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1. That the disturbances in St. Thomas. 4. That praise is due to Governor Eyre in-the-East had their immediate origin in for the skill, promptitude, and vigour a planned resistance to lawful authority. which he manifested during the early
2. That the causes leading to the deter. stages of the insurrection; to the exercise mination to offer that resistance were of which qualities its speedy termination manifold :
is in a great degree to be attributed. (1.) That a principal object of the dis- 5. That the Military and Naval operaturbers of order was the obtaining of land tions appear to us to have been prompt free from the payment of rent.
and judicious. (2.) That an additional incentive to the 6. That by the continuance of Martialviolation of the law arose from the want law in its full force to the extreme limit of confidence generally felt by the labour- of its statutory operation the people were ing class in the tribunals before which deprived for a longer than the necessary most of the disputes affecting their in- period of the great constitutional privi. terests were carried for adjudication. leges by which the security of life and
(3.) That some, moreover, were ani- property is provided for. mated by feelings of hostility towards Lastly. That the punishments inflicted political and personal opponents, while not were excessive. a few contemplated the attainment of (1.) That the punishment of death was their ends by the death or expulsion of the unnecessarily frequent. white inhabitants of the Island.
(2.) That the floggings were reckless, 3. That though the original design for and at Bath positively barbarous. the overthrow of constituted authority (3.) That the burning of 1000 houses was confined to a small portion of the was wanton and cruel. parish of St. Thomas-in-the-East, yet that All which we humbly submit to Your the disorder in fact spread with singular Majesty's gracious consideration. rapidity over an extensive tract of country, and that such was the state of excitement (Signed) H. K. STORKS, Lieut.-Gen. prevailing in other parts of the Island
RUSSELL GURNEY. that had more than a momentary success
J. B. MAULE. been obtained by the insurgents, their ultimate overthrow would have been CHARLES S. ROUNDELL, Secretary, attended with a still more fearful loss of King's House, Spanish Town, life and property.
April 9th, 1866.
CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN THE GOVERNOR AND DEPUTY-GOVERNOR OF THE BANK OF ENGLAND, AND EARL RUSSELL AND THE CHANCELLOR OF THE EXCHEQUER, RESPECTING THE SUSPENSION OF THE BANK CHARTER ACT.
“Bank of England, May 11, 1866. “Sir,- We consider it to be our duty to lay before the Government the facts relating to the extraordinary demands for assistance which have been made upon the Bank of England to-day, in consequence of the failure of Messrs. Overend, Gurney, and Co.
“We have advanced to the bankers, billbrokers, and merchants in London, during the day, upwards of four millions sterling, upon the security of Government Stock and bills of exchange-an unprecedented sum to lend in one day, and which,
therefore, we suppose, would be sufficient to meet all their requirements; although the proportion of this sum which may have been sent to the country must materially affect the question.
“We commenced this morning with a Reserve of 5,727,0001., which has been drawn upon so largely that we cannot cal. culate upon having so much as 3,000,0001. this evening, making a fair allowance for what may be remaining at the branches.
“We have not refused any legitimate application for assistance, and, unless the money taken from the Bank is entirely
withdrawn from circulation, there is no England has suffered a diminution with. reason to suppose that this Reserve is out precedent, relatively to the time in insufficient.
which it has been brought about; and, in “We have the honour to be, Sir, view especially of this circumstance, Her Your obedient servants,
Majesty's Government cannot doubt that “H. L. HOLLAND, Governor. it is their duty to adopt, without delay, “ Tuos. NEWMAN HUNT,
the measures which seem to them best Deputy-Governor.
calculated to compose the public mind,
and to avert the calamities which may “ The Right Hon. the Chancellor of
threaten trade and industry. If, then, the Exchequer, M.P. &c."
the Directors of the Bank of England,
proceeding upon the prudent rules of “ To the Governor and Deputy-Governor
action by which their administration is of the Bank of England.
usually governed, shall find that, in order “Gentlemen,- We have the honour to to meet the wants of legitimate commerce, acknowdedge the receipt of your letter it is requisite to extend their discounts of this day to the Chancellor of the Ex- and advances upon approved securities so chequer, in which you state the course of as to require issues of notes beyond the action at the Bank of England under the limits fixed by law, Her Majesty's Governcircumstances of sudden anxiety which ment recommend that this necessity should have arisen since the stoppage of Messrs. be met immediately upon its occurrence, Overend, Gurney, and Co. (Limited) and in that event they will not fail to yesterday.
make application to Parliament for its “We learn with regret that the Bank sanction. Reserve, which stood so recently as last “No such discount or advance, how. night at a sum of about five millions and ever, should be granted at a rate of three quarters, has been reduced in a interest less than 10 per cent., and Her single day, by the liberal answer of the Majesty's Government reserve it to them. Bank to the demands of commerce during selves to recommend, if they should see the hours of business, and by its just fit, the imposition of a higher rate. anxiety to avert disaster, to little more “After deduction by the Bank of what. than one-half of that amount, or a sum ever it may consider to be a fair charge (actual for London and estimated for the for its risk, expense, and trouble, the branches) not greatly exceeding three profits of these advances will accrue to the millions.
public. “The accounts and representations “We have the honour to be, which have reached Her Majesty's
Gentlemen, Government during the day exhibit the
“ Your obedient servants, state of things in the city as one of ex.
