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QUEEN MARIE AMELIE. THE Consort of His late Majesty King Louis Philippe of France ended, on the 24th of March, in tranquil dignity, a life of many and great vicissitudes.

Marie Amélie de Bourbon, the daughter of Ferdinand IV. of Naples, Third of Sicily, and First of the United Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, was born on April 26, 1782. Her mother was Marie Caroline, Archduchess of Austria, the imperious daughter of Maria Theresa, and sister of Marie Antoinette and of the Emperors Joseph and Leopold. If Ferdinand was the nominal ruler of his kingdom, Marie Caroline was the real Sovereign. How, in spite of her husband and his Cabinet, she served Nelson in bis hour of need at the instigation of Lady Hamilton, will be remembered by all Englishmen. _Marie Amélie, the future Queen of the French, was one of five sisters, who were most carefully educated under the care of Madame d'Ambrosio. She early displayed the germs of those amiable qualities which distinguished her in after life.

« We three sisters," said, on one occasion, the widow of Charles Felix, King of Sardinia, to M. Donnet, Archbishop of Bordeaux,

we three sisters in our childhood were called respectively la bella, la dotta, and la santa. La santa was Marie Amélie.” The political storms amid which this Princess passed her early years, make the beginning of her life resemble to some extent the youth of her future husband. She was scarcely ten years of age when, in 1792, the French fleet, commanded by Admiral de la Touche Treville, appeared in the Bay of Naples; and from that time onwards, during the period of the first victories of Napoleon, the Royal Family of Naples were kept in a state of per

petual anxiety and alarm. At length, on the conquest of Naples by the French troops_under General Championnet, in 1798, Ferdinand and his Queen fled into Sicily with their children. The Princess Marie Amélie remained at Palermo with her mother during the first Neapolitan revolution, and even for some time after the victories of Suwarrow in Northern Italy had compelled the French troops to depart from Naples. In the month of June, 1800, the Queen and her daughters went to Vienna, where they remained for two years, returning to Naples in 1802. Renewed political outbreaks compelled the Royal family again to retire into Sicily; and it was during this second period of residence there that the Princess Marie Amélie for the first time met the Duke of Orleans, like herself, an exile from his country.

In 1808, on his return from the burial in Malta of his brother the Comte de Beaujolais, Louis Philippe received a cordial invitation from Ferdinand to pay a visit to Palermo. He did so, and soon gained the affections of the second of the King's daughters. There appears to be a doubt as to the motives of Queen Caroline in eventually sanctioning their union. It was not to be expected that the sister of Marie Antoinette and the wife of a Bourbon King could look with much favour on the son of one who took a chief part in the persecution of her sister, and in the execution of his King. On the other hand, it has been said that the shrewd Queen early saw the strong points in the character of the Duke of Orleans, and thought that, amid the perils which at the moment surrounded her family, it would be well to attach to their interests a man of his tact and experience. Whate ever may have been her motives, there is


no doubt as to the motives of the young A few years more, and she had to display people themselves. Their marriage was courage of a different sort—a courage and one purely of affection. Amid all the dignity which seemed to belong to her political misfortunes which afterwards race, and which offered a strong contrast overtook them, their domestic happiness to the irresolution of the King. Lamarwas never for a moment disturbed, and tine, in glowing terms, describes the scene their household virtues became proverbial at the Tuileries, when the Queen, her in Europe. The marriage took place in grey locks contrasting with the fire of her Palermo, on the 25th of November, 1809; eyes and the animated flush of her cheek, and the Duke and Duchess continued to said to the King, in language worthy of reside there until 1814, in the enjoyment the granddaughter of Maria Theresa and of a greater amount of tranquillity than the niece of Marie Antoinette, “Go and had hitherto fallen to the lot of either. show yourself to the disheartened troops In 1814, the restoration of the House of and to the irresolute National Guard. Bourbon summoned the head of the I will place myself in the balcony with younger branch of the family from this

