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Action of Conventions in South Carolina, Geor-
gia, Mississippi, Florida, Louisiana, Alabama,
Arkansas, Texas, North Carolina, Tennessee,
Virginia, Kentucky, and Missouri-Insurrec
tionary Proceedings in the State of Maryland
-Inter-State Commissioners-Organization of
a "Southern Congress," and Provisional Gov-
ernment-Address of South Carolina to the
Slaveholding States, her Declaration of Inde-
pendence, and Debates on them-Speech of
Alexander H. Stephens before the Georgia Legis-
lature, Nov. 14, 1860-Extracts from Addresses
by A. II. Stephens, July, 1859, and Jan., 1861;
James H. Hammond, October, 1858; and R. M.
T. Hunter, 1860-Extract from the Appeal for
Recognition, by Yancey, Rost, and Mann, and
Earl Russell's Reply-Seizure and Surrender of
Public Property, from November 4, 1860, to March
4, 1861-Changes in President Buchanan's Cab-
inet-Correspondence between President Buch-
anan and the South Carolina "Commission-
ers"-Demand for Surrender of Fort Sumter-
Report on the Transfer of Arms to the South
in 1859 and 1860-Davis's Bill for the Sale of
Government Arms to the States-How the Tel-
egraph aided Secession-Intrigues for a Pacific
Republic-Mayor Wood's Message Recommend-
ing that New York be made a Free City-" Per-
sonal Liberty" Laws.
PROCEEDINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT IN RE-
LATION TO THE ACTION OF THE INSUR-
Names of the Senators and Representatives of
the Thirty-Sixth Congress, Second Session-
President Buchanan's Last Annual Message-
Attorney General Black's Opinion on the Powers
of the President-The House Committee of
Thirty-Three and their Proposition for Adjust-
ment, together with abstracts of all other propo-
sitions, and votes thereon-Votes on Resolutions
respecting the "Personal Liberty" Laws, the
Union, Major Anderson's Course, Coercion, Non-
Interference with Slavery, and on the Bill to
Suppress Insurrection, and to provide for the
Collection of Customs-Report of Committee
upon the Danger of the Capital, and Vote upon
Branch's Resolution to withdraw Troops from
the District of Columbia, with Secretary Holt's
Report-Disposition of the Navy, and Vote of
Censure upon Secretary Toucey-Propositions
in Congress by Mason, Hunter, Clingman, Craige,
and others-Settlement of the Question of Sla-
very in the Teritories.
ADMINISTRATION OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN
tilities against the United States, and Why-
The "War Power" called out-Call for 75,000
Men, and all subsequent Calls arranged in
Chronological Order-National Legislation on
Military Affairs-" Confederate" Legislation
and Proclamations and Orders-The Thirty-
Seventh Congress-President's Message of July,
1861, December, 1861, and December, 1862-The
Thirty-Eighth Congress-Annual Message, 1863
-Amnesty Proclamation, and Circular of the
Attorney General-Proclamations concerning
the Blockade, Non-Intercourse with States in Re-
bellion, and declaring Boundaries of the Re-
THE AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE......
The Seward-Lyons Treaty-Vote in the Senate
upon bill to give it effect-Action of the "Con-
federate" Congress on Slave Trade-Jefferson
Davis's Veto thereof-Intercepted Despatch
from Judah P. Benjamin to L. Q. C. Lamar.
ARREST OF CITIZENS, THE WRIT OF HABEAS
CORPUS, AND SUPPRESSION OF NEWS-
Arrest of Members of the Maryland Legislature
and of the Baltimore Police Commissioners-
Orders of Gen. McClellan and Secretary Came-
ron-John Merryman's Case and Chief Justice
Taney's Opinion-Attorney General Bates's
Opinion on the President's Power to Arrest and
to Suspend the Privilege of the Writ of Habeas
Corpus-Views of Horace Binney and Theophilus
Parsons-Case of C. L. Vallandigham; Decision
of the Supreme Court therein; his Letter on
Retaliation; his return to Ohio, and Speech at
Hamilton-Proclamation of the President Sus-
pending the Privilege of the Writ of Habeas
Corpus-Indemnification of the President-De-
cision of the New York Supreme Court in the
Case of George W. Jones vs. W. H. Seward-
"Confederate" Legislation upon the suspension
of the Writ-Suppressions and Seizures of News-
papers, with the Proceedings of the Courts,
Congress, and the Post Office Department.
