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POLITICAL PARTIES: 1789 TO 1856. THE EDITOR, .

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Origin of Parties in the United States-Formation and Adoption of
the Constitution under the Guidance of the Federal Party-Washington's
Administration-Settlement of the Governmeni-Commerce and
Tariff-Hamilton's Doctrines—The First National Bank-Our First
Foreign Policy-Rise of the Republican (Democratic) Party-Federal
and Republican Policies—Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of 1798
and 1799—The Republican Party in Power-Internal Improvements,
Party Measures-War of 1812-14-Political Results—Demise of the
Federal Party-A New National Bank—The Era of Good Feeling-
Beginning of the Slavery Agitation-Missouri Compromise-Clay's
' American System"- The Tariff of 1824—The Monroe Doctrine"-

Formation of the National Republican (Whig) and Democratic Parties

-The Tariff of 1828- The Democrats under Jackson--The “Spoils

System” – Surplus Revenue Panic of 1837 - Overthrow of the

Democracy in 1840–Tariff of 1842–War with Mexico-The Tariff

of 1846—Wilmot Proviso— Popular Sovereignty-Kansas and Nebraska

Bill-Native American Party-Divisions on the Slavery Question

-The Political Situation.

RISE AND PROGRESS OF THE REPUBLICAN PARTY, 1856–88.

Hon. EDWARD MCPHERSON, EX M. C. AND EX Sec. U. S.

House of REPRESENTATIVES,

The Political Situation-Clay Compromise Measures of 1850–Re-

peal of the Missouri Compromise—The Struggle in Kansas-Organ-
ization of the Republican Party-Party Platforms— Buchanan's Election

- The Dred Scott Decision-It intensifies the Slavery Agitation-
Presidential Election of 1860—Position of Parties–Lincoln's Election
-The Secession Movement-Buchanan's Message-Contrast with
Jackson's Policy in 1832—The Resolutions of '93—The Confederate
Constitution-Its Interpretation by A. H. Stephens—“ Peace Con-
gress" at Washington-President Lincoln's Inauguration-Lincoln and
Slavery—The Emancipation Proclamation—The Thirteenth Consti-

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tutional Amendment-Lincoln's Re-election in 1864-The Political
Situation-The Anti-Slavery Amendment-President Johnson's
Restoration Policy—“Freedmen's Codes" in the South-Action of
the Thirty-ninth Congress—The Military Reconstruction Act—The
Presidential Election of 1868–The Fifteenth Amendment-Lincoln's
Probable Action-A Retrospect—The Financial Record of the Parties
- Treasury Notes-Internal Revenue Laws—The “ Legal Tender"

Act-The National Banking Law--Rapid Decrease of the Enormous

War Debt-Resumption of Specie Payments-Recent Political History

-A Summary.

PART II.-VITAL QUESTIONS.

PUBLIC LANDS. L. E. PAYSON, M. C. FROM ILLINOIS, . 115

Our Original Land Policy-Pre-emption Laws-Origin and Results

of the Homestead Law-Land Grants in Aid of Railroads and Canals-

Reclamation of Unearned Lands—Alien Ownership.
Pensions. E. N. Morrill, M. C. FROM KANSAS,

I 24
Our Pension System-Growth of the Pension List- Pension Office

Administration-Spirit and Aims of Parties—Pension Vetoes-Action

of Congress.

OUR FISHERIES. SENATOR WM. P. FRYE, OF MAINE, . 144

Original Fishing Rights: How Acquired–Treaties of 1783, 1818, and

1871–Canadian Outrages-Evident Purpose of the Canadian and
English Governments—The Retaliatory Law and ins Non-enforcement

- Treaty of 1853–Importance of the Fishing Industry.

THE AMERICAN NAVY. SENATOR WILLIAM E. CHANDLER, OF

New HAMPSHIRE,

165

Condition in 1861–Wonderful Increase in Power—Brilliant Exploits

during the Rebellion-Naval Policy immediately after the War-Rev.
olution in Naval Construction-Reconstruction of our Navy begun in

1882-Conduct of the Navy Department under President Cleveland.

OUR COAST DEFENSES. SENATOR JOSEPH R. HAWLEY, OF

CONNECTICUT, .

182

Our Strength on Land-Condition of our Sea-coast Defenses-Want

of Congressional Action- Modern Heavy Ordnance-The British Navy
-Our Northern Frontier-On the East and West-Short Distances to
Europe-Value of Destructible Property exposed to an Enemy-Our

Defenseless Condition-Party Policies.

THE AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE. NELSON DINGLEY, JR.,

M. C. FROM MAINE, .

207

Early Maritime Spirit-Growth and Decline of our Carrying Trade-

Decadence of Ship-building-Our Coastwise Tonnage-Some Delusive
Theories Refuted—Why we do not Compete with British Vessels-

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Wages, Maintenance of Crews, and Cost of Vessels-Objections to Free

Ships-Government Aid-Party Policies.

OUR FORFIGN TRADE. Hon. J. C. BURROWS, OF MICHIGAN, 219

Grow h of our Exports and Imports, 1790 to 1887–Balance of

Trade—Promotion of Foreign Commerce by Establishing Postal Facili-
ties— Results of Restricting Mail Service-Liberal Subsidies granted

by other Nations-Our True Policy.