my grandchildren and my daughters, and state of comparative seclusion, and esta- will see you die in a manner worthy of blished him in his due position in France. yourself, of your throne, and of our comIn the month of September of this year mon misfortunes.” When the King dethe Duchess of Orleans arrived in her clared his intention of abdicating, she adopted country ; but it was not long rebuked him with passionate earnestness. before the events of the Hundred Days She cared not, she said, what was said in compelled her to take refuge with her or out of the Tuileries; but, in her estima. children in England, whence she did not tion, revolution was ever a crime, and return to Paris till the commencement of abdication a cowardice. “Sire," she conthe year 1817. From this time down to cluded energetically, “a King should the Revolution of July her residence was never lose his crown without making an in France; where she attracted the esteem effort to defend it.” According to Lord and love even of the enemies of the House Normanby's report, her words were :of Orleans by the simple beauty of her “Sire! n'abdiquez pas; montez à cheval, life, her gentle piety, and her unwcaried mettez-vous à la tête de vos troupes, et charity. It has been asserted that in je prierai Dieu pour vous.” When, how1830 ħer Legitimist tendencies led her to ever, resistance was too late, the Queen view the Revolution with sorrow, though subsided again into the wife, and prepared it tended to her own elevation. She is

to accompany her husband in his melaneven said to have expressed a strong re- choly flight. Worn out by contending pugnance to share a throne to which, emotions and anxieties, she fell senseless according to her ideas of right, she had no to the ground in the attempt to step into claim. Whatever truth there may be in the carriage. Soon recovering, she ac. these assertions, the unalterable devotion companied the King to Evreux, where which Marie Amélie bore to her husband, she separated from him for safety. She whether in prosperity or in adversity, rejoined him afterwards at Honfleur, and overcame all her scruples, and she deter- shared the difficulties of his passage to mined on the path of conduct she was for England. In the quiet seclusion of Clarethe future to adopt. She took no part in mont she devoted herself to the task of political affairs, but devoted herself to the soothing the regrets and cheering the education of her children and to works of heart of the King. In 1850 she received charity.

his last breath. It was the Queen's unhappy fate, ere The only public matter in which the she had been many years on the throne, Queen took an interest during her resito have her tenderest feelings wounded dence in England, was the proposed coali. by more than one domestic affliction. In tion and fusion of the two branches of the 1839 the beautiful and accomplished Prin- House of Bourbon. The Legitimist par. cess Marie died, and in 1842 a strange tialities of the Queen induced her to and melancholy accident led to the death, advocate, on certain conditions, a fusion in the Queen's arms, of her eldest son, which, it is well known, was successfully and to the destruction, with him, of the opposed by the Duchess of Orleans. This best security for the House of Orleans. difference of opinion did not in the Bitter as was this sudden blow, it served slightest diminish the feeling of reverenonly to bring out in stronger colours the tial love which the Duchess ever enterbeauty of the Queen's nature. She felt tained towards the Queen; and her that there was one on whom the blow daughter-in-law's lamented death, as well had fallen with even more stunning as that of the Queen of the Belgians, that severity, and she devoted herself to soothe of the Duchess of Nemours, and, lastly, and comfort her afflicted daughter-in-law. that of the King of the Belgians, were the bitterest afflictions suffered by the represented by General Seymour, and Queen in her later days. She was, how- Lord Camoys. Among the French gen. ever, consoled in her old age by the affec- tlemen present were M. Prévost Paradol, tionate solicitude of the numerous family M. Thiers, and M. Guizot. Mass was still surviving, and by seeing her chil. performed by Bishop Grant of Southdren's children's children spring up about wark. her. Not only did she enjoy the affection of her children, but also—what was very

