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dispersion of the people, in the paintings which served them as national archives. Moreover, they had in their system of religion monasteries and different orders of monks.
To the list of distinguished writers who have embraced the opinion that America received at least the bulk of her inhabitants from eastern Asia, may be added the name of Mr. Pennant. The customs of scalping, torturing, and even eating their prisoners, of disguising themselves as wild beasts for the purpose of the chase, and of marching in file and not abreast, prevail, according to this author, as well among the American Indians as among the Scythians and inhabitants of Tartary, while in their physical formation the similarity is even more appa
Having thus, in some measure, recalled to our readers the opinions which have at various times prevailed respecting the parentage of the American aborigines, it is time to bestow our attention upon the work from which we have wandered.
increased to the size of a royal octavo a book, the matter of which might fairly have been compressed within the dimensions of a duodecimo.
There are three distinct assertions, the truth of which it is the author's aim to establish, though the first two are far less anxiously and laboriously investigated than the third. These are first, that the American nation are of two distinct races; secondly, that those to the north of Mexico are of Hebrew descent; and thirdly, that the Mexican and Southern aborigines were that remnant of the inhabitants of Tyre saved, after the destruction of their city, by Alexander the Great, and of whom Isaiah predicted that "these should be as the shaking of an olive-tree, as the gleaning grapes when the vintage is done."
The first of these propositions, though perhaps (inasmuch as it influences the correctness of the second) the most important, is very cavalierly dealt with. Mr. Jones asserts that there are distinctive national differences in religion, politics, and customs, A great evil is conspicuous throughout as well as in physical conformation, between the whole book, viz. the diffuse and digres- the nations to the north and those to the sive style in which it is composed; we are south of Mexico: further, that the former indeed prepared for this by the following are as remarkable for all the virtues which announcement in the preface:-" Knowing can adorn humanity, as the latter are for from experience that works upon anti-vices which would have disgraced the Roquities, described in language cold as the mans under the corrupt sway of the later marbles they illustrate, are not of deep interest to the general reader, the author has therefore avoided the usual frigid style, and has consequently placed around them such fervent glowing words as their novel characters have authorized and demanded." Under shelter of this considerate care for the amusement of his readers, and disregarding the intrinsic interest of his subject, however dryly handled, our author has introduced intercalary disquisitions upon every branch of the fine arts; he has drawn long and hypothetical characters of celebrated persons, from Hiram king of Tyre, down to present majesty of Prussia; and, in fine, has contrived to put us in possession of his sentiments upon very many and very miscellaneous topics. Unhappily he has been but too successful in diffusing over the whole composition an inflated and frivolous tone, not only the worst which could be devised for a serious and important discussion, but which does not do justice to the information the author really possesses, and the ingenuity with which many of his propositions are maintained. An additional objection to this mode of composition is, that it has
emperors. For these assertions no authority is adduced, though the author has apparently framed his peculiar creed alternately from Boturini and the calumniator of the Mexican race, M. de Pau. In opposition to these statements, we find in Humboldt that "the nations of America, except those which border on the Polar circle, form a single race, characterized by the formation of the skull, the color of the skin, the extreme thinness of the beard, and straight and glossy hair." We are told by the Chevalier Pinto, "that they are all of a copper color." From Don Antonio Ulloa we learn, "that the Indians who live as far as 40° and upwards north and south of the equator are not to be distinguished in color from those immediately beneath it, while the resemblance in their genius, character, and customs is no less striking." And lastly, Robertson bears his powerful and impartial testimony to the remarkable uniformity of all the American Indians both in appearance and character.
We are far from asserting that Mr. Jones has no authority for what he has advanced; but he has not chosen to adduce any, and
we must therefore be guided by those we
The second proposition, viz. that the nations to the north of Mexico are of Hebrew descent, is dependent in no slight degree upon the truth of the first; since even Mr. Jones does not contend that all America was peopled from the house of Jeroboam. In proof of his assertion he enumerates various analogies between the tribes of the north and the Hebrews; such as the seclusion of the mother after childbirth, the mar riage usually contracted between a widowed wife and her husband's brother, their possessing an ark, their selecting their medicine men (i. e. priests or prophets) from among a portion of the tribe not warriors, their worship of one God, their traditional knowledge of the deluge, their various festivals, their belief in the immortality of the soul, and the practice of circumcision. Finally he proposes to the reader "this (as he believes) unanswerable question: if they are not of the lost tribes of Israel, who are they?"
