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On the 26th of February, 1864, Mr. horse that you did promise to give me to Gordon wrote from Kingston to Paul Bogle ride out on business. We expect to at Stony Gut, as follows (inter alia):-- have a meeting at Bogle House, at Cottage « Dear Bogle,

Penns, next Tuesday, and your attendants “Things are bad in Jamaica, and will

(sic) will require. I am, yours truly,

PAUL BOGLE.” require a great deal of purging.”

When Paul Bogle's house was searched, “Again, in the same month, he wrote :

in October, a list of ten names was found “ Morant Bay, there in the handwriting of Mr. Gordon.

“ 22nd February, 1864. Mr. Gordon's own name was at the head “ Dear Bogle,

of this list, and the nine other names “I have again to contend with Rector

were those of persons connected with Cooke's annoyance; he is trying to get Bogle's party. A much larger list of me out of the church warden's office, but

names, most of which were original signaI have no doubt he will fail also this time.

tures or marks, was afterwards taken I am busy in Kingston, and have to from the private writing-table of Mr. return for the Port Royal business. I Gordon at Cherry Garden. This last list have not yet seen Chisholm.

was headed by the name of Paul Bogle, “Yours very truly, and contained 148 other names, many of “GEO. W. GORDON.”

which belonged to persons who were Mr. Gordon had been appointed church. implicated in the outbreak at Morant warden for St. Thomas-in-the-East, and

Bay. the fact of his having become a “Native We attach no great importance to these Baptist,” and ceased to communicate as lists, as they may merely show the polimember of the Church of England in

tical connexion of Mr. Gordon with Bogle Jamaica, had, as before mentioned, been

and his friends. advanced as disqualifying him for the

Mr. Henry James Lawrence was Mr. office. The same fact subsequently led to

Gordon's manager and resident agent on the action brought by him against the

his estate called “Rhine,” near Bath, in Custos, Baron Ketelhodt, by whom he

St. Thomas-in-the-East, and in letters had been forcibly removed from the addressed to him the interest in parish Vestry. This subject was

one which

matters felt by Mr. Gordon in common caused great irritation in the parish.

with many of his adherents there, is Paul Bogle was, on the 5th of March, expressed strongly in respect of the con1865, made deacon of the “ Native Bap- duct of members of the vestry towards tists.” On that day Mr. Gordon signed

himself. the following certificate as acting secre

Writing to Lawrence on the 30th of tary :

January, 1865, he remarks, " BARON and

Herschell are busy publishing lies against “Kingston, 5th March, 1865.

me in Spanish Town, so as to get the “ To all whom it may concern.

This is

grant of money, 2621. I shall be obliged to certify that Paul Bogle has been this

to speak in very plain terms on the subday ordained by me in the presence of the

ject. Can you send me Nibs on the whole congregation to be made Kingston

subject ? which may help me. They are Jamaica (sic) to the office of deacon in

a very wicked band, and the Lord will Christ's church, and that he has been

yet reward them all. .... I note what fully charged and has also undertaken faithfully to discharge the duties of the

you say of

He is a sort of fiend

who altho' chastized has remained harsaid office of deacon, and in all things to

dened. We can afford to spare him, and be obedient to the rules of the Church, devoting himself through the grace of

perhaps England will better agree with

him. Mark, the reign of others will also God faithfully to the work, and that he

soon be cut short." is hereby authorized to execute and dis

Again, on the 6th of March, 1865, he charge all the duties appertaining to the

writes to Mr. Lawrence :—“I note what office of deacon.

you say re Oxford and Walker and Ketel“Given under my hand, at Kingston,

hodt,—the parish will be well rid of Jamaica, this 5th day of March, 1865.

