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meeting on the 3rd of October, at which some sort of authority, one being adan oath was administered to him, and his dressed as Colonel, another as captain. name registered, was suddenly summoned The larger body came from Stony Gut, from his bed late at night on the 9th to where they had been collected from differgo to Stony Gut. Upon his arrival there ent places in the immediate neighbourhe was told that the Volunteers and police- hood. Others came from a distance of men were coming, and that he must assist several miles from beyond Bath, while one in keeping guard. He remained in the large body, nearly 100 in number, came chapel all night, and was one of those from Torrington, a large negro settlement who answered to Bogle's call for help to the north of Stony Gut, and joined when the police arrived on the following those from the latter place at the entrance morning.
to Morant Bay. It has already been mentioned that on Here the first thing done was to attack the arrival of the policemen at Stony Gut the police station, and to obtain posseson that morning some of them were com- sion of the arms placed there, consisting pelled to take an oath, and that the pur- of muskets, bayonets, and pistols. port of that oath was that they would The muskets, however, proved to be of cleave to the blacks.”
little use, as they were without flints. It was admitted too by a very unwilling Upon this being discovered by their new witness, that for a week before the 11th possessors, they were heard to say, “How of October the person before described as can they fight us when they have no flints Captain Grant had been in the habit of
to their guns.". drilling the men at Stony Gut; and it It has already been stated that at this was stated by one of the constables who time an unsuccessful attempt was made to was detained in Bogle's house on the 10th obtain gunpowder from a shop in the that he saw a number of men drilled in
town. companies by Moses Bogle and a person Out of the very few persons assembled who was called Colonel Bowie. The ac- in the Court House who were allowed to count, in fact, which was given us of the escape, two were doctors, one of whom proceedings on this occasion was so cir- was told that if he had not been a doctor cumstantial that it deserves a place here. he would have been killed like the rest. Paul Bogle said, “Colonel Bowie, take the Another pretended to be a doctor, and men out to drill.” Immediately, as we was let go by Bogle upon his swearing were told, about 300 men, armed with that he would not dress a white man's cutlasses, sticks, and lances, assembled wound. A fourth was a Maroon. about Bogle's house in three companies; There was manifested, indeed, throughone under Bowie, who appears to have out these disturbances, a great desire to taken the lead, a second under Moses conciliate the Maroons, and a great fear Bogle, and the third under James Dacres. of offending them. Be careful what you
One company at a time went out to do with this man, he is a Maroon," was drill; the other two remaining in the sufficient to obtain the release of one of yard of Bogle's house, “Colonel Bowie's the policemen who was taken before was the first company to be drilled; he McLaren, “The Captain of the Guard," ordered his men to fall in in threes, and And of one of his companions for whom he gave the word of command, “March.” interceded. “Don't kill this man; he is 'They marched out in order with drum a Maroon; the Maroon is our back," was and shells, and practised marching and the expression used by Bogle respecting the use of their cutlasses. When Bowie's one who had been taken prisoner, men came back, Moses Bogle took out one "I am a Maroon, and if any one disof the other companies.
turbs any one in my house I shall send for Altogether the drilling occupied about the Maroons," was the exclamation of a three quarters of an hour.
woman, of itself sufficient to frighten On the morning of the 10th small away a crowd of men intent upon vioparties were seen going, with fife and
lence. drum, in the direction from Stony Gut We were unable to learn upon what towards Coley, Somerset, and Mount foundation the hope of support from this Lebanus, and some of them were again singular people rested. Occupying as seen in the evening returning with greatly they do a mountainous district, difficult increased numbers.
of access, and commanding the road from The conduct of the rioters on Wednes. the north to the south of the Island, they day, the 11th of October, was also very had it in their power to afford most valusignificant. They came, or, as some of able assistance to any rising which might the witnesses described it, marched into take place in St. Thomas-in-the-East. Morant Bay in different parties. There The only communication shown to us to were individuals who exercised over them have taken place between them and Bogle
occurred three or four weeks before the the wheel, as we have been imposed upon 11th of October, when Bogle paid a visit for a period of twenty-seven years with to the Maroon settlement at Hayfield in due obeisance to the laws of our Queen the neighbourhood of Bath, accompanied and country, and we can no longer endure by Bowie and Bailey, both of whom were the same, therefore is our object of calling shown to have taken an active part with upon your Excellency as Governor-inhim in subsequent proceedings.
Chief and Captain of our Ísland, and your In this visit Bogle spoke of the griev- petitioners as in duty bound will ever ances under which he said the people laboured from nonpayment of sufficient This letter was on the 10th of October, wages and the undue imposition of taxes. at some time after noon, given to a mes.
He does not, however, appear to have senger, to be delivered to the Governor at obtained any encouragement from his Spanish Town, distant from Stony Gut audience, or to have said any thing as to about fifty miles, and was delivered at the any future plans.
