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through Shoa, where, in every family, high or low, blessings were showered on the name of Great Britain.
after a moment's debate within himself. By "I will release them,' returned the monarch, the holy Eucharist I swear, and by the church of the Holy Trinity in Koora Gádel, that if Sáhila Selássi arise from this bed of sickness, all of whom you speak shall be restored to the enjoyment of liberty,'
"The sun was shining brighter than usual, through a cloudless, azure sky, when the Britwitness the redemption of this solemn pledge. ish embassy received a welcome summons to The balcony of justice was tricked out in its gala suit; and priests, governors, sycophants, and courtiers, crowded the yard as the despot, restored to health, in the highest spirits and good humor took his accustomed seat upon the velvet cushion. The mandate had gone forth for the liberation of his brother and his blood relatives, and it had been published abroad, that the royal kith and kindred were to pass the remainder of their days free and unfettered, near the person of the king, instead of in the dark cells of Goncho.
in a frame of mind to make some reparation for the transgressions of his past life. While such were his thoughts and sentiIt is rarely that the political resident at a ments, Major Harris pleaded before him the foreign court enjoys opportunities of tri-cause of his captive brother and uncle. umphing over practices so barbarous as The result we will permit him to relate in those which excited the successful hostility his own words. of Major Harris. Dr. Johnson has celebrated in his Rasselas' one of the ancient customs of Abyssinia, which he has invested with a sort of poetical interest, and rendered familiar to the public. We allude to the confinement of the Abyssinian princes, all save him who reigned in what the doctor's somewhat quaint muse denominates the Happy Valley. This barbarous expedient does not, it is well known, trace its origin to Johnson's invention. From the remotest ages the uncle and brothers of the reigning prince were immured, not in a rural paradise, but in a gloomy mountain fortress, surrounded by deep moats and watchfully guarded. Europe owes perhaps the first intimation of this cruel illustration of royal jealousy to Urreta and Baretti, whose account is thus abridged by Ludolf. "The children of the Negus, as soon as they have received their names, are conveyed into a certain delicious place, in the midst of a large mountain, called Amark, where a stately castle is built, encompassed with the River Borohr, and fortified with a strong wall. Thither, as soon as the father is dead, the principal nobility go, and choose the eldest son, unless he be incapable of so great an honor, to succeed to the govern ment. There is there a very large library, of above ten thousand volumes, all manuscripts; a seminary for the education of the sons of noblemen; and a bishop, with several of the inferior clergy, for the instruction of youth." The practice varied in different ages, and by some writers it is said to have ceased several centuries ago in Northern
"There were not wanting certain sapient this fresh proof of foreign influence and sages, who shook the head of disapproval at ascendency, and who could in no wise comprehend how the venerable custom of ages could be thus suddenly violated. The introduction of great guns, and muskets, and rockets, had not been objected to, although, as a matter of course, the of their forefathers was spear
esteemed an infinitely superior weapon. Mugical clocks and boxes had been listened to and despised, as vastly inferior to the jingling notes of their own vile instruments; and the Gothic cottage, with its painted trellises, its pictures, and its gay curtains, although pronounced entirely unsuited to Abyssinian habits, had been partially forgiven on the grounds of its beauty. But this last innovation was be
Abyssinia. This, however, was not the yond all understanding; and many a stupid pate was racked in fruitless endeavors to excase in Shoa, where the ancient and wise tract consolation in so momentous a difficulty. precaution, as Ludolf considered it, was The more liberal party were loud in their strictly observed up to the period of the praises of the king, and of his generous intenBritish embassy. During its stay, Sáhila Se- tion; and the royal gaze was, with the rest, lássi, having been attacked by fever, was so he should behold once again the child of his mostrained wistfully towards the wicket, where far reduced and dispirited, that he consid-ther, whom he had not seen since his accession, ered himself on the brink of the grave. and should make the first acquaintance with The consciousness of his many crimes now his uncle, the brother of his warrior sire, who tormented him. He knew that he had fre- had been incarcerated ere he himself had seen quently towards his people been guilty of the light. capricious cruelty. He felt that he had behaved with inhuman severity towards his blood relations. He trembled therefore at the approach of death, and was altogether
"Stern traces had been left by the constraint
of one-third of a century upon the now unforshortly ushered into the court by the state tunate descendants of a royal race, who were gaoler. Leaning heavily on each other's
shoulders, and linked together by chains bright] less by superstition, than by a desire to rescue and shining with the friction of years, the cap- his own offspring from a dungeon, and to setives shuffled onward with cramped and minute cure a high place in the opinion of the civilsteps, rather as malefactors proceeding to the ized world-'My children, you will write all gallows-tree, than as innocent and abused that you have now seen to your country, and princes, regaining the natural rights of man. will say to the British Queen, that, although Tottering to the foot of the throne, they fell, far behind the nations of the white men, from as they had been instructed by their burly con- whom Ethiopia first received her religion, ductor, prostrate on their faces before their there yet remains a spark of Christian love in more fortunate, but despotic relative, whom the breast of the King of Shoa.'”—Vol. iii. they had known heretofore only by a name pp. 386–390. used only in connexion with their own misfortunes, and whose voice was as yet a stranger to their ears.