CONFISCATION AND EMANCIPATION............ 195
The Confiscation Bills, and Amendatory Joint
Resolution, and Special Message thereon-
Emancipation in the Thirty-Seventh Congress—
Proposed Repeal of the Joint Resolution afore-
said-Sequestration in the Rebel States-Judi-
cial and Military Proceedings under the Confis-
cation Law-Proclamation thereon-President's
Message, March, 1862, recommending Compen-
sated Emancipation-Congressional Proceedings
thereon-Interview of Border State Congress-
men with the President-Emancipation in
the District of Columbia-The President's Ap-
peal to the Border State Congressmen, and their
Reply-Extract from the President's Annual
Message, December, 1862-Emancipation in
Maryland and Proceedings of the Constitutional
Convention thereof-Emancipation Proclama-
tions-Votes thereon and Resolutions
cerning them-Interview between the Chicago
Deputation and the President-Address of the
Loyal Governors-Mr. Boutwell's Statement
concerning the Issue of the Proclamation-Let-
ters of Charles Sumner and Owen Lovejoy.
Votes on the Passage of the Acts of 1793 and
1850-Repealing Movements in the Thirty-
Second, Thirty-Third, Thirty-Seventh, and
Thirty-Eighth Congresses-Census Report rela-
ting to the Escape of Fugitive Slaves from 1850
to 1860-The New Article of War-Employment
of Slaves in Government Dock-Yards, &c.-Re-
cognition of Hayti and Liberia-Robert Small-
Proposed Removal of the Disqualification of
Color in Carrying the Mails-Negro Suffrage in
the District of Columbia and Montana Territory
-Exclusion of Colored Persons from Rail-cars-
Colored Persons as Witnesses-Repeal of Laws
regulating the Coastwise Slave Trade-Orders
and Letters concerning " Contrabands," by
Gens. McClellan and Butler, and Secretary
Cameron-Fremont's Proclamation of Eman-
cipation, and Correspondence with the President
thereupon-"Contrabands" in the District of
Columbia-Gen. Burnside's Proclamation in
North Carolina-Orders and Proclamations by
Gens. Halleck, Buell, Hooker, McDowell, Double-
day and others-General Instructions by the
President concerning "Contrabands"-Gens.
Phelps and Butler on Arming Negroes-Pro-
posed Congressional Censure of Gen. Halleck's
Order No. 3-Prohibition of Slavery in the Ter-
ritories-Amendments to the Constitution, pro-
posed in the Thirty-Eighth Congress, First Ses-
sion-Resolutions on Slavery in the States, in the
same Congress-Bureau of Freedmen's Affairs.
LEGISLATION, ORDERS, PROCLAMATIONS AND
PROPOSITIONS, RELATIVE TO THE WAR,
AND TO "PEACE"........