« RUSSELL. traordinary distress and apprehension.
“ W. E. GLADSTONE. Indeed, deputations, composed of persons “Downing-street, 11th May, 1866." of the greatest weight and influence, and representing alike the private and joint- The official correspondence is completed stock banks of London, have presented
by the following letter and accompanying themselves in Downing-street, and have
resolutions : urged with unanimity and with earnestness the necessity of some intervention on “ To the Right Hon. Earl Russell and the part of the State to allay the anxiety “the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, which prevails, and which appears to have
“ M.P. amounted through great part of the day
“Bank of England, May 12. to absolute panic.
My Lord and Sir,-Having laid before “ There are some important points in the Court of Directors the letter received which the present crisis differs from those from you yesterday, with respect to a of 1847 and 1857. Those periods were further issue of notes, if necessary beyond periods of mercantile distress, but the the limit fixed by the Act of 1814, we vital consideration of banking credit does have now the honour to enclose a copy of not appear to have been involved in them, the resolutions of the Court thereupon. as it is in the present crisis.
“ We have the honour to be, Again, the course of affairs was com
“my Lord and Sir, paratively slow and measured; whereas
“ Your most obebedient servants, the shock has in this instance arrived with an intense rapidity, and the oppor
“H. L. HOLLAND, Governor.
“Thos. N. Hunt, Deputy. tunity for deliberation is narrowed in pro
“Lastly, the Reserve of the Bank of
Copy of Resolutions enclosed. in conformity with the letter addressed to
them yesterday. “At a Court of Directors of the Bank
“Resolved, that the minimum rate of on Saturday, the 12th of May, 1866,
discount on bills not having more than “ Resolved,—that the Governors be re
ninety-five days to run be raised from 9 quested to inform the First Lord of the
to 10 per cent. Treasury and the Chancellor of the Exchequer that the Court is prepared to act
“HAMMOND CHUBB, Secretary."
CONDENSED SUMMARY OF ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS DURING
THE YEAR 1866. JANUARY.—The new year was ushered from N. and E., and the whole month was in by a wild tempestuous wind and driving abnormally unhealthy. During the first rainfall. The month was remarkable for three weeks the registered rate of morits high atmospheric temperature.
tality was upwards of 500 above the the 12th, amid showers of sleet and average. There was not one cloudless snow, the thermometer sank 12° below day; tropical and polar winds were almost freezing, and in a few hours rose to equally balanced ; rain fell on 19 days, 46°, and during the remainder of the and amounted to 1.90 in., which is below month once only fell so low as 35o. the acknowledged mean of the month by On the night and morning of the 22nd about the eighteenth of an inch. the respective barometric readings were APRIL.—Three consecutive days were 47 deg. and 50 deg. Fahrenheit. A ter- cloudless, when the sun shone with full rific hurricane raged on the 3rd, and minor vigour, and a cold and detrimental E.N.E. gales on the 7th and 8th. There were wind prevailed. Barometric readings were alternate periods of ozone and antozone. high, and ranged from 29.00 in. to 30.00 Rainfall occurred on 16 days, and amounted in. The wind in combination touched the to 4:62 in., which is considerably above N. and E. on 15 days, and on the rethe recognized average of the month. mainder it was complicated with S. and There were three cloudless days, and the W., so that the balance was nearly equal. predominant wind was tropical, W. or ized. The mean temperature of the S.W.
