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the enrollment of students for the last three years; and every indication points to an even greater increase in attendance in 1909-1910:


1908-1909 Regulars .......145 Regulars .......206 Regulars .......273 Specials ......133 Specials ........142 Specials . 145 Graduates 39 Graduates

37 Graduates ... 58 Winter-Course. .244 Winter-Course. .270 Winter-Course. . 364


After going over carefully with the Director and the Acting Director the present condition of the College I fully concur in the proposition that either the College must be greatly enlarged or the number of students must be immediately limited. I do not believe that either the people or the legislature of the State will think it good policy to restrict or stop agricultural education at its very beginning. And in the present case there would be the worst of all reasons for stopping or restricting it, namely, the reason that it had been extraordinarily successful. I therefore assume that the people of the State will provide the necessary enlargement of the College of Agriculture. This will include more buildings and more professors and instructors. So far as buildings are concerned the new extension will call for more than a duplication of the existing establishment. There must be a new building for the poultry department; a new building for plant technology, including plant pathology, plant physiology, plant breeding and improvement, botany, etc.; a new building for animal husbandry, a new building with laboratories, classrooms, and auditorium for winter-course students and extension work; a new building for domestic science for chemistry; a new building for a central heating and power plant; and new buildings to complete the greenhouse laboratories already started. From rough preliminary estimates it is clear that this additional plant will cost from $750,000 to $1,000,000. And the regular appropriation for maintenance will need to be increased from $175,000 to about $250,000 a year.

In this connection I desire to call your special attention to those sections of Director Bailey's admirable report which point out that, if the New York State College of Agriculture is to meet the increased demand for service that the people of the State are making upon it, enlarged facilities for practically every department are an absolute necessity. Fuller details regarding the crowded conditions of the various departments will be found in the reports of the departments themselves, to which I beg you also to refer.

At a later date a complete report of the needs of the College will undoubtedly be presented to the people and legislature of the State by the Trustees of the University. Meantime the President is glad to quote the testimony of the State Commissioner of Education, the Honorable A. S. Draper, not only regarding the work of the State College at Cornell, but also the costliness of all higher agricultural education and the wisdom of making large and generous appropriations to maintain it. The following extracts are from Commissioner Draper's address on "Agriculture and Its Educational Needs," delivered at Syracuse on December 29, 1908:

“ The State has recently built new agricultural college buildings, and provided for developing a real agricultural college, at Cornell University.

"In all phases of higher education what is good is not cheap, and what is cheap is not good. It is no less true --- doubtless it is more true — in the higher study of agriculture than in any other phase of advanced education. And the higher learning is quite as vital to agriculture as to any other interest of the people. Then, a real agricultural college, associated with a true university, is the true policy in this State, and such a college may be expected to vitalize whatever is done in connection with agriculture in the high schools; and whatever has a bearing upon agriculture in the elementary schools: and it may also be expected to incite and uplift profitable agricultural operations among the people. Then, whether or not an erroneous initiative has been given to provision for agricultural instruction of elecmentary and secondary grades in this State, we have made no mistake concerning agricultural teaching of the college grade.

“The erection of buildings for a college of agriculture at Cornell University is not enough to insure much result to New York agriculture. The gathering of a faculty, the laying down of offerings, and the installation of an equipment, are not enough. That college will not only have to be as educationally respectable as any other college in the university, but it will have to stand in vital and living relations with every other. No matter how elaborately equipped it may be, it will accom


plish relatively little unless it has the fellowship and the stimulus of the union of colleges and graduate school which we cail the university. It will not bear large fruits unless it has to respond to the demands of a real constituency with large interests, nor until the purposes of representatives of that constituency, who have the intelligence and the authority to accomplish particular things, have to be met.