The Enrollment Acts of 1863 and 1864, with the
votes upon all their leading Features and Char-
acteristics-Resolutions relative to the Enroll-
ment-Orders of the War Department enforcing
the Draft of 1862-Gen. McClellan's Recommen-
dation of a Draft in 1861-Colored Soldiers and
their Pay-Opinion of Attorney General Bates
respecting the pay of Rev. S. Harrison, colored
Chaplain of the 54th Mass. Regiment-Rules
and Orders for the Protection of Colored Sol-
diers, and the 'resident's Speech thereon-Use
of Colored Men in the "Confederate" Military
Service-Negro Enlistment Act of the Tennes-
see Rebel Legislature-"Confederate" Legisla-
tion upon the Treatment of captured Colored
Troops and their Officers-Homesteads for Sol-
diers-Unemployed Generals-Resolutions upon
the Objects and Prosecution of the War, in the
Thirty-Seventh and Thirty-Eighth Congresses—
"Peace" Propositions in the same-Correspond-
ence between the President and Fernando Wood
-The Niagara Falls Conference and Correspond-
ence-Peace Propositions in the Rebel Congress
-Correspondence between Governor Vance and
Jefferson Davis-Reported Statement of Davis
MILITARY ORDERS RESPECTING ELECTIONS... 308
Orders of Gens. McClellan, Dix, and Schenck-
Governor Bradford's Proclamation of 1863, and
the President's Letter to the Governor-Orders
in Delaware, Kentucky, and Missouri-Orders
concerning Impressment of Property-Proposed
Legislation upon Military Interference in Elec-
RECONSTRUCTION OF STATES....
The Reconstruction Bill, with the President's
Proclamation thereon, and Statement of Sena-
tor Wade and Representative Davis-Electoral
Vote of Rebel States-Proposed Commission of
Inquiry Senators from Arkansas-Process of
Reconstruction in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Vir-
ginia-Resolutions by sundry Senators and Rep-
resentatives concerning the Relations of Rebel
States to the Government-Rebel Views of Recon-
struction, being Resolutions by the First "Con-
federate" Congress, and Legislatures of Rebel
States, with Statements of prominent Rebels.
MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS AND SPEECHES OF
Message of May 29, 1862-Remarks at Union
Meeting in Washington City, August 6, 1862-
MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS AND SPEECHES Or
Response to a Serenade, July, 1863-Speech at
the Philadelphia Fair, June 16, 1864-Letters to
Horace Greeley, to the Springfield Mass Conven-
tion, to Col. A. G. Hodges, of Kentucky, and
to the Grant Meeting in New York, June, 1864.
OUR FOREIGN RELATIONS..........
The Trent Affair-Monarchical Intrigues in Cen-
tral and South America-Alleged Foreign En-
listments-Foreign Mediation, being Letters
from Secretary Seward to Governor Hicks and
M. Drouyn de l'Huys, and from Lord Lyons to
Earl Russell, with his Views on those of New
York Democrats respecting Foreign Mediation-
The French in Mexico-Congressional Action
thereon-The Arguelles Case.
Summary of Financial Legislation from Decem-
ber, 1860, to June 30, 1864-Special War Income
Tax, and Votes thereon-The "Legal Tender"
Question-Loan Bill of 1864-National Currency
Acts-Interual Revenue Acts-Proposed Tax
on Slaves-Tariff Acts of 1862 and 1864-Taxes
in Insurrectionary Districts-The Public Credit
in 1860 and 1861-Statements of Public Debt
from June 30, 1860, to June 30, 1864-" Confed-
erate" Finances, with their Tax, Funding, and
The President's Views on Colonization-Incom-
patibility of Civil and Military Office-Fishing
Bounties-Acts to Prohibit Polygamy; declaring
certain Persons Ineligible to Oflice; and to Pun-
ish Conspiracy-Letters of Marque-Enabling
Act for Nebraska-Admission of West Virginia
-Opinions of Attorney General Bates on Citizen-
ship, and on the Pay of Colored Soldiers-Mc-
Clellan's Letters Recommending a Political
Policy in the Conduct of the War, and Fa-
voring Woodward's Election in Pennsylvania-
Proposed Censure of President Lincoln and Ex-
President Buchanan-Censure of Representa-
tives Long and Harris
THE CONSPIRACY OF DISUNION.....
Threats of Dissolution in the First Congress,
1789-Prophetic Utterances of Jackson, Benton,
and Clay-Southern Disunion Congressional
Caucus in 1835-Early Hopes of the Rebels-Ex-
President Pierce's Letter to Jefferson Davis,
1860-The Disunion Programme-Letter of D.