Walker, but the evil will be doubled (?) “ RICHARD WARREN.

in Baron, and I quite agree with your “Geo. W. GORDON,

sentiments. We must wait and see what · Acting Secretary."

the end will be of all these evil doers!... Paul Bogle wrote to Mr. Gordon a Thanks also for arranging with Kirkland. letter addressed to him at Morant Bay on I shall treat him as he merits. What the 12th of July, 1865, in which, after an unreliable SETT (sic) they all are. referring to the writer's health, he says, I am DISGUSTED with them and must “ You will be pleased to remember the try to keep aloof and above them. The Ex. Com. Gov. and Bishop! what a set, at the Rhine, “ Herschell has got another can any reliance be placed on these ? and 401. for pews at Bath Church, through can matters go on with such men at the the aid of his friend Price. What will helm. Herschell, Baron, Cookes, and a these (?) men, surely some calamity will lot of others are against me, and some of come on them.” low mark, ignorant coloured men, who About the same time, conversing with wo'nt value their own position, counte- Mr. Arthur Beckwith at Kingston, about nance such proceedings,- do you not see a meeting held on the subject of labourers that I have good reason to complain and and wages, Mr. Gordon was told it was be on the alert ?

calculated to excite a spirit of disaffection Again he writes to his manager :

amongst the people; to which Mr. Gordon

answered, “Ah! well, we must have it “April 27, 1865.

some way or the other; this is the great “ The case of Gordon v. Ketelhodt was

movement; and if we do not secure it in a great triumph to Baron and all the

this way, in six months there will be a Cookes, for in spite of every thing which

revolution in the country, and as I have was clearly in my favour they got a jury

always stood by the people I will stand by of five to give a verdict for defendant.

them then.” What a fresh victory is this for them all ?

He wrote from Kingston on the 10th of How well it looks, and how diminished is

Angust, to Lawrence, “I must go to the my head! but wait, it is not yet all

east, and start this evening for Morant over! The Attorney-General dis

Bay, hoping to be there early to-morrow, graced himself by low conduct. Sneddes

and be at the Rhine by Saturday some proved a traitor and M.Kenzie a MOST

time. The Baron has taken upon himself worthless lying fellow. Have nothing to

to postpone the public meeting until furdo with the man, he is a great villain

ther notice. This is improper; it is not (sic).”

his meeting, but theirs, and he has not And again on the 29th April, 1865.- the power of postponing. I am getting

quite tired of it, and must now bring the “I have no doubt there are dual actions

business to a close; and if the Baron won't and strong undercurrents against me, but

do what is right we must do so for him.” wait and see the end of it, be not cast

On the 11th of August a printed address down, the Lord is at hand There

to the people of St. Thomas-in-the-East, is a sort of present exultation in the

headed “State of the Island,” was posted Baron, Herschell, Cooke, &c., all their

up on a cotton tree in the main road at points being carried . . I note the

Morant Bay, opposite William Chisholm's great and glorious gathering at Rhine

house. The original draft of this address, House, this is very beautiful.

in the writing of Mr. Gordon, was given “Messrs. Warmington and Henry Sey- by him to a compositor at Kingston mour Kennedy, are new J. P's, for St.

shortly before, to be set up in type, with Thomas-y'-East, and some few more are

directions to forward copies to one Rodney expecting. All very beautiful. Great con

at St. Ann's Bay, others to James Sullivan cerns for great men! Keep you quiet and

at Bath, and further copies to Paul Bogle see the end of it all."

and to William Chisholm at Morant Bay. On the 4th of May he wrote, “I know These copies were sent. In this address the inveterate dislike of Herschell and all is found the following passage: his confreres. They will soon all find People of St. Thomas-in-the-East ! their level, and go like chaff against the You have been ground down too long wind.”

already ; shake off your sloth, and speak Mr. Gordon was staying at Hordley in like honourable and free men at your the Plantain Garden district of the parish meeting. Let not a crafty, jesuitical in June, 1865, and in conversation there priesthood deceive you. Prepare for your with Mr. Harrison, he was spoken to about duty. Remember the destitution in the the state of the feeling among the people, midst of your families, and your forlorn and told that he could not control it. In condition. The Government have taxed reply “Oh!” said Mr. Gordon, “if I you to defend your own rights against wanted a rebellion I could have had one the enormities of an unscrupulous and long ago.

I have been asked several oppressive foreigner, Mr. Custos Ketel. times to head a rebellion, but there is no hodt. You feel this. It is no wonder fear of that. I will try first a demonstra

You have been dared in this tion of it, but I must upset that fellow provoking act, and it is sufficient to ex. Herschell, and kick him out of the l'estry, tinguish your long patience. This is not and the Baron also, or bad will come time when such deeds should be perpeof it."

trated, but as they have been it is your On 13th of July he wrote to Lawrence duty to speak out and to act too. We

you do.