month was considerably lower than that FEBRUARY.—On the 11th an equato. of last year; the range by day was from rial cyclone raged, accompanied by fre- 40° to 62°, and by night from 34° to 55°. quent flashes of lightning from S.W. At On the 26th, at 2 p.m., the thermometer Frant, Sussex, which, as the crow flies, is in full sun rose to 111°; in shade, N. about 25 miles from the sea, the gale com- aspect, it stood at 70°. On the 29th it mitted great havoc, the pressure being
had fallen full 30°. Rain fell on 19 days, somewhat about 40 lb. to the square foot. and amounted to 2:41 in. ; from the 2nd Houses were partially unroofed, and at to the 4th inclusive, it was mingled with Eridge-park, one of the seats of the Earl snow and sleet. From the 1st to the 30th, of Abergavenny, 3,000 trees were uprooted de die in diem, the ozonoscopes registered by the fury of the blast. Spray from the 10°, or the maximum of ozone. sen was borne nearly 30 miles. Inter- MAY.- The weather of this month was mittent tropical gales occurred also on marked by extreme unhealthiness. To. five other days, and were preceded or wards the latter portion the wind became followed by aurora boreales, streams of established in the N.E., and sometimes electric cirrus, lightning, and solar haloes. blew with the fitful violence of a gale; Diurnal oscillations of the barometer were hoar-frost frequently covered the ground, considerable, and ranged from 29.40 in. to and vegetation was greatly retarded. The 30.30 in. Rainfall extended over 15 days mean temperature was little above 51°, to the extent of 5:33 in.-upwards of 3 in. which is 80 lower than that of last year. above the mean. The prevailing cloud, The variation was from 40° to 61°, thus which almost daily obscured the sky, was making the range of morning temperature the composite or rain cloud, fully developed. 21°. Hail fell on the 3rd and 4th, and Three days alone were cloudless.
rain on ten days, amounting in the aggre. MARCH.— The passing of large solar gate to 1:06 in., which is considerably less spots gave rise to high magnetic action, than the acknowledged monthly mean. and consequent atmospheric perturbations. Cloud predominated on 21 days; the The prevailing winds were keen and bitter modification was that of the composite or
thunder cloud, either fully formed, or the entirely obscured the sun. Four days elements existed isolated in their respective were free from cloud, and rainfall, with wind currents. The diurnal oscillations very unequal distribution, extended over of the barometer were limited, and the 11 days, and amounted in the aggregate entire range was below an inch. As in to 3.05 in., which exceeds the accustomed last month, so in this, ozone manifested a mean by nearly one inch. From the 8th consecutive daily maximum, and notwith- to the 28th no rain fell—or rather during standing the full development of this that time there was no appreciable gauge. allotropic condition of atmosphere, the Tropical winds predominated, and occarate of mortality was excessively high, sionally they were high and squally, but and diseases raged which are supposed to once only, at the end of the month, attained be specially controlled by its sanitary in- the force of a gale. The estimated average fluence. The hygrometric state of the temperature of July is 61.07°; this year air was very low, amounting sometimes to it exceeded that amount by 3o. The 50 per cent. only of moisture; telluric maximum of ozone was registered on every evaporation was consequently rapid, but day but one. was speedily carried off by the stirring August.–But one solitary cloudless winds that prevailed.
day during the month. The predominant JUNE.-We have the recorded rate of modification was the cirro-cumulo-stratus, mortality again this month unusually or thunder cloud. On the 17th, masses high, the aggregate, corrected for increase in two strata and adverse wind currents of population, having amounted to little formed rack and scud, and undulating short of 1000 beyond the estimated average. waves of cirro-cumulus frequently overThe rainfall, though not excessive, was spread the sky. On the 6th and 7th, 8th somewhat above the mean, and was spread and 9th, cold, high, tempestuous winds over 14 days. The temperature repre- blew from S.W., sometimes with the force sented less, certainly, than the average of of a hurricane. On the 16th and 17th past years; but, nevertheless, it maintained equatorial gales again prevailed, and proa considerable elevation. There was duced considerable damage on our coasts. during the month but one purely cloudless Barometric oscillations were frequent, but day, and thunder clouds, or their elements limited in range; the highest point atin antagonistic currents, existed perpetu- tained was 29-72 in., the lowest 29-00 in., ally. The winds at the commencement so that the entire variation was scarcely and for nearly three consecutive weeks three-fourths of an inch. Up to the date were tropical concomitants of thunder- of the 20th, the mean temperature was storms, and were generally paroxysmal or considerably below the standard, but on squally. Atmospheric pressure underwent that day a change occurred, and the ther. but slight variations, and the diurual mometer rose and registered consecutively oscillations were comparatively inconsi- above the average until the 29th. The derable. The range of the thermometer highest morning reading, at 10 a.m. on was 20°. The highest night temperature the 24th, was 75°, and the lowest, on the 63° and the lowest 47o. The maximum 4th, 59°; the range, therefore, was 11°. reading occurred on the 28th under the The maximum divergence between day and influence of a N.E, wind, and the lowest night temperature was 27°. Rain fell on on the 6th, beneath a tropical and gusty 18 days, and was below the average by S.W. wind. Ozone was very largely de- 0:15 in. Lightning and thunder, electric veloped the maximum, or 10°, having cirri, haloes, and other meteors were fre. been reached on 24 days. The hygrometer quent, and ozone began to decline. The registered a fair balance of atmospheric 10th, 15th, 22nd, 29th, and 30th were humidity, varying from 15 to 50 per cent. periods of antozone.