Notwithstanding that the principal trade "Rising with difficulty at the bidding of the of Africa is in her own children, the other monarch, they remained standing in front of articles which she even now supplies to the the balcony, gazing in stupid wonder at the commerce of the world are known to be novelties of the scene, with eyes unaccustomed singularly rich and varied. The cotton of to meet the broad glare of day. At first they Abyssinia, though short stapled like that of were fixed upon the author of their weary cap- Dacca, is so soft and delicate as to resemtivity, and upon the white men by his side who ble silk, and this even where little skill or had been the instruments of its termination; but the dull leaden gaze soon wandered in care has been bestowed on its cultivation. search of other objects; and the approach of Were British capital and industry introfreedom appeared to be received with the ut- duced and applied to the raising of it, an most apathy and indifference. Immured since unbounded supply might be obtained, earliest infancy, they were totally insensible to which would render us completely indethe blessings of liberty. Their feelings and pendent of the growth of America. To their habits had become those of the fetters the neighboring countries Shoa exports and the dark dungeon! The iron had rusted hides and grain of all kinds, and the small into their very souls; and, whilst they with
difficulty maintained an erect position, pain states immediately to the south and west of and withering despondency were indelibly it abound in productions of the most costly marked in every line of their vacant and care-nature. Here we find frankincense and furrowed features.
myrrh equal, if not superior, to those of "In the damp vaults of Goncho, where heavy Hadramaut, with ostrich feathers, and civet, manacles on the wrists had been linked to the ambergris, and coffee and gold-the coffee ankles of the prisoners, by a chain so short as to admit only of a bent and stooping posture, transported on the backs of camels to the the weary hours of the princes had for thirty sea-coast, and then shipped for Europe unlong years been passed in the fabrication of der the name of Mocha. There is someharps and combs; and of these relics of mo- thing curious in the way in which the gold notonous existence, elaborately carved in wood dust is often brought down to the shores of and ivory, a large offering was now presented the Indian Ocean and Red Sea. to the king. The first glimpse of his wretched relatives had already dissipated a slight shade merchants, while traversing the countries of mistrust which had hitherto clouded the where it is collected, pour it into hollow royal brow. Nothing that might endanger the canes, which they stop carefully at either security of his reign could be traced in the end, and sometimes, we believe, use as crippled frames and blighted faculties of the walking-sticks. Another valuable article seven miserable objects that cowered before of merchandise consists of the skins of him; and after directing their chains to be un-wild beasts, lions, tigers, panthers, but more riveted, he announced to all that they were free, and to pass the remainder of their exist- especially those of the black leopard, which ence near his own person. Again the joke and the merry laugh passed quickly in the balcony-the court fool resumed his wonted avocation; and, as the monarch himself struck the chords of the gaily-mounted harp presented by his bloated brother Amnon, the buffoon burst into a high and deserved panegyric upon the royal mercy and generosity.