I say

advise you to be up and doing, and to On the night of the 15th of August a maintain your cause. You must be united meeting was held at a house belonging to in your efforts."

Mr. Gordon at Morant Bay, opposite the An open air meeting, on Saturday, Wesleyan Chapel, at which James M.Laren August 12th, held in the market-place in acted as Secretary, with about thirty perfront of the Court House, at Morant Bay, sons present ; from this meeting five perunder a gynnep tree, was presided over by sons were turned away as spies, who had Mr. Gordon, at which Paul Bogle and not previously attended the meeting on Moses Bogle were present. Resolutions the 12th of August. on the conduct of the Government, and Mr. G. W. Gordon attended, and spoke on the depressed state of the labouring at a meeting held at the “ Alley” in Vere classes, and the price of labour, and low on the 4th of September. He is thus rate of wages, were passed ; and in refer. reported to have spoken, amongst other ence to the circular called the “Queen's matters. “They report to the Queen advice to the people.” Mr. Gordon said that you are thieves. The notice that “ The Queen's message to the work- that is said to be the Queen's advice is all ing classes of Jamaica is not true;

trash; it is no advice of the Queen at it is not true; it is a lie; it does not all. I was told by some of you that come from the Queen; the Queen does your overseers said that if any of you not know any thing about it."

attended this meeting they would tear One of the resolutions passed at this down your houses. Tell them that I, meeting is as follows:

George William Gordon, say they dare not “That this meeting views with alarm, do it. It is tyranny. You must do what and denounces the unconstitutional and Hayti does. You have a bad name now, unprecedented act of the Government in but you will have a worse one then.” having provided the sum of 2501. to Dr. Bruce, a friend and political supdefend the Baron Ketelhodt in his illegal porter of Mr. Gordon, who introduced and oppressive conduct towards the rights him to the meeting, and took a part in it, of the constituency of this parish and the and some others, deny that Mr. Gordon Island generally, in interfering with the ever made use of the words “ You must office of churchwarden, and that a com- do what Hayti does.” mittee be now appointed to take all neces. The speech, however, containing these sary steps in this matter in defence of the words, was taken down at the time in rights and privileges of the electors.” some careful notes by a witness (Peart),

A committee, and a deputation, includ- who produced the same before us. These ing Paul Bogle, James M‘Laren, and notes were well and distinctly written. It others, were appointed to wait upon the would further appear that this speech Governor.

must have contained some matter at least The meeting then further resolved calculated to excite some alarm of dis" that they were of opinion that the turbance, from the following passage in a generally arbitrary, illegal, and incon- letter addressed to Dr. Bruce by Mr. sistent conduct of the Custos was destruc- Sydney Levien, the editor of a local newstive to the peace and prosperity of the paper, in reference to this Vere meeting. affairs of the parish.”

“I could scarcely command vital thought At the time of this meeting Mr. Gordon enough yesterday to do justice to your meetwas staying at his cottage on the Rhine ing, and against the wish of William; I estate, sixteen miles from Morant Bay. wrote the feeble editorial that appeared to

In familiar conversation with Mrs. second the noble exertions of the Vere Major, the wife of Dr. Major, his tenant people. All I desire is to shield you and of part of that estate, he was told by her them from the charge of anarchy and that in his speeches which she had recently tumult, which in a short time must follow been reading, he was certainly guilty of. these fearful demonstrations. How I suchigh treason, and she would accuse him ceeded you must judge for yourself.” of it. He replied, “Oh no, they have Dr. Bruce employed a reporter to atprinted it wrong; I never made use of tend and take notes of the speeches, and such expressions, and you can't do it. I before the speech of Mr. Gordon was have just gone as far as I can go, but no published the draft was submitted to Dr. further.