THE BISHOP OF CALCUTTA. precious to her-she won the hearts of all the poor people among whom she lived. The Right Rev. George Edward Lynch She was one of the most benevolent of Cotton, D.D., Bishop of Calcutta and Me. women; and though she was a Catholic tropolitan in India and Ceylon, was acciof the strictest Neapolitan type, she re- dentally drowned on the 6th of October at garded no distinction of faith in her chari. Kooshtea, on the Gorai river, while disemties. To all who needed her aid she was barking from a steam-boat, to the deep ready with help, and every where about regret of his friends, and the great loss of Esher the name of the good French Queen the Church in India over which he prewas pronounced with affection and vene- sided. The Bishop was a connexion of ration.

the family of Lord Comberinere, and was As in little more than one month she born at Chester on Oct. 29th, 1813. He would have completed her cighty-fourth was the son of Captain Thos. Cotton, of year, it can scarcely be said that the the 7th Fusiliers, who was killed only a death of the Queen was unexpected; and month after the birth of the future Bishop, yet she died in comparative health. Two at the head of his brigade, in storming days before her decease, she had her car- the fortress of Nivelle in the Penipsula. riage drive. The day before, she was up The boy was sent at an early age to Westas usual, with this only difference, that, minster School, from whence he went up feeling rather exhausted, she went to bed to Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1832, in the evening earlier than was her wont. taking with him a fairly high character She passed a restless night. On Saturday for scholarship, though he himself always morning she said, “Je suis mieux”-her spoke most modestly of his own attainlast words—and fell asleep. In that sleep ments. At Cambridge he read hard, she died, at eleven o'clock in the forenoon. though he made it a rule never to work She was spared the pain of consciously after twelve o'clock at night. Among his encountering death ; also the pain, which especial friends were Dr. Vaughan of to her motherly nature would have been Harrow, Dr. Howson of Liverpool, the very grievous, of parting with her chil. late Mr. Conybeare, and Mr. Simpkinson. dren. She thus ended, without pain, a He was always in the first class in the life of much suffering.

college examinations; he also obtained The late Queen had five sons and three the declamation prize, and the prize for daughters. Her brother succeeded to the reading in the college chapel. Whilst at throne of Naples, and was the father of Cambridge, he appears to have been espe. the famous Boiba. Her four sisters cially drawn, “by the attraction of a were married respectively to the Emperor kindred spirit,” towards Dr. Arnold, who of Austria, the Grand Duke of Tuscany, was then rising rapidly to the zenith of Charles Felix, King of Sardinia, and his fame at Rugby, and to whom he was Ferdinand VII., King of Spain.

introduced Dr. Vaughan. Having The funeral of the late Queen took taken his B.A. degree in 1836 as a senior place on the 3rd of April, her remains optime, and eighth in the classical tripos, being interred in the mausoleum at Wey- he was appointed by Dr. Arnold to a masbridge, side by side with those of her tership in Rugby School, where he had husband, Louis Philippe. In accordance the charge of a boarding-house, and also with her own wish, she was buried in the of a form of some fifty boys. Shortly dress she wore

on leaving France in afterwards he was elected to a fellowship February, 1818, for her long exile, and in at Trinity College ; but he did not allow her widow's cap, in order to show “ how the attractions of University life to tear unalterably faithful she remained to the him away from his work at Rugby. About two guiding feelings of her life - her 1810 or 18-11 he succeeded to the masterdevotion to lier royal spouse, and her love ship of the fifth form, the highest form for her adopted country."

Besides all except the sixth, and including about the surviving members of the family of forty boys. At Rugby, to judge from the the late Queen, there were present at evidence of one who was under him, Mr. the funeral the King of the Belgians, Cotton had up-hill work; but he threw the Prince of Wales, and the Duke of himself heartily into the spirit of Dr. Cambridge; the Queen of England being Arnold's system, and made himself the personal friend as well as the master of heath, near Chester, by whom he has left his boys. His boarding-house accordingly issue one son and a daughter. The became one of the most popular in Rugby. Governor-General of India, in a formal Mr. Cotton was also an effective tutor minute, recorded his sense of the loss “out of school," and one of whom it may which the Church and the whole popula. well be said that he thoroughly realized tion of India had sustained through the the words of Juvenal —