L. Yulee, January 7, 1861-Douglas's Last
Words-Progress of the Conspiracy in Maryland
-Minutes of the Baltimore Police Commission-
ers during the Reign of Terror "-Report to
the Baltimore Councils on Expenditure of the
$500,000 appropriated for Ordnance Purposes-
Legislative Action thereon, and other Proceed-
ings by the Maryland Legislature of 1861-Sun-
dry Rebel Items.
SECESSION MOVEMENT DEVELOPED.
IMMEDIATELY thereupon, and clearly by concert of action previously arranged, various disunion Governors hastily took steps to procure the passage of ordinances of secession by Conventions of their States, artfully using the unsettled excitements of the Presidential canvass to that end.
These proceedings in brief were as follows:
November 6th, 1860. Legislature met to choose Presidential electors, who voted for Breckinridge and Lane for President and Vice President. Gov. WILLIAM H. GIST recommended in his message that in the event of ABRAHAM LINCOLN's election to the Presidency, a convention of the people of the State be immediately called to consider and determine for themselves the mode and measure of redress. He expressed the opinion that the only alternative left is the "secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union."
nouncing the repeal, Dec. 20th, 1860, by the good people of South Carolina," of the Ordinance of May 23d, 1788, and "the dissolution of the union between the State of South Carolina and other States under the name of the United States of America," and pro claiming to the world "that the State of South Carolina is, as she has a right to be, a separate, sovereign, free and independent State, and, as such, has a right to levy war, conclude peace, negotiate treaties, leagues, or covenants, and to do all acts whatsoever that rightfully appertain to a free and independent State.
"Done in the eighty-fifth year of the sovereignty and independence of South Carolina."
Jan. 3d, 1861. South Carolina Commissioners left Washington.
4th. Convention appointed T. J. Withers, L. M. Keitt, W.W. Boyce, Jas. Chesnut, Jr., R. B. Rhett, Jr., R. W. Barnwell, and C. G. Memminger, delegates to Southern Con
7th. United States officials resigned at gress. Charleston.
10th. U. S. Senators JAMES H. HAMMOND and JAMES CHESNUT, Jr., resigned their seats in the Senate. Convention called to meet Dec. 17th. Delegates to be elected Dec. 6th. 13th. Collection of debts due to citizens of non-slaveholding States stayed. FRANCIS W.PICKENS elected Governor, who appointed a cabinet consisting of A. G. MAGRATH Secretary of State, DAVID F. JAMISON Secretary of War, C. G. MEMMINGER Secretary of Treasury, W. W. HARLLEE P. M. General, ALBERT C. GARLINGTON Secretary of Interior.
17th. Ordinance of Secession adopted unanimously.
21st. Commissioners appointed (BARNWELL, ADAMS, and ORR) to proceed to Washington to treat for the possession of U. S. Government property within the limits of South Carolina. Commissioners appointed to the other Slaveholding States. Southern Congress proposed.
24th. Representatives in Congress withdrew.
Gov. PICKENS issued a proclamation "an
5th. Convention adjourned, subject to the call of the Governor.
14th. Legislature declared that any attempt to reinforce Fort Sumter would be considered an open act of hostility and a declaration of war. Approved the Governor's action in firing on the Star of the West. Accepted the services of the Catawba Indians.
27th. Received Judge Robertson, Commissioner from Virginia, but rejected the proposition for a conference and co-operative action.*
Resolved unanimously, That the General Assembly of
South Carolina tenders to the Legislature of Virginia their acknowledgment of the friendly motives which inspired the mission entrusted to Hon. Judge Robertson, her Com
Resolved unanimously, That candor, which is due to the long-continued sympathy and respect which has subsisted between Virginia and South Carolina, induces the
Assembly to declare with frankness that they do not deem it advisable to initiate negotiations, when they have no desire or intention to promote the ultimate object in view. That object is declared, in the resolution of the Virginia Legislature, to be the procurement of amendments to, or
new guarantees in the Constitution of the United States.
March 26th. Convention met in Charleston.