Governor's house between ten and eleven Bowie, on the other hand, is represented o'clock on the following morning. to have said to one of the party that their It seemed to be relied upon as showing intention was to beat the whites and the peaceable intentions of the writers. browns out of the country, but that they We confess we cannot look upon it in that were afraid of the Maroops, and wanted light. them not to interfere.
Its language is that of scarcely conAmong the members of the vestry cealed defiance, and looking at its terms, deliberately murdered in the course of the at the time at which it was written, and night of the 11th was a Mr. Price, a the acts by which it was accompanied and negro, who had by his abilities raised followed, it seems to us to partake rather himself to a position in life superior to of the character of a manifesto preparatory that of most of his race.
to and attempting to justify a recourse to When he was first caught, a discussion violence. was overheard as to what should be his The designs of some of the insurgents, fate. One said, “Kill him.” Another and the hopes entertained by others, will said, “Don't kill him ; we have orders to more clearly appear from what passed kill no black, only white.” “He has a during the three days following the rising black skin but a white heart," was the on Wednesday the 11th. reply, and he was beaten to death.
During the evening and night of the It was proved that after the murders 11th some of those who had escaped from Bogle returned to Stony Gut, and that the Court House were concealed in places there was a service in his chapel in which where they had the opportunity of overhe returned thanks to God that he “went hearing the conversation of the insurgents. to this work, and that God had succeeded One heard thein say that on the following him in his work.”
day they were to go to Bath. Another, With this evidence before us it was im- who was close to what he described as their possible to avoid arriving at the conclusion guard-room, to which their prisoners were that there was on the part of the leaders taken, learned that they were to meet at of the rioters a preconcerted plan, and Stony Gut at two o'clock in the morning; that murder was distinctly contemplated. that one party was to go and gather more
We ought, however, to advert to the men; another to proceed to Port Morant following letter signed by Bogle and nine- and the Plantain Garden River District. teen others, and addressed to the Go- These plans appear to have been carried
out. We find that there was a meeting “We, the petitioners of St. Thomas-in- at Bogle's in the course of the night, and the-East, send to inform your Excellency that men were carried as prisoners by of the mean advantages that has been armed parties to Bogle's house ; that one taken of us from time to time, and more was compelled to swear that he would especially this present time, when on leave the whites and cleave to the blacks; Baturday, 7th of this month, an out- and another was promised that if he would rageous assault was committed upon us join Bogle he should have the land which by the policemen of this parish, by order he leased for his own from generation to of the Justices, which occasion an out- generation; that early on the following breaking for which warrants have been morning a party consisting of 200 men issued against innocent person, of which armed with guns and bayonets mounted we were compelled to resist. We, there- on sticks, and with shells blowing, profore, call upon your Excellency for pro- ceeded to Coley, a few miles to the northtection, seeing we are Her Majesty's loyal west of Stony Gut, endeavoaring to obtain subjects, which protection, if refused to fresh support, and compelling persons, un. will be compelled to put our shoulders to der the threat of immediate death, to
swear that they would henceforth join the in most cases assisted by some of their blacks; that Bath and the estates in the own labourers. Plantain Garden River District were In one case, “I am Manning of the attacked in the course of the day, and Maroons" seems to have been sufficient Port Morant on the day following.
to enable Mr. Manning to secure the The first party who entered Bath came safety of those for whom he was in. in search of the ammunition belonging to terested. the Volunteer Corps, which had been Monklands, which is about sixteen kept in the house of their late captain. miles up the valley from Morant Bay, was
Later in the day a much larger party attacked by a party of above fifty men, came marching in military order, with armed with guns, cutlasses, bayonets, and flags flying and drums beating. They swords. had complete possession of the town tiil At Hordley, an estate in the Plantain the following day, when on hearing the Garden River District, a large party of well-known horn of the Maroons, who, at women and children, above twenty in the request of a magistrate resident there, number, were obliged to hide in the wood came to the relief of the inhabitants, they for the night, and to conceal themselves Aed from the place.
during the whole of the following day and The stores in the town were pillaged, night, until the advance of a small body and property to a large amount was taken of troops enabled them to reach a place or destroyed.
of safety. And a faithful black servant, The few white and almost all the who assisted them in escaping, was hercoloured inhabitants fled to the bush. self compelled to flee in consequence of
The estates attacked in the course of her life being threatened. that day and night were all situated with- Whitehall, an estate in the Blue Moun. in a few miles of Bath.