Bishop's sudden death.
“Di præceptorem sancti voluere parentis
Esse loco."
Close acquaintances and friendships

CAPTAIN FOWKE, R.E. were thus formed during the half-year with his pupils, and they were maintained Francis Fowke was born in 1823. Har. during the holidays, and, after school-life ing received his first commission in 1812, had ended, by letters and mutual visits, he was appointed to Bermuda and staand occasionally by tours on the Conti- tioned there for several years, during nent, when he threw off all the position which he so greatly distinguished himself and character of a “don,” visiting in their as a military architect as to be employed, company France, Germany, and Switzer. on returning home, to erect the Raglan land.

Barrack at Devonport, an edifice which In 1852 Mr. Cotton was elected Head is remarkable on account of the excellent Master of Marlborough College, which was accommodation it affords to the inmates, then at a very low ebb, financially and the application of constructive ingenuity otherwise, but which, under his hands, to sanitary purposes, and, taking into acrapidly achieved a high position among count the number of men accommodated our leading public schools. He was for. in it, the cheapest construction of its tunate in the selection of his assistant class in this country. In this work many masters, and in the possession of a large comforts and facilities were included which fund of Rugby experience, and of the rare were novelties in barracks, and were afterfaculty of “organization.” His patience, wards adopted, with modifications, by the honour, justice, self-devotion, industry, Sanitary Commission which reported on and cheerfulness bore their proper fruit the general subject. The Raglan Barrack in time. After his six years' mastership is, in fact, the model of its class now in the school wore an altered appearance,

In 1853, Captain Fowke was made which was evinced not only in the increase inspector of the Science and Art Departof its numbers, but in the general ame- ment, and, at a later date, architect and lioration of manners and morals.

engineer to the same. In the course of He preached the consecration sermon duty attached to these offices, he proof the present Bishop of London at White- duced some of the most convenient of our hall in 1856, and in 1858 was nominated, recent public buildings. In 1854, he on the death of Dr. Daniel Wilson, for- undertook the charge of the machinery merly of Islington, to the metropolitan sent by the English to the Paris Universee of Calcutta, where his high personal sal Exhibition of 1855, and was, at a character and powers, his industry, his somewhat later period, appointed secretary strength of mind, and large and tolerant to the English Commission attached to religious views rendered him widely and that great gathering; at this time he extensively beloved. He died deeply and wrote two Reports: the one on “Civil sincerely regretted, not only at Rugby and Construction," as then represented, a work Marlborough, but on the shores of the of considerable value to practical builders; Ganges; and his death was not only sud- the other, on “Naval Construction,” which den, but untimely, he was taken from was highly appreciated by those to whom India just when India needed him most. it was addressed.

Dr. Cotton was the 6th Bishop who has Captain Fowke was appointed, in 1858, held the see of Calcutta since its founda. a member of the International Technical tion, in 1814. The first was Dr. Thomas Commission, the attention of which was Fanshawe Middleton, who died in 1822; directed to the improvement of the navi. the second was Reginald Heber, who died gation of the Danube; he made, indepen. in 1827 ; next came Dr. James, who held dently, a Report on a scheme, the essenit scarcely two years; then Dr. Turner, tial part of which consisted of a canal whose tenure of it was scarcely longer. direct from the sen to a point in the To him succeeded Dr. Wilson, in 1832; stream, above that section of its course on whose death the see was offered to, and where the process of deposition begins. accepted by, Dr. Cotton.

