were asked to sing the duet in • Tancredi.' For this point. General formulas which men have a few moments they showed fear, hesitation; devised to express groups of details, and which but at last they yielded, and approached the have severally simplified their conceptions by piano, amidst the acclamations of all present. uniting many facts into one fact, they have supThey both seemed agitated and disturbed, and posed must simplify the conceptions of the child observant of each other ; but presently the con- also; quite forgetting that a generalization is clusion of the symphony fixed their attention, simple only in comparison with the whole mass and the duet began. The enthusiasm their sing- of particular truths it comprehends - that it is ing excited was vivid, and so equally divided, more complex than any one of these truths takthat at the end of the duet, and in the midst of en singly - that only after many of these single the applause, they gazed at each other, bewild-truths have been acquired does the generalizaered, delighted, astonished; and by a sponta- lion ease the memory and help the reason — and neous movement, and involuntary attraction, that to the child not possessing these single their hands and lips met, and a kiss of peace truths it is necessarily a mystery. Thus conwas given and received with all the vivacity and founding two kinds of simplification, teachers sincerity of youth. The scene was charming. have constantly erred by setting out with "first and has assuredly not been forgotten by those principles": a proceeding essentially, though who witneesed it.”

not apparently, at variance with the primary rule; which implies that the mind should be fice here to point out that, as the mind of hu. introduced to principles through the medium of manity placed in the midst of phenomena and examples, and so should be led from the partic- striving to comprehend them, has, after endless ular to the general — from the concrete to the comparisons, speculations, experiments and theabstract.

ories, reached its present knowledge of each The education of the child must accord both subject by a specific route; it may rationally be in mode and arrangement with the education of inferred that the relationship between mind and mankind as considered historically; or in other phenomena is such as to prevent this knowledge words, the genesis of knowledge in the individ- from being reached by any other route; and ual must follow the same course as the genesis that as each child's mind stands in this same of knowledge in the race. To M. Comte we be- relationship to phenomena, they can be acceslieve society owes the enunciation of this doc- sible to it only through the same route. Hence trine – a doctrine which we may accept with- in deciding upon the right method of education, out committing ourselves to his theory of the an inquiry into the method of civilization will genesis of knowledge, either in its causes or its help to guide us. order. In support of this doctrine two reasonsOne of the conclusions to which such an in. may be assigned, either of them sufficient to es- quiry leads is, that in each branch of instructablish it. One is deducible from the law of tion we should proceed from the empirical to hereditary transmission as considered in its the rational. A leading fact in human progress wider consequences. For if it be true that men is, that every science is evolved out of its corexhibit likeness to ancestry both in aspect and responding art. It results from the necessity character — if it be true that certain mental we are under, both individually and as a race, manifestations, as insanity, will occur in suc-of reaching the abstract by way of the concrete, cessive members of the same family at the same that there must be practice and an accruing exage - if, passing from individual cases in which perience with its empirical generalizations, bethe traits of many dead ancestors mixing with fore there can be science. Science is organized those of a few living ones greatly obscure the knowledge ; and before knowledge can be orlaw, we turn to national types, and remark how ganized, some of it must first be possessed. the contrasts between them are persistent from Every study, therefore, should have a purely age to age — if we remember that these respec- experimental introduction; and only after an tive types came from a common stock, and that ample fund of observations has been accumula. hence the present marked differences between ted, should reasoning begin. As illustrative them must have arisen from the action of modi- applications of this rule we may instance the fying circumstances upon successive generations modern course of placing grainmar, not before who severally transmitted the accumulated ef- language, but after it; or the ordinary custom fects to their descendants — if we find the dif- of prefacing perspective by practical drawing. ferences to be now organic, so that the French

| A second corollary from the foregoing general child grows into a French man even when

one principle, and one which cannot be too strenubrought up among strangers — and if the gene-Prod ral fact thus illustrated is true of the whole na

Jously insisted upon, is, that in education the ture, intellect inclusive: then it follows that if process of self-development should be encour

hocaged to the fullest extent. Children should be there be an order in which the human race has aged mastered its various kinds of knowledge, there

led to make their own investigations, and to

draw their own inferences. They should be will arise in every child an aptitude to acquire these kinds of knowledge in the same order.

told as little as possible, and induced to discover So that even were the order intrinsically indif.

as much as possible. Humanity has progressed ferent, it would facilitate education to lead the

solely by self-instruction ; and that to achieve

the best results, each mind must progress someindividual mind through the steps traversed by

what after the same fashion, is continually provthe general mind. But the order is not intrin

ed by the marked success of self-made men. sically indifferent; and hence the fundamental reason why education should be a repetition of

Those who have been brought up under the orcivilization in little. It is alike provable that an

thot dinary school-drill, and have carried away with the historical sequence was, in its main outlines,

them the idea that education is practicable only a necessary one ; and that the causes which de- in that style, will think it hopeless to make termined it apply to the child as to the race. children their own teachers. If, however, they Not to specify these causes in detail, it will suf-I will call to mind that the all-important know

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