Now many of these analogies can by no means be received as proving identity of origin, but rather as curious and instructive points of similarity in the parallel yet independent progress of national intellectual developinent. How often does the same idea strike two minds, connected by no kindred tie, except the sympathy of thought! How often have the same inventions been simultaneously made in different parts of the world! and why should not like political, or religious, or social institutions exist among nations totally unconnected, but arrived at a similar point in civilization?
On the other hand, it seems admitted that Nestorianism, mingled with the dogmas of the Buddhists and the Shamans, spread through Manchou Tartary into the northeast of Asia; and therefore the supposition appears not improbable that their doctrines and rites may have been partially communicated to the northern parts of America, from which the Tultecs emigrated, and which must therefore be considered as the officina virorum of the New World.
tic;" and again, that "being professedly an original work, the volume of the brain has been more largely extracted from than any other writer whose works are already before the public." We confess we see no pedantry in furnishing the student with the sources from which the conclusions he is pondering are drawn; neither do we think originality and imagination should, in an historical work, supersede accurate information and sobriety of detail.
The third division of the work is devoted to the establishment of a theory, founded upon the ruined cities lately discovered by Mr. Stephens, that the aborigines of Mexican America (under which term Mr. Jones would include the southern continent) and the West Indian islands, were the ancient Tyrians of Phoenicia.
Upon the conquest of Mexico by Cortez, in the year 1520, all vestiges of art and civilization were destroyed with fanatic zeal, as monuments of paganism and idolatry. Consequently no relics of former times, with the exception of some ruins at Copan, were discovered till the year 1790, when a circular piece of sculpture, having reference to the astronomical calendar of the ancient inhabitants, was exhumed. About the same time Palenque was visited by Del Rio and Du Paix. In the beginning of the nineteenth century, Humboldt visited Mexico. Still later Waldeck was employed by the Spanish government to explore Yucatan. In 1836 Copan, nearly a hundred and fifty years after its first discovery, was visited by Galindo, and at length, in 1839-40, most of these cities, with several others, were thoroughly investigated and accurately delineated by Messrs. Stephens and Catherwood.
It is on the ruin of Copan, Palenque, and Uxmal that the conclusions arrived at by Mr. Jones are founded, and to them he has consequently confined his remarks. He has taken as his text-book Mr. Stephens's narrative, with a running commentary of his own upon such points of inaccuracy as he has discovered in that work. We will give his own programme of his proceedings.
But however this may be, we must again "First will be given a description of such enter our protest against the total omission parts of the great ruins as may be necessary of authorities for these alleged analogies. in the author's own words, with such commenReferring once more to the preface, we find taries as may be required by the narration: it to be the author's opinion, "that to give then will follow Mr. Stephens's reflections a list of works consulted " during fifteen upon all the ruins; his arguments will be met, his errors detected, his contradictions investigayears in America, and more immediately ted, and thereupon we shall endeavor (at least) for the last two years in England, while to completely refute his deductions and conwriting the Tyrian Era, would be pedan-clusions."-Page 56.
These errors," even when detected, Tyrus, and between whom there existed the hardly justify the parade with which they strictest union and friendship, and which may are ushered to our notice, or the exultation justly be supposed to have practised the manwhich our author displays whenever he hasners and customs of the parent country. The Tyrians also would follow the customs of the succeeded in discovering one. In his de-Sidonians and the Canaanites, their original scription of the principal temple at Co-ancestors; gathering, therefore, evidences of pan Mr. Stephens makes this remark::- religious ceremonies from Canaan, Sidon, "Though gigantic and extraordinary for a Tyrus and Carthage-for they were all of the ruined structure of the aborigines, that the Phoenician family-we shall include those nareader's imagination may not mislead him,tions under one general term, viz. Tyrian, for I consider it necessary to say [it] is not so used."-Page 139. the same convenience as the term Mexican is large as the great (Egyptian) pyramid of Ghizeh." Upon this Mr. Jones compares Both nations were idolatrous, and both various measurements of the two edifices, sacrificed human beings on the dedication and discovers with infinite glee that they of their temples and on defeat in war. coincide within eighteen feet, which can- Tyrians offered up children to the god Sanot be accidental." On another occasion, turn (Moloch), who was represented by a in describing the pyramid at Cholula, he large statue; the figure bent slightly forfinds out, with equal satisfaction, that a dif-ward, and was so placed that the weight of ference of only eight feet would make the the smallest child was sufficient to alter its pyramid at that place twice as large as that position, and to cast the infant into a fiery of Egypt. We have not time or inclination furnace below the idol. This custom apto pursue him, as he has pursued Mr. Ste- pears to be portrayed on the sculpture in phens, through all his descriptions of the the ruins, of which Mr. Jones's description ruins, but we must say one word upon his is both ingenious and spirited, but too long remarks on that traveller's conclusions. "I to be extracted. But though they worshipped Saturn, the tutelary_deity of the Tyrians according to Dr. Prideaux was Malcarthus,* compounded of the two Phonician words Melec and Kartha, and signifying "king of the city." This god possessed many of the attributes of the Grecian Hercules-Apollo, and as such is compared by our author to the chief deity of the Mexicans. Astarte (the moon) was also worshipped by both nations, and her emblem, the cross, is found sculptured in many parts of the ruined temples.