"My children,' exclaimed his majesty, turning towards his foreign guests, after the completion of this tardy act of justice to those whose only crime was their consanguinity to himself-an act to which he had been prompted
appear to abound chiefly in the jangal of Guràghê. To these may be added rhinoceros' horns, the ivory of the elephant and the hippopotamus, of which, for many ages to come, an almost unlimited supply may be reckoned on. For, in many parts of the interior, elephants are found in vast droves, which cover the plains and hills for miles; and in the lakes of Shoa, hippopotami are so numerous, that hundreds may frequently be beheld at once, sporting like porpoises on the surface, diving, rolling, or blowing up
small jets of water into the air, as though in imitation of the whale.
unite, near its embouchure, with the Gochob, in which case another rich succession of markets may be reached by water. Even the project suggested by a French traveller may not be altogether impracticable—we mean the navigation of the Hawash, which, from the lake of Aussa, would carry barges and small vessels up to the very foot of the Abyssinian Alps, to within a very short distance of the Nile. Much, at all events, may be done, and something must, if we would not behold the largest and noblest field yet remaining for commerce to reap, pass into other hands. Africa has been made to feel she has wants which Europe can supply. Her curiosity has been piqued, and in more than one quarter a glimpse has been obtained of the advantages of
purified from the stain that once attached to it, operates like a talisman in Africa, awakening the hostility of the vicious, but inspiring with confidence the humble and the oppressed. To us the slave-trade,* there and every where else, must owe its extinction, if extinguished it is to be; and this consideration, united with many others, ought to urge us, without loss of time, to acquire a commanding influence in the Christian, but uncivilized kingdom of Abyssinia.
From what has been said above, it will, we apprehend, be obvious that Great Britain cannot in justice to herself neglect to establish, commercially and otherwise, her influence in Eastern Africa. Other nations, possessing much fewer facilities than are at our command, have for some years past exhibited great industry and perseverance in the endeavor to exclude us from that rich market. Along the whole coast of the Indian Ocean, from Sofala upwards, the Americans have been seeking to establish themselves a footing. They have likewise entered into negotiations to secure to themselves the sovereignty of the island of Socotra, where the East India Company had once a depôt, and which it meant, we believe, to purchase. civilization. The name of England, now But neither these manœuvres, nor the efforts of the Imam of Muscat, need much disquiet us. The only real source of uneasiness is the system of restless and perfidious intrigue carried on in that part of Africa by the French, whose object clearly is to found in Abyssinia an empire, which shall become the rival of our own in Hindùstân. To accomplish this design they will spare no pains, and stick at nothing. It is long since French statesmen have bade adieu to all principle, and laughed at frankness and honesty, as things only fit to amuse Englishmen. Fortunately the reach of their understanding is far from equalling the laxity of their political creed; otherwise, through the supineness which England has of late displayed, we might long ere this have been beaten altogether out of the Red Sea. Our position at Aden, France regards with the utmost jealousy and envy, which, not being able to drive us thence, she can only exhibit by depreciating the place, exaggerating its inconvenience, and the sacrifices which its possession demands of us. But if the mercantile interest in this country be true to itself, we shall shortly supply our neighbors with still more painful incitements to envy.
It is perhaps not generally known, that a ship destined to attempt the navigation of the Juba, has already doubled the Cape of Good Hope, and that a rich assortment of goods, suited to the markets of the interior, has been despatched overland and up the Red Sea to meet her. The problem, therefore, will probably soon be solved, whether the Juba and the Gochob be the same river; and if so, how far its waters may serve as a road into the interior. Possibly also the Haines river may be found to
For the growing interest which is, at present, felt in this subject, the world is chiefly indebted to Major Cornwallis Harris, who has published by far the most important work on that part of Africa which has ever appeared since the days of Bruce. M. Rochet D'Héricourt, in his clever and amusing production, supplies considerable information, though, from his consanguinity to Sir John Mandeville and Mendez Pinto, it is less to be relied on than might have been desired.