JULY.—The whole of this month was SEPTEMBER.–This month was characalso marked by great unhealthiness, and terized by the prevalence of wild, tempes. the temperature manifested strange fluc- tuous gales, and excessive rainfall. The tuations. During the first week the wind on 25 days blew from W. and S.W., morning register ranged from 56° to 60°; and on the remaining days come in comand the night from 40° to 56°, and rainfall plication with N. and E. Tropical gales occurred every day. On the 9th the from S.W., extending throughout Eng. weather became dry and sultry, and on land, raged on the 2nd, 5th, 6th, llth, the following day the thermometer rose to and with somewhat mitigated force on 71°, at a later hour to 80°, and in the sun other occasions. On the 24th, at 11 p.m., to 114°, marking within a brief period a a cold atmospheric wave passed over Frant, difference of temperature amounting to Sussex, and produced transient condensasome 35°. The predominant cloud modi. tion, and sent down the thermometer fication was the composite, or raincloud, several degrees. The mean temperature which occurred on 22 days, and frequently of the month was 7-06° lower than that of last year, thus bringing it into close prox- to blacken or destroy the tender annuals ; imity with the general average of the but generally the month was marked by season. The variation of the barometer unusually high temperature. The night was 0.10 within the inch. Rain fell every register, on several occasions, was 50°, and day from the 1st to the 27th, and amounted twice only, on the 20th and 21st, it fell to upwards of 6.50 inches, which is more below freezing. Ozone continued to exthan 4 inches above the mean. Ozone hibit a deficiency, and there were several continued to decline, and was below the periods of antozone. average, but there was no apparent period DECEMBER. - The past month was of antozone. Fogs, light mists, and ushered in by a cold S.E. gale, and such abundant dews occurred throughout the depression of atmospheric temperature as month, sometimes producing complete gave promise that Christmas this year atmospheric saturation, when external would assume his ancient prerogative, but objects streamed with their accumulated the wind having lulled, the thermometer condensation. Lightning and thunder rose upwards of 20°, and the frost of the visited the North and East Ridings of previous night was followed by a warm Yorkshire on the 16th, and slight shocks equatorial wind from S.W. Several minor of an earthquake are reported to have gales occurred during the month, and high occurred in Devonshire.
and squally winds, which committed conOCTOBER.-A month of cloud and siderable damage. There were two cloud. gloom and sunless days. On five or six less days, and 22 days on which a canopy occasions the hygrometer denoted complete of rain cloud overspread the sky. The saturation. The predominant combina- highest reading of the barometer was tion of winds was E. and N.E. On the 30-45 in., and the lowest 29.35 in., thus 18th a tropical gale occurred, but on the denoting a range of 1.10 in. Atmospheric whole the action of winds was very mode- temperature attained its maximum on the rate. The diurnal oscillations of the 4th, when it registered 55° in the morning, barometer were considerable, but limited and 54° by night. The lowest was on the in extent. A lunar rainbow, succeeded by night and morning of the 2nd, when the a dim gray halo, appeared on the night of respective readings were 28° and 31°; the 23rd. They were followed on the during the remainder of the month the succeeding day by copious rainfall and temperature, with one exception (on the heavy radii of cirro-stratus from N.W. 31st), never sank below freezing. Rain Rain fell on seven days, and amounted, in fell on 22 days, and amounted to two gross, to 1.90 in., which was below the inches, which is fractionally below the average by 0·18 in. Ozone again fell below
average. Ozone was very scantily dethe mean, and there were several well. veloped, and there were nine periods of marked periods of antozone.
antozone, when the tests, after due expoNOVEMBER.-Mensis Mirabilis. The sure, remained pure and uncoloured. The marvellous epoch of meteors. This month hygrometric condition of the air was tolewas marked by destructive gales, disastrous rably uniform, and one day only denoted foods, and other signs of violent atmos. saturation. The rate of mortality was pheric perturbation. The rainfall was of
below the average. very unequal distribution, and some of Thus has passed away this memorable the northern counties were deluged by year; leaving in indelible characters traces, successive torrents, while others were upon living witnesses, of its wonderful visited by scarcely their normal average. phenomena and antagonistic manifestaOne day alone was free from cloud, the tions. No theory has yet been propounded prevailing type was the composite, or rain of the dynamics of atmospheric combinacloud, often in varied and beautiful modi. tions, but the day may not be far distant fications. The complications of wind from when even these recoudite mysteries shall W. greatly preponderated, and the gales he solved by the human mind. were generally equatorial. The first frost
R. H. ALLNATT. of the season occurred in Yorkshire, on Weymouth, Jan. 1. the night of the 10th, of sufficient severity