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session of the same Congress in the same manner as if no adjournment had taken place.-RULE XXVII.

The unfinished business at an adjournment, if from a committee having a special assignment of a day to report, must go over to be disposed of on the next day assigned to said committee under the rules.Journal, 1, 44, p. 860.

All business pending at an adjournment on a day assigned a committee falls with adjourument even though the previous question is ordered thereon.- Journal, 1, 51, p. 567.

This ruling of Speaker Reed was in accordance with that of Speaker Randall, in the Forty-sixth Congress, but, subsequently (see Journal, 1, 51, p. 989), he held that the effect of the previ. ous question ordered on a bill on a day specially assigned for its consideration was to bring the House to a vote thereon immediately after the reading of the Journal on the following morning. This was in accordance with the ruling of Speaker Carlisle in the Fiftieth Congress in the Oklahoma bill, which see.---Journal, 1, 50, p.

The rule as to unfinished business applies also to Committees of the whole, except that revenue and general appropriation bills would take precedence over any bill that had been previously considered.--See clause 9, RULE XVI, and clause 4, RULE XXIII.

Business reported from the Committee of the Wbole on a previous day must be disposed of before a motion to go into Committee of the Whole can be entertained.-Journal, 1, 51,

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P. 314.

Under clause 5, RULE XXIV, a motion is in order when authorized by a committee, pending a motion to go into the Committee of the Whole House on the state of the Union, to designate a particular bill to be considered. Such a motion, if adopted, would entitle the bill named to precedence over the Gunfinished business" in said committee.

Under the practice of the House, the operation of the previous question has the effect of bringing a proposition pending at the last adjournment immediately before the House after the reading of the Journal on the following day.

In all other cases, except where it has been made a “special order” or is privileged, a proposition pending at an adjourn

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meut goes in to the order of “unfinished business" in the class to which it belongs.

VETO.

Where a bill, having passed both houses, shall be presented to the President of the United States, “if he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the ob. jections at large on their Journal and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two-thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that house it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persous voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the Journal of each house, respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sunday excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.-Const., 1, 7; 2, 5.

a A similar provision is made in the case of orders, resolutions, or votes presented to the President for his approval.-Ibid., 1, 7; 2, .

Whenever a bill is returned to the House with the objections of the President, it is usual to have the message containing his objections immediately readJournals, 1, 28, pp. 1081, 1081; 1, 29, pp. 1209, 1214; 2, 33, pp.397, 411; 1, 34, p. 1420—and for the House to proceed to the reconsideration of the bill-Ibid.-or to postpone its consideration for a future day-Ibid., 1, 21, p. 742. But not where less than a quorum is present.-Ibid., 1, 33, p. 1341; 3, 34, p. 1841. A veto message and a bill may be referred, or the message alone, and the bill may be laid on the table.—Journal, 2, 27, pp. 1253, 1254, 1256, 1257 ; Cong. Globe, same sess., p. 875.

The main question in the consideration of a vetoed bill is, “ Will the House on reconsideration agree to pass the bille" -Journals, 2, 27, p. 1051; 1, 28, p. 1085; 1, 29, p. 1218.

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The “two thirds” by which a vetoed bill is required to be approved before it becomes a law has been construed in both houses to mean "two-thirds of the members present.Journal, 1. 34, pp. 1176, 1178, 1420 (in all of which cases one hurdred and fifty-six affirmative votes would have been necessary to pass the bills if "two-thirds of the members elected” had been required), and Senate Journal, 1, 34, p. 419.

A motion to proceed to the consideration of a vetoed bill, with the objections of the President, is a privileged question under the Constitution.-Cong. Globe, 2, 27, p. 905; 2, 28, p. 396; Journal, 1, 49, p. 2397.

A vote on tbe passage of a vetoed bill can not be reconsidered.—Cong. Globe, 1, 28, pp. 672, 677; Journal, same sess., p. 1093–1098.

A motion to discharge a committee from the further consid. eration of a veto message is a privileged question.-Journal, 1, 49, p. 2397.

Whenever a bill, order, resolution, or vote is returned by the President with his objections, and on being reconsidered is agreed to be passed, and is approved by two thirds of both houses of Congress, and thereby becomes a law, or takes effect, it shall be received by the Secretary of State from the President of the Senate, or Speaker of the House of Representatives, in whichsoever house it shall last have been approved, and he shall carefully preserve the originals.- Laus, 2, 43, p. 294.