'Some truth there is, but dash'd and brew'd with
the sources of the Hawash, whereas we For example, he tells us that he discovered know, from authorities on which we can depend, that M. Rochet, during the Gurághê
beg to refer the reader to the highly interesting * On the subject of the African slave-trade, we and able work of Mr. M'Queen, entitled A Letter to Lord John Russell,' now inserted in the introduction to his 'Geographical Survey of Af
valuable information, compiled from authentic It abounds every where with the most sources, and advocates sound and liberal views of policy in whatever relates to African commerce.
do we remember to have read a more admirable picture of barbarous manners. The narrative is full of movement, and strewed thickly with anecdotes. The descriptions are vivid and picturesque, and the characters which come before us are delineated with a master's hand. Major Harris's style is that of a man of genius,-animated, full of imagery, glowing, and picturesque. That it should be displeasing to some classes of readers we can easily under
calculated to excite no sympathy in minds overmastered by the opposite qualities. But the public, free from envy and jealousy, and seeking solid instruction, blended skilfully with amusement, will recur again and again to this admirable work, which we look upon as a permanent ornament to our literature.
expedition, never quitted the king's camp, never saw the sources of the Hawash, and knew nothing concerning them but what he obtained from others. The same observation would apply to several other parts of his narrative. But our object not being to say unkind things, we quit M. Rochet, after having given the above taste of his quality. Of the travels of MM. Combes and Tamisier, it were better, perhaps, to say nothing, since they cannot be put into any decent hands. The authors pride themselves stand. That which is bold and elevated is upon having exploded whatever opinions other men hold as most sacred. They are St. Simonians by profession-that is, have every possible tendency to immorality and indecency. When they set out to travel, it was in search of La Femme Libre, and they undoubtedly found her in Abyssinia, where it might have been well for public morals if they and their manuscript had re- One unfortunate defect we cannot, howmained shut up for ever. A group of ever, pass over. Either through his own savages, who were probably of this 'opinion, fault, or the fault of his position, Major once endeavored to give them the benefit Harris has provokingly kept back every of what Sir Thomas Brown calls the fiery kind of political information. No allusion solution'-in other words, entertained the to French intrigue do we any where find in project of roasting them in a hut. But our his pages, so that if we have obtained any St. Simonians seem reserved for greater things, that is, to be employed by his most Christian and most moral majesty, Louis Philippe, in disseminating French philosophy among a people sufficiently depraved and degraded already.
insight into the matter, we owe no thanks to him. We think this affectation of diplomatic secrecy absurd, especially since Major Harris must have known that there were numerous other travellers in the country through whom the whole facts of the case As a perfect contrast to these ribald vol- would sooner or later be placed before the umes, we ought perhaps to mention the country. In reality, therefore, the only journals of the church missionaries, which, thing he has succeeded in concealing is the though written in an unpretending and extent to which his own influence prevailed somewhat careless manner, abound with in counteracting French intrigue, which valuable information. The object of these may or may not be matter of regret to the travellers was not to pervert the minds of public. the Abyssinians, but to lead them into the ways of truth, to inspire them with a love of holiness, to breathe a spiritual breath as it were into their material system, to ele-out between Morocco and France: besides the MOROCCO AND FRANCE.-Hostilities have broken vate them to the level of other Christian indomitable barbarian chief Abd-el-Kader, the nations. From these journals, Mr. French are beset by the fanatical and furious subM'Queen, in a preliminary memoir, has jects of the Emperor Abd-er-Rahman. Whether extracted all the geographical information, there is any regular war at all, are doubtful points; a "holy war" has been proclaimed, and whether which he has condensed and arranged with Lord Aberdeen thinks not, he tells us in Parlia his accustomed skill and ability, so that it ment: but it is certain that the French have may in some respects be regarded as a sup- roused up a great border-foe, that might be able plement to his own admirable work on to pour countless and unceasing thousands upon Africa. To none, however, of the above what endless toil and cost! This gives a new turn their territory-to be repulsed, no doubt, but at travellers could we refer for a complete de- to the occupation of Algeria. Should Morocco scription of Abyssinia and its inhabitants. persevere in its hostility, France will probably be Whoever would understand that country compelled, by the difficulty and annoyance of findthoroughly must study the work of Major for her position in Africa some definitive settleing men and funds for this new contest, to procure Harris, which is at once popular in form, ment, in order to bring other influences to bear and philosophical in substance. Nowhereupon the Moorish Emperor.-Spectator.