tain Valley, was attacked by a smaller At an estate in Blue Mountain Valley, party. The proprietor, Mr. Smith, was a few miles on the west side of Bath, an sought for, but escaped in the bush. He armed party of about fifty men, under died shortly afterwards from the effects the command of one addressed as Captain
of exposure. Wilson, attacked the book-keeper, who There was one curious exception to the received wounds, from the effects of which rule generally followed, of destroying the he shortly afterwards died. The life of furniture found in the houses, and that the son of the owner, who had lately was in the case of Golden-grove, one of arrived from England, was threatened, the most valuable properties in the eastern and saved through the zealous intercession part of the island. When it was proposed of his coloured overseer.
by one to go over to what was called the At Amity Hall, on the other side of Great House, the answer was, “that is to Bath, which was attacked by 400 men, be saved for Paul Bogle; those were the Mr. Hire was murdered, and his son left orders of the general.” for dead; while Mr. Jackson, the stipen- It is always difficult to know how far diary magistrate, and Mr. Creighton, to rely on the accuracy of ordinary ob. were severely wounded, the latter so servers when estimating numbers. But severely that it seemed scarcely possible there were witnesses who gave evidence that he should survive.
as to the number of the insurgents on The account given by some of the this day having been at one place 1500, actors themselves of their proceedings at and at another as many as 2000, all or the Amity Hall is remarkable.
great majority of whom were armed with They said in the hearing of a witness various kinds of weapons. that they had murdered Hire, and would It is impossible not to attach some imkill his son ; that as soon as Jackson said portance also to the cries which were he was a friend of Gordon they rubbed heard, as not unfrequently the real object him up, and brought him to life; and of the body of men from which they prothat they had set fire to Dr. Crowdy's bed, ceed is thereby disclosed. “Colour for but that when they discovered that he Colour," was the cry everywhere during was a doctor they put it out.
the short time that the disturbances The houses upon the other estates in the lasted. neighbourhood were attacked and plun- • Blood, blood,” “We want blood,” was dered, but in no other case was murder heard at one place. committed. Search, indeed, was made “ We must humble the white man be. for different persons connected with the fore us,” “We are going to take the lives estates, and the intention of killing them of the white men, but not to hurt the if found was openly avowed, but the per- ladies," was what was said in the hearing sons sought for either were absent or of the widow of one of the persons killed succeeded in making their escape, being at Morant Bay.
“Hurra! Buckra country for us. Never but the intention was openly avowed of mind the Buckra women; we can get proceeding to take up the crops. them when we want," was the cry upon “We are going down the river to take one estate.
up the crops," was the statement of one “We want the Buckra men to kill, but man at Manchioneal, who just before had we don't want the women now; we will been telling of the events in the district have them afterwards," was what was of the Plantain Garden River, and how he heard upon another, by a faithful woman, and others “had downed that fellow who succeeded in hiding her mistress and Hire.” all the members of her family.
And by several of a party of armed Again, “ Don't burn the trash house; negroes who entered Machioneal Bay it we want sugar to make for ourselves ;" was openly said that they were going and “ Don't set fire to the house ; only down next week to take off the crops, and kill the white man, for when we have done take charge of the estates. that we have the house to live in for During these latter days very little was myself,” were exclamations heard else- seen, by any of the witnesses, of Bogle or where.
of those who were associated with him in The several estates to which reference the original outbreak. has hitherto been made were all situated It has been already mentioned that he to the north or east of Morant Bay. The returned to Stony Gut on the night of only movement in an opposite quarter
the lith. He was still there with Crad. which was made on this same day was in dock, McLaren, and Bowie on the afterthe direction of White Horses, a place noon of the 12th. On that occasion & four miles to the west of Morant Bay. large number of men met in the chapel, There a party of thirty or forty persons some of whom were afterwards drilled. attacked a shop, plundered the house, and They were then addressed by Bogle and compelled the owners to promise to go Craddock. They were told “that this over to the side of the blacks.
country would belong to them, and that Daring the next three days the in- they were about getting it, to take surgents continued their course through possession, that they had been long trod. Port Morant northward to Manchioneal, den under sandals,” that the country and on to Mulatto river and Elmwood, “had long been theirs, and they must the last of which places is situated in the keep it wholly in possession.” most northerly part of St. Thomas-in-the- When the people separated it was East, where that parish abuts upon Port- arranged that those who lived on the land.
valley side should leave for their homes, As they advanced with the cry of and that “when the enemy came” they “ Colour for Colour” they were joined by should send a messenger to let the men a considerable number of the blacks, who in Stony Gut know, and that if any came readily assisted in the work of plundering. towards Stony Gut information should be The houses and stores were sacked. The given to the men in the valley. intention also of taking the lives of the The next day Bogle and McLaren were whites was openly avowed, and diligent seen at Chigoe Foot Market, at the head search was made for particular indi. of 200 men, marching up the valley, viduals. But in each case the imperilled On the 15th he was at Mount Lebanus persons had timely notice, and sought Chapel with more than 100 men, when the safety in flight.