“All of the natural sciences, physics, chemistry, zoology, physiology, bacteriology, embryology, thremmatology; the social and political sciences, history, economics, the mechanical arts, and divers phases of engineering; great practical experience, and a large amount of horse sense, are inseparably involved in that high agricultural development which must be had in the State of New York if her agriculture is to keep pace with the other commercial and intellectual activities of the State. Of course, all the people engaged in farming can not be equipped with all of this knowledge, but a considerable part of them must be, to the end that they may lead the way; and when such men lead the way all the rest will be copying larger men and better methods than they have sufficient opportunity to copy now. And there must be a place which will not only initiate new undertakings and lift old ones to higher planes, but to which any occult difficulty may be taken for investigation and report. And investigation and teaching, scientific research and the training of teachers and superintendents, must go together because one is as vital as the other, and each inspires and energizes the other. And with it all there must be, in the agricultural college at least, the ever present feeling that agriculture is our most important business, and that the college which can quicken it has a larger mission and is entitled to a fuller reward than any other kind of a college which the ingenuity of man and the generosity of a people have ever been able to put upon its feet. These specifications call for nothing short of a real university under some considerable measure of popular control."

" It will be a good State policy to give liberal support to the State College of Agriculture and expect to make large demands upon it. An agricultural college is bound to be a college as much as any other kind of institution which claims the name of college. Strong teachers and many offerings will have to precede the coming of students. No state will be likely to support more than one that will make much of an impression upon

its agriculture. The offerings must be largely in agricultural technique. The equipment should be even larger in fields and barns and herds, than in libraries and laboratories, because the student should have a reasonable English education before he goes to college, and because when an agricultural college has the large advantage of being a college in a university, it may count much upon the privileges which are common to all. By the time one who is to live on a farm goes away from home to an agricultural college, it is time he was given his fill of agricultural instruction that is actual and real. But a real college, properly sustained by the schools below, will gather students who can matriculate and thus make an impression upon the State which will endure. The State Agricultural College must be sensitive to rational and responsible agricultural initiative. It must not only train men to manage farms, but it must train teachers for agricultural work in schools below. It must be scholarly, but it must be as democratic as it is scholarly. There are people who think that impossible. Therein lies the difference between the old academic scholarship and the newer industrial scholarship. Other states have found that difference and reckoned with it more than once. We can beat them all if we will. The State Agricultural College must not only be sensitive to the initiative of others; it must have an initiative of its

It must find out the things which New York agriculture needs to have done and go right ahead doing them, knowing that if they work it will get the glory, and if they fail it will be damned for it. Teaching and research must go together. They always help one another.

“We should enter upon a great system of agricultural extension. The schools, from the highest to lowest, should act in accord, not only in training students and in scientific research, but in carrying knowledge to the very doors of the farmers. Evangelistic work in agriculture should go everywhere. Seed specials should be run over the railroads. The blood of the best farm animals should be distributed throughout the State. Object lessons of special interest to both men and women should be carried in all directions. The applications should be especially adapted to every section, and the fullest attention should be given to the lest favored rather than to the more favored counties of the State."

All the varieties of work described by Commissioner Draper


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in his ideal college are now performed by the college of Agriculture. The additional appropriations are needed to enable i to perform its functions on a larger scale and more effectively. In the near future the College of Agriculture will have 1,500 or 2,000 students at Ithaca and it must give them good instruction. In the near future the College of Agriculture must cover the State with extension work, and for this purpose it must have a separate staff of teachers. In the near future the College of Agriculture must maintain in addition to its three months' winter school for farmers' sons and daughters a two months' summer school for teachers who may desire to qualify themselves to give instruction in the elements of agriculture in the schools of the State. To prepare teachers of agriculture, to bring science to the help of farmers throughout the State, and by original research to enlarge agricultural knowledge, are the functions to which the New York State College of Agriculture and the Federal Experiment Station at Cornell University are dedicated.

The following is a brief summary of the reports of the heads of the several departments. The work of each department is described under three divisions: (a) instruction to „tudents; (b) investigation and research; (c) extension work among the farmers of the State.

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I. Department of Farm Management and Farm Crops. (a) This department gave instruction during the year to 169 undergraduate and 9 graduate students. During the coming year more time relatively than heretofore will be given to the courses in farm management, which are now quite distinct from the courses in farm crops.

(b) An important piece of investigation during the year was the study of the best methods of laying out field experiments. But in this department to a greater extent than in some others investigation and extension work go hand in hand.

(c) One-third of the time, and 85 per cent. of the funds of the department have been expended on extension work. The most important project in this field, as well as in the line of research, was the continuation of the Agricultural Survey begun last year and now completed for Tompkins County. Among other activities of this department were: a corn show held during Farmers Week at Ithaca; experiments on the growth of

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