RESIDENCE IN THE CITY OF NINGPO.
From the Chinese Repository.
Notice of a seven months' Residence in the
diffused the flush of health. But he looks depressed and anxious. He was one, with Shú táláuyé, who urged the government to pacific measures, although he had beenduring the first brush of war-one of the most pugnacious. He is a man of Shántung, and now looks to returning to the bosom of his family. The reputation in which he stands, as a scholar, is high. He is spoken of as having been very just, prompt, and efficient in the administration of his office; and his removal from its functions is much regretted by the people. Ever since his return to Ningpo, after the conclusion of the treaty at Nanking, whither he and Shú had previously been summoned by their excellencies the imperial commissioners, he has conducted himself toward the English with uniform deference and courtesy; and, in losing him, they are deprived of the services of an enlightened friend.
pear to be
YESTERDAY, in company with Mr. Lay, I embarked for Ningpo; and at an early hour this morning, we reached the city. As soon as I arrived at the lodgings, my teacher, in whose charge they had been left, apprized me that the abbess had greatly incommoded him during my absence, and had broadly hinted her wish that I should look for other quarters. When I had listened to his details, I perceived that an early removal was most desirable. A little after I arrived, the superior came forward, and prostrating herself on the ground, knocked head and implored that I would move forthwith. I told her I would cer- While we were sitting in the tautai's tainly do so as soon as suitable apartments audience-room, Li Jülin, the successor of could be engaged. She has evidently en- Shú, entered. He also is a native of the dangered her unlawful gains by admitting province of Shantung. He does not apme into these premises, and prudential above 33 years of age, and is motives induce me to hurry away. considered one of the most fortunate men Having called upon the degraded Shú, of his day. It is his literary acquirements we bent our steps to the commander-in- that have gained him favor at court, for, at chief's. We found him in possession of the early age of 19, he took the second litthe quarters occupied last year by the Ma- erary degree, and was immediately after dras artillery, not far from the Artillery appointed to the chief office in Funghwá, gate. a district in the department of Ningpo, not He is the commandant of the depart- more than twenty miles distant from this ment of Chuchau, on the S. W. corner of city. When the English attacked the dethe province, and is at Ningpo doing duty fences of Chápú, he held office at that port, for his excellency General Lí, who has but happily for him, he was absent on a lately been appointed in room of his de- tour of inspection, or he too might have ceased predecessor. The name of this de- shared the fate of Luh and Shú. He has puty is also Lí. He is an aged gentleman, but lately arrived in this city, and is now of a fine tall figure, but affected with a par- administering for the department. He had tial paralysis of the right eye. His speech seen Sir Henry Pottinger, Mr. Morrison, and is slovenly, his manner indolent, and his Mr. Thom, during their last visit to Ningnotions are aristocratic. He wore a hand-po, and appeared au fait on many recent some dress, carried a red coral button, and events. His intelligent conversation and his official cap flourished from behind a unassumed kindness give great hope that slender plume of peacock feathers. The he will follow up the liberal views of his attendants, that stood immediately about predecessor, and become of essential serhis chair, were ensigns, sergeants, and vice to those foreigners who may visit this corporals, with brass and white opaque commercial mart.
From this aged official we turned to pay a visit to the tautai, who was named on the 14th of December, as having lost his honors and office. He only awaits the arrival of his successor, to deliver up the seals of office. This officer (whose name is Luh) has a fine oval countenance, over which is
The Mohammedan priest brought with him a follower of the prophet, who had recently come to town. This stranger gives very distinct information of a class of religionists in Káifung fu, the capital of Honán, his native province, who, from his description, resemble the Jews. they refrain from eating the sinew which