Where the President does not approve a bill, and is prevented by the a'ljournment of Congress from returning it with his objections, it is usual for hiin to inform the house wherein it originated, at the next session, of his reasons for not approv. ing it.Journals, 2, 12, p. 544; 1,30, p. 82; 2, 35, p. 151.

(See also PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.)

VIGNETTES.

(See PORTRAITS.)

VIVA VOCE.

(See RULE III.)

VOTERS, QUALIFICATIONS OF. The following table or statement of the requirements in the several States of the Union touching suffrage is given as a matter of interest and convenient reference. It is believeil to be substantially accurate, and in connection with the data given under the head of “State Constitutions," wbich see, furnishes in a compact form the leading requirements of the several State constitutions.

Under the Constitution of the United States “all persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the States wherein they reside ;” and “no State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the law.” In all the States, except Wyoming, the right of suffrage is limited to male citizens twenty-one years of age, with the further exception that in Colorado, Massachusetts, and a few other States women are permitted to vote at school district elections. There is a great lack of uniformity in the suffrage laws of the several States, as the following will show:

ALABAMA. The voter must be a citizen, or bave declared his intention to becoine a citizen; inust have been in the State one year, in the county three months, and in the voting precinct one month. Indians, idiots, and men convicted of crime can not vote.

ARKANSAS. Citizens, or those who have declared their intention to become such, except Indians, idiots, and criminals, may vote after a residence of one year in the State, six months in the county, and one month in the voting precinct. Registration is prohibited, as being a bar to suffrage.

CALIFORNIA. Only actual citizens can vote, after having been one year in the State, uinety days in the county, and thirty days in the voting precinct. Registration is required by law; and Chinese, Indians, idiots, and convicts are excluded.

COLORADO, Citizens, or those who have declared their intention to become such, may vote after a residence of six months in the State, persons in prison only being excluded. Registration is required by the constitution.

CONNECTICUT. Actual citizens, except those unable to read and convicis, can vote after a residence of one year in the State and six months in the county and voting precinct. Registration is required by law.

DELAWARE. Actual county taxpayers, except convicts, the ipsane, pau

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pers, and idiots, may vote after a residence of one year in the State and one month in the county.

FLORIDA. Citizens of the United States, or those who have declared their intention to become such, except betters on elections, duelists, idiots, the insape, and criminals, can vote after a residence of one year in the State and six months in the county Registration is required by the constitution.

GEORGIA. Actual citizens, except nontaxpayers, criminals, idiots, and the insane, can vote after a residence of one year in the State and six months in the county.

IDAHO.-Every male citizen of the United States twenty-one years old, who has resided in the State for six months and in the county'where he offers to vote thirty days next preceding the day of election, is a qualified elector, except those under guardianship, idiotic or insane persons, or persons con-victed of felony, embezzlement of public funds, bartering or offering to barter his vote, or of an infamous crime. Bigamists and polygamists are also excluded.

ILLINOIS. Actual citizens, except convicts, way vote after a residence of one year in the State and ninety days in the county and thirty days in the voting precinct. Registration is required by law.

INDIANA. Citizens or those who have declared their intention so to become, except fraudulent voters and bribers, may vote after a residence of six months in the State, sixty days in the county, and thirty days in the voting precinct.

Iowa. Actual citizens, except criminals, idiots, and the insane may voteafter a residence of six months in the State and sixty days in the county Registration is required by law.

Kansas. Citizens, or those who have declared their intention to become 80, except rebels, convicts, idiots, and the insane, can vote after a residence of six months in the State and thirty days in the voting precinct. Registration is required in cities only.

KENTUCKY. Under the State law free white male citizens, except convicts can vote after a residence of two years in the State, one year in the county, and sixty days in the voting precinct; but the exclusion of colored citizens being in conflict with the Federal Constitution, the law limiting the suffrage to white citizens is of no effect.

LOUISIANA. Citizens, or those who have declared their intention to become such, except criminals, idiots, and the insane, can vote after a resi. dence of one year in the State, six months in the county, and thirty days. in the voting precinct.

MAINE. Actual citizens, except paupers and Indians not taxed, may voto after a residence of three months in the State. Registration is required.

MARYLAND. Actual citizens, except criminals, those guilty of bribery, and the insane, can vote after a residence of one year in the State and six months in the county. Registration is required. MASSACHUSETTS. Citizens, except paupers, illiterates, nontaxpayers, and

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