INTERNAL REVENUE. Hon. Green B. Raum, of Illinois, 231

Fiscal Policy adopted in 1861–Direct and Internal Taxation a War

Measure-Comprehensive Character of the System— The Enormous
Sums Collected-Tax Reductions since the War-Probable Total Re-

peal of the System in Time.

A PROTECTIVE TARIFF. PRESIDENT WILLIAM McKINLEY,

OF Ohio,

241

The Higher Considerations of the Subject-a Question of Industrial

Independence-What Free Trade Means-Meaning of a Tariff for Pro-
tection, and a Tariff for Revenue Only-Freedom of Exchange among
our own Sixty Million People, Reasonable Restraint upon Outsiders
- The Value of Protection-Disastrous Results of a Tariff for Revenue
Only-Magnificent Results of 27 Years of Protection-Other Nations

coming to its Adoption.

INTERNAL DEVELOPMENT. BENJAMIN BUTTERWORTH,

Ohio, AND F. D. MUSSEY,

· 257

Agricultural Growth– Decrease in Size, and Increase in Number and

Value of Farms—The Cereals-Hay, Cotton, Tobacco, and Other Great
Staples-Live Stock, Number and Value-Dairy Products— Wool clip.

Manufactures-Number, Capital Invested, and Value of Products-
Influence on National Growth and Prosperity-Great Possibilities of the
Future.

Commerce — Rapid Growth Inland-Coastwise Foreign – Trans-

portation.

Railroads—Rise, Growth, and Present Condition of our Railway

System--Influence on National Development.

Waterways Mining — The Precious Metals — Useful Minerals

Petroleum- Natural Gas-Conclusion.

The Civil SERVICE. Senator HENRY CABOT LODGE, OF

MASSACHUSETTS,

294

The “Spoils System”-Origin of the Reform Movement-Progress

under Republican Administrations-History of the “Reform" under

President Cleveland-Future of the New System.

THE New South. John S. Wise, of VIRGINIA, EX M. C., 307

Early Political Sentiment–The National and States-rights Ideas,

The South under Slavery-Revolution in the Domestic Economy

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wrought by Emancipation-Changed Conditions and Opinions--Old
Prejudices Passing Away-Acceptance of Republican Doctrines-

Material and Social Progress-A Bright Future.
A FAIR VOTE AND AN HONEST Count. Hon. JOHN J.
INGALLS, OF KANSAS,

323
Republicans Favor Honest Elections—Democratic Crimes against the
Suffrage-Southern Elections—Election of 1876— Recent Frauds in Va-
rious Northern States-An Honest Universal Suffrage the Foundation-

stone of our Political System --Our Liberties Endangered.

THE FUTURE MISSION OF THE PARTY. SENATOR Geo. F.

HOAR, OF MASSACHUSETTS,

339

Past Achievements-Constituent Elements of the Two Great

Parties - The Republican Faith— Important Objects to be Accomplished

-Forward.

PART III.

RISE AND PROGRESS OF THE REPUBLICAN PARTY, 1884 TO

Date. J. HARRIS PATTON, Ph.D., OF NEW YORK, 344

The Campaign of 1881-Cleveland's Election – Weakness and Failure
of his Administration – Democratic Attempts to injure Labor and unsettle
Business— The Campaign of 1888–Election of Harrison-Four prosper-
ous Years-Successful Diplomacy-Samoan Affair-Behring Sea Contro-
versy-South American Matters—Act to encourage Ship Building-
Monetary Conference-Civil Service-McKinley Tariff—Reciprocity-
Appropriations-Foreign Opposition to Tariff-Canvass of 1892– Elec-
tion of Cleveland – Business unsettled — Wilson-Gorman l'ariff-- Bond
Issues-Indebtedness-Monroe Doctrine- Bad Foreign Policy- Hawaii
- Venezuela—The Money Question-Canvass of 1896– Election of Mc-
Kinley-Success of his Administration.

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THE REPUBLICAN PARTY.

POLITICAL PARTIES: 1789-1856.

BY THE EDITOR. DURING the Revolution there were two parties—the Whig and the Tory. The former contended for independence from Great Britain; the latter for continued allegiance to that power. The patriots triumphed, and the Tories either fled the country or accepted the situation and submitted.

For a time thereafter no organized political parties existed. Under the Articles of Confederation, however, earnest movement soon began for a stronger common government. There was no executive power. Congress could recommend action to the States, but it had no power to enforce action. It was a political condition of national helplessness. Its continuance was certain to result in resolving the Union back into its original elements of thirteen independent sovereignties. There was a general recognition of the necessity of a more vigorous national constitution; but when the question came of its formation, then began the differences which have ever since distinguished parties in this country. On one side were those who emphasized the Nation, demanded sovereign federal power, and insisted on liberal provision for national development and forthputting; while on the other were those who emphasized the States, demanded the reservation of their sovereignty, and insisted on restricted national powers. The Constitution was a compromise of these conflicting forces. And as the conflict was waged in its promotion, so has it since been waged in its interpretation and application. The question of its adoption by the several States turned each one of them into two con

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