This plan was adopted by the Commis. The late Bishop married, 26th of June, sion, but, owing to extraneous influences, 1845, Sophia Anne, eldest daughter of the it was not carried into effect. late Rev. Henry Tomkinson, of Rease. He was employed in making additious


or improvements to the iron building | Kensington on the 4th of December, 1865, erected at South Kensington. About the at the early age of forty-four. same time the new galleries for the Vernon and Turner gifts of pictures were supplied by the additions, to the perma

JOHN GIBSON, R.A. nent building at South Kensington; these works were designed and finished by This very eminent sculptor, whose Captain Fowke in ten weeks of winter. works reflect so much honour upon the The gallery which contains the Sheep- country of his birth, died at Rome, where shanks gift was built in 1857. The donor a great part of his life had been passed, on had stipulated that within twelve months

the 27th of January, aged 75. Mr. Gibson, from the date of the offer a suitable whose ancestors were of Scottish extrac. apartinent should be provided to hold tion, was the son of a market gardener at his magnificent present, and this condi- Conway, in North Wales, where he was tion was complied with.

born in 1790. The father removed to In 1859-60 Captain Fowke designed Liverpool when his son was about nine the Industrial Museum of Scotland, Edin- years old, with a view of emigrating to burgh. In 1860 the plans and designs America, but was led by circumstances to for the new buildings for the South Ken- change his intention and to settle in Liversington Museum were produced; these, pool. As a child, John Gibson had shown as modified and improved by him, were an instinctive fancy for drawing, and at adopted and in course of construction at an early age was in the habit of sketching the time of his death. The design for pictures of such domestic animals as he the Dublin National Gallery followed the saw around him. A new world opened last. Here the architect was compelled to upon him at Liverpool, and he tried his make all external arrangements, and re- youthful hand with success in reproducing peat the design which had been already upon paper the pictures that he saw in the executed for another part of the same shop windows. At the age of fourteen he range of structures; the internal disposi- was apprenticed to a cabinet-maker, and tions—those true tests of an architect's subsequently to a carver in wood. About constructivegenius—are by Captain Fowke, two years later he was relieved from this and eminently successful. The Interna- irksome business by Mr. Samuel Francis, tional Exhibition building can hardly be who, detecting his artistic talents, purcalled his work in an architectural sense; chased the remainder of his time, and gave the original design suffered so much by the youthful sculptor every encouragealterations, which, however unavoidable ment. He also introduced the young they might have been, were unfortunate, artist to the late William Roscoe, who that it is not fair to attribute to him the frequently invited him to his country seat, result as a whole. The system of arrange- and allowed him to copy some of the ments, the many devices for convenient choice specimens of ancient Art in his galuse of a great building under diverse and lery. The friends of Mr. Roscoe, remarkcomplicated circumstances, were certainly ing the great promise of future excellence his. The picture galleries and beautifully which young Gibson displayed, subscribed designed annexes were by the same de. a sum of money for the purpose of defraysigner. The conservatory, south arcade, ing the expense of his journey to Rome, and some other portions of the structure and of a residence of two years in that in the Horticultural Society's Garden at metropolis of Art. Gibson left England South Kensington were also by him. for Rome in 1817, and carried with him Captain Fowke's designs for the edifices an introduction from Flaxman to Canova, proposed to occupy the site of the Inter- then in the height of his fame, who renational Exhibition building were sub- ceived him with the greatest cordiality. mitted in competition with those of other Gibson entered his studio, and soon earned architects, and unanimously preferred by the reputation of being one of his most the committee of selection.

able and industrious pupils. Setting up Among minor works produced by Cap- on his own account in 1821, he produced tain Fowke were several which attested his first important work, a group of “Mars his military knowledge and professional and Cupid,” which was much praised by habits, no less than they displayed his Canova, and was reproduced in marble by remarkable ability in construction; these the order of the Duke of Devonshire. included a fire-engine, to be limbered up This group now occupies a prominent posilike a gun-now adopted in the military tion in the collection at Chatsworth. His service; also a collapsible pontoon of next production was “ Psyche and the great value, and several other very in- Zephyrs,” for the late Sir G. Beaumont; genious designs.

copies of this group were executed for Captain Fowke died suddenly at South Prince Torlonia and the Grand Duke of

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