November 26th, 1860. Legislature met Nov. 26th, and adjourned Nov. 30th. Election for Convention fixed for Dec. 20th, Con
April 3d. Ratified "Confederate" Constitution-yeas 114, nays 16. (See p. 398) 8th. Transferred forts, etc. to "Confeder-vention to meet Jan. 7th. Convention bills ate" government.
24th. Elected Delegates to Southern Congress at Montgomery, Alabama.
28th. Elected Commissioners to other Slaveholding States.
29th. Adopted an address "to the South and the world."
March 7th. Convention reassembled.
16th. Ratified the "Confederate" Constitution-yeas 96, nays 5.
20th. Ordinance passed authorizing the "Confederate" government to occupy, use and possess the forts, navy yards, arsenals, and custom houses within the limits of said State.
April 26th. Governor Brown issued a proclamation ordering the repudiation by the citizens of Georgia of all debts due Northern men.
Resolved unanimously, That the separation of South Carolina from the Federal Union is final, and she has no further interest in the Constitution of the United States; and that the only appropriate negotiations between her
and the Federal Government are as to their mutual re
lations as foreign States.
Resolved unanimously, That this Assembly further owes it to her friendly relations with the State of Virginia to declare that they have no confidence in the Federal Government of the United States; that the most solemn
pledges of that government have been disregarded; that under pretence of preserving property, hostile troops have been attempted to be introduced into one of the fortresses of this State, concealed in the hold of a vessel of commerce, with a view to subjugate the people of South Carolina, and that even since the authorities at Washington have been informed of the present mediation of Virginia, a vessel of war has been sent to the South, and troops and munitions of war concentrated on the soil of Virginia. Resolved unanimously, That in these circumstances this Assembly, with renewed assurances of cordial respect and esteem for the people of Virginia, and high conideration for her Commissioner, decline entering into the negotiations proposed.
The Charleston Mercury of an earlier date thus alluded to Border State embassies:
**Hear them, if you please; treat them with civility; feed them, and drench them in champagne-and let them go! Let ns act as if they had never come, as if they had not spoken, as if they did not exist; and let them seek to preserve their Treasury pap through some more apple agency than ours. The time has gone by when the voice of a Virginia politician, though he coo like a dove, should be heard in the land of a patriotic people."
and secession resolutions passed unanimously. Commissioners appointed to other Slaveholding States to secure "their co-oper ation in effecting measures for their common defence and safety."
Jan. 7th, 1861. Convention assembled. 9th. Ordinance of Secession passed-yeas 84, nays 15.
In the ordinance the people of the State of Mississippi express their consent to form a federal union with such of the States as have seceded or may secede from the Union of the United States of America, upon the basis of the present Constitution of the United States, except such parts thereof as embrace other portions than such seceding States.
10th. Commissioners from other States
received. Resolutions adopted, recognizing South Carolina as sovereign and independent. Jan. 12th. Representatives in Congress withdrew.
19th. The committee on the Confederacy in the Legislature reported resolutions to provide for a Southern Confederacy, and to establish a provisional government for seceding States and States hereafter seceding.
21st. Senators in Congress withdrew. March 30th. Ratified "Confederate" Constitution-yeas 78, nays 7.
November 26th, 1860. Legislature met. Governor M. S. Perry recommended immediate secession.
Dec. 1st. Convention bill passed.
Jan. 3d, 1861. Convention met.
7th. Commissioners from South Carolina and Alabama received and heard.
10th. Ordinance of Secession passedyeas 62, nays 7. (See p. 399.)
18th. Delegates appointed to Southern Congress at Montgomery.
21st. Senators and Representatives in Congress withdrew.
Feb. 14th. Act passed by the Legislature declaring that after any actual collision between Federal troops and those in the employ of Florida, the act of holding office under the Federal government shall be declared treason, and the person convicted shall suffer death. Transferred control of government property captured, to the "Confederate" government.
December 10th, 1860. Legislature met. 11th. Convention called for Jan. 23d. Military bill passed.
12th. Commissioners from Mississippi Governor instructed received and heard.
to communicate with Governors of othor southern States.