Bruce for approval. This version of the In this conversation he spoke of the speech was published in the “

County Governor as “a wicked man," and said Union” newspaper, and contains no ex. “that it would be a blessing to the country pression that could provoke the remarks if some one would shoot him ;" and that of Mr. Levien's letter, and Dr. Bruce Mr. Herschell and the Baron were “bad himself in his evidence stated that he had .and wicked men, and it would be a blessing

said “ that he would not attend any more if these three men were removed.”

meetings,” because he did not like the way in which Mr. Gordon spoke against Ketelhodt terminated yesterday again for the Government and Governor Eyre. defendant; it seemed foredetermined. I

This version of the speech as reported was greatly prepared for it, from what I by Mr. Peart was read to Dr. Bruce, and had perceived early in the day,-more was accepted by him as correct, saving anon on this subject. The prejudices are the words referring to Hayti, and one very strong against me, but it shall not other expression quite immaterial. This rest there. These multiplications of version wholly differs from that which wrong are only the gatherings up of appeared in the “County Union.”

future troubles." About three weeks before the events On the same 11th of September he at Morant Bay, and shortly after his writes, “ The fact is, St. Thomas-y’-East speech at Vere, Mr. Gordon was at the is about the very worst parish in the Bank of Jamaica at Kingston, conversing Island, and now the Governor has given with Mr. James Ford, the Secretary, on another cheer to magisterial oppression, the subject of that speech; and Mr. Ford as if it were forcing matters to a point. then said to him, “Supposing, Mr. Gor- Verily, this Governor is an evil-doer. The don, the people were to be such fools as Lord will plenteously reward him. Again to rise in rebellion, do you think that and again the Baron and the Cookes are even in the event of their being success- gratified.ful in their cutting all our throats, which On the 14th of September he wrote to is perfectly possible in the first rising, if Mr. Lawrence, at the Rhine Estate, “I they took us by surprise, that England fear we cannot mend public matters in either could not, or would not, avenge us St. Thomas-ye-East, so we better look amply, so that every one of them would to our individual circumstances more be killed and done away with ?" Mr. clearly. I believe the Governor and his Gordon said, “Ah, Mr. Ford, you are nest of Custodes are capable of any thing, quite mistaken there, all the powers of but the Lord will soon scatter them as the the great Napoleon could not put down chaff before the wind.”

... “There is the rising in Hayti, and that was success- just now great exultation, and a second ful, for the troops died of disease before verdict against me, and Jackson remored they could meet the people in the moun- to satisfy the Baron ! Anguis in herba.' tains." Mr. Ford then said, “But in I fancy you know that this means the India, a very short time ago, an organized, character you refer to, and I have apprearmed, and formidable rebellion of mil- hensions that your opinions may be corlions arose against the Government, and rect. Let it all go on! Just wait and we know how they were successful at first, see the result. ... I do not think we but it was very quietly, steadily, and were ever in more dismal times than at determinedly put down, and England's present in Jamaica. The Governor sucpower has been kept, and so it would be cours wrong and oppression to the fullest here." Mr. Gordon then replied, “Mr. extent in every quarter.” Ford, India is not at all a case in point, Again, on the 18th of September, he for India is a flat country, and the Eng. wrote to Lawrence,-“The enemies now lish troops would overrun it and conquer exult, and justice is silenced for the time, it; but this country is a mountainous but it will raise its head. ... The Lord country, and before the British troops will soon pluck his hand out of his bosom, could reach the people in the mountains and so confound the whole band of opthey would die of disease here.”

pressors. I believe this to be about one He then went away observing, “Of of their last flickers. Let us wait and course, this is mere abstract talking.”

Mr. Lawrence, writing from the Rhine And again, on the 21st of September, on the 8th of September to Mr. Gordon “ The oppression still continues in St. on private business, makes the following Thomas-ye-East, and there appears every remark on local affairs, “I see by the effort put forth to exasperate the poor papers that Mount Pleasant and Hall people! Their plan is to pray to God for Head have been offered for sale by the deliverance. You may laugh at this, and Hon. W. P. Georges.


call it cant, but I assure you it is the green bay tree (Hon. W. P. Georges) will most effectual plan, if you know the numcontinue to spread, while the day of ber of ways in which God can and often retribution draws nigh for his numerous does destroy the evil-doer!” transgressions, and the ex-member of the On the 28th of September he wrote to Assembly (Mr. D.) humbled.”

Mr. Lawrence :-“ Poor Jackson was in On the 11th of September Mr. Gordon the midst of conspiracy. Rector Cooke forwarded a letter to Mr. Lawrence, writ- will get up a charge of conspiracy against ten on the 23rd of August, but mislaid, in any one over whom the Governor has which he says, “ The case of Gordon and power, and get him dismissed. The man,


suppose this

Mr. Eyre, is an arch liar, and he supports nothing further than that there was a all his emissaries. .... The wicked shall great disturbance, but that she need be be destroyed. This is decreed. God is under no apprehension about the doctor, our refuge and strength, a very pleasant he would be quite safe, but the Baron and (sic) help in trouble.”