alarm was given that the soldiers were Elinwood was the point furthest from coming. Morant Bay to which the disturbances He then gave directions to the men extended, as on Sunday the 15th the that they should get their arms loaded, troops arrived at Port Antonio, and put and that those who knew that their arms a stop to the further progress of the in- were not loaded should go and get powder surgents northwards.
and load their guns. Thus it will be seen that in the course Later in the day it was mentioned in of these few days the insurgents had the hearing of a witness, who was for spread over a tract of country extending several days detained as a prisoner at from White Horses, a few miles to the Fonthill, that when on that day the troops west of Morant Bay, to Elmwood, at a were coming over a hill in the immediate distance of upwards of thirty miles to the vicinity of the insurgents, Bogle was in north-east of that place.
force, and advanced to give them battle, They seem to have been under the but that he was dissuaded by Cowell, one impression that they would be allowed to of the most active of his associates, and remain in possession of the estates.
that his followers then became panicNot only were the crops uninjured, and stricken and took to flight. the buildings for the most part preserved, In corroboration of this account it is in
evidence that Bogle was seen, and pursued advice of the Attorney-General, had apby General Jackson, who accompanied the proved of the estimates so framed. troops on that day, at a time when the All these proceedings had produced insurgents were seen to be dispersing. considerable irritation in the western
On the following day he went with a very part of the parish, and especially among small number of followers to the Maroon the members of the Native Baptist Comsettlement at Hayfield, but found that all munion to which Mr. Gordon belonged. the men had left, and were employed in There were other causes for irritation guarding Bath.
existing alike in St. Thomas-in-the-East From that time nothing appears to and in other parts of the Island. These have been heard of him until the 23rd, arose from the alleged lowness of the rate when he was apprehended by the Ma- of wages and irregularity in their payment, roons, and taken as a prisoner to Morant and the difficulty of obtaining relief from Bay.
alleged injustice in consequence of the In reporting the result of our inquiry constitution of the magistracy. into the origin of the disturbances it is The magistrates are principally planters necessary to allude to peculiar circum- and persons connected with the managestances affecting the parish of St. Thomas- ment of estates. Those who are not so in-the-East.
connected are for the most part engaged Mr. Gordon was a proprietor, and had in business, and their attendance is very been a magistrate in that parish, and had irregular. The consequence is, that distaken an active part in parochial con- putes between employers and labourers,
and questions relating to the occupation Among other things he had complained of land, which are decided in the first of the unhealthy state of a building at instance at petty sessions, are adjudicated Morant Pay used as a lock-up house, and upon by those whose interests and feelings had caused inquiry to be made into the are supposed to be hostile to the labourer conduct of a brother magistrate in rela- and the occupier. tion to that matter. The result of the We had a great deal of evidence on these inquiry was, that while the building was subjects, and it did not appear to us that condemned as unfit for its purpose, he was the rate of wages was low, but rather that thought to have made charges against the the smallness of the sums frequently remagistrate which he must have known to ceived by the labourer at the end of the be untrue. On this ground he was dis- week arose from the unwillingness to missed by the Governor from the magis- labour for more than a very limited time. tracy, and his dismissal was approved by Nor was it proved before us that there the Home Government.
was unfairness on the part of the managers He had been also elected to fill the of estates in the payment of wages. office of churchwarden, but his right to Disputes, however, must frequently act in that capacity was disputed on the arise upon such subjects, and it was clear ground of his not being a menber of the to us that the difficulties in the way of Church of England.
seeking relief by law were very great, and This alleged want of qualification it was not to be expected that, constituted formed the subject of an action at law, as the bench of magistrates at present is, in which Mr. Gordon was the plaintiff, it would have the confidence of the and Baron Ketelhodt, the Custos of the labourers. Parish, was the defendant.
The evils resulting from the want of The action was twice tried, and on each a good Master and Servant Act, by which occasion a verdict was found for the summary relief might be obtained before defendant, and an application for a third an independent and impartial tribunal, are trial was still pending in the month of evidently very great. October.
But the originators of the outbreak do not By the law of Jamaica the parochial appear generally to have belonged to the expenses are not defrayed out of a local labouring class. They were for the most rate but out of the general funds of the part what are called free settlers, occupy. Island, on the application of the vestry, ing and cultivating small patches of land, sanctioned by the approval of the Execu- and placed in better circumstances than tive Government. As the Custos in ques- the ordinary labourer. tioning the right of Mr. Gordon to sit at Their great desire was to obtain, free the vestry as churchwarden had acted at froin the payment of rent, what are called the request and as the chairman of that the “back lands." body, they had included the costs incurred “ Soon we shall have the lands free, and in defending the action brought by Mr. then we shall bave to pay no rent," was Gordon in their parochial estimate; and the answer received by one rent collector the Executive Committee, after taking in the summer of 1865.