Mr. Herschell he feared were doomed.” The news of the events of Wednesday This conversation was in point of time evening the 11th of October did not reach before the fight had begun at Morant Kingston till Thursday, the 12th of Octo- Bay, where, according to all the evidence, ber, at noon.

the Baron and Mr. Herschell were not On the 11th of October, Mr. G. W. Gor- killed till after five o'clock. don was residing at his property,“ Cherry About three o'clock the same afternoon Garden,” in St. Andrew's, a short distance Mrs. Major again made inquiry by note, from Kingston. He was engaged in trade, sent by her servant to Lawrence, and he and had business offices in that town, then sent word by the servant to her where he went on that day, returning “that the doctor would be quite safe, but home in the evening. On his return he Mr. Herschell, and the Baron he had no is said by his wife to have informed her hope of.” About the same time he also of the outbreak at Morant Bay.

wrote to her the following note :As the outbreak took place at a distance

“Dear Madam, of more than thirty miles, late on the afternoon of the 11th, and was not known

“ Things seem in a fearful way; the doc

tor did not seem to know of the rebellion in Kingston till the middle of the following day, it was suggested to Mrs. Gordon

at Morant Bay till I told him, but I beg that probably it was on Thursday the 12th

you will not be troubled. I have no doubt that Mr. Gordon first spoke to her on the

the feeling will be quieted. The Volunsubject.

teer force moved on the scene of action Upon this she replied that “Wednesday evening he brought the

this morning at one o'clock. I will let news,” and that “Mr. Gordon came up

you know if any thing more transpires.” on the 12th, and said the outbreak at This note was received before four Morant Bay was true that we had heard o'clock on the 11th of October, and at of on the Wednesday.” He added, “ that that time the events had not yet ended the feeling seemed to be so strong to put in the deaths of the Custos and Mr. Hers. (sic) a pistol to bim, and get rid of him, chell, nor could the news of what had as they did the President of America."

happened at Morant Bay have reached When the news of the events of October the Rhine at a distance of sixteen miles. 11th reached Kingston on the following On the 12th of October, the next day, day, they were not fully believed by many Lawrence wrote to Mrs. Major as fol. persons there in the first instance.

lows:On this day, about two o'clock, Mr.

“ Dear Madam, Lee, a friend of Mr. Gordon, mentioned to him the news of what had happened at

“I am sorry I have no reliable news Morant Bay, and Mr. Gordon seemed

for you. I have heard a good deal, but

think much of what I hear is false. There much distressed. Mr. Lee said, “George, I fear your

is a report about the Doctor, but the same

is not true. The negroes know full well agitation at Morant Bay bas been the

who fit for retribution.” cause of all this." Mr. Gordon said, “I never gave them bad advice. I only told The financial difficulties in which Mr. them the Lord would send them a day of Gordon found himself at the time are deliverance." And when speaking of seen from some passages in the above Baron Kctelhodt being killed, Mr. Gordon letters. added, “ I told him not to go, but he was On the 30th of January, 1865, he writes such an obstinate man."

to Lawrence : “Your promise to me in the Dr. Major, Mr. Gordon's tenant at the way of remittances from all quarters are Rhine, about sixteen miles from Morant getting in arrears, but I trust soon to find Bay, was at seven o'clock on the morning them being redeemed. It won't do to put of October 11th leaving the Rhine, in off too long, for my own necessities seem order to attend the meeting of the Vestry to increase, and the hope I had of relief is at Morant Bay. He met Mr. Lawrence as not realized." he came out of the gate, who tried to On the 29th of April, he wrote, “The dissuade him from going, by saying, " ! Spring rents do not come in as they should strongly advise you not to go.” ought. I thank you for one pound reDr. Major went, however, and about two mitted.” o'clock Mrs. Major sent to Lawrence for On the 10th of August he wrote, “I intelligence, at which hour he called on am just returned from the north side, and her at the Rhine, saying that “he heard find none of your letters. I had expected

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