set out," says Mr. Stephens, "with the
Other analogies are to be traced in their national and political peculiarities. The swan was the symbolical emblem of the Canaanites, and the antiquary Jacob Bryant remarks, that "where they or their descendants (i. e. Tyrians) may have settled, will be a story found about a swan." cordingly the Spanish historian Sahagun
relates that about two centuries before their conquest by the Spaniards, the Aztecs render to a neighboring kingdom that op(Mexicans proper) were compelled to surpressed them, their emblematical bird the
in commemoration of the discovery of the | Jones, considering the paucity of his macelebrated dye. We must however refer terials, has shown much ingenuity,—we the reader to the work itself for the investi- wish we could add equal accuracy; but of gation of each particular analogy, and avail this hereafter. ourselves of the author's summary, which is as follows:
The Tyrians, a colony from Sidon, were directly included in the malediction uttered against Canaan, the common founder of their race, and the innocent suffered by Ham's impiety. This curse, however, for many ages hung innocuously over their heads, and Tyre long continued first among the cities of the world,-a supremacy she owed to the benefits of commerce and navigation, a strict monopoly of which she succeeded in establishing and maintaining. Such indeed was her jealousy on this point, and so stern her refusal to allow any one to share in these advantages, that, although she granted her assistance to other nations in exploring and maritime expeditions, she insisted that they should be accomplished with ships she had built, sailors she had reared, and pilots she alone had instructed.
"Religious idolatry:-the worship of, and sacrifice of human lives to, the god of war; the worship of Saturn, and consequent infanticide to propitiate the remorseless deity; the long cross (and others) of the goddess Astarte, in the sculpture; the sacrifice to Hygeia by optional circumcision; the chief worship to Apollo, or the Sun; the gorgeous temples erected to his glory; human sacrifice on the dedication of the temples; and the sacred fire, guarded by the Virgins of the Sun. The comparative mummies of the Tyrian isles and Peru; the traditional story concerning swans; the tortoise and serpent in sculpture; the dyeshell or purple murex; navigation with its attendant maps and charts; the aborigines coming from the East' and by navigation; their landing or touching at Florida,' and 'before the Christian æra;' then the discovery of the For some centuries after her foundation wreck of a Tyrian galley. The knowledge of painting, and the general application of colors; Tyre was governed by Cadmi, the Cadmus and gem-engraving. As the sculpture con- being a supreme judge, aided by a senatotains only hieroglyphics, and not one cipher rial council; but soon after the Israelites or letter, consequently the spoken language of had obtained a king, they became dissatisPhoenicia is not found, nor is there any other fied with their previous government, and, language discovered; and for a proof of its
antiquity, the Tyrian temple-sculpture should be only hieroglyphical. The political character in the formation of monarchies and republics, as shown at Tyrus and Carthage, Mexico and Toltecas:-military character and knowledge of defensive locality, with analogous architecture in the sea and river walls of Tyrus and Copan. The last event in the history of Tyrus, sculptured upon the chief altar of the most ancient ruin (Copan); and from the character of that event, it would naturally become the first subject of record in the country to which they had emigrated; every detail of that altar is essentially Tyrian. Painted sculpture and the stuccoing of the walls of Tyrus and Palenque. The architecture, as to its square-columued style, identified as Tyrian and proved to be analogous from the temples of Jerusalem and Palenque, and from the square pillars of Copan; while the pyramidal base produced the compound term EgyptoTyrian."-Page 202.
fixing on a monarchy, chose for their first sovereign Abibal, the Huram of Scripture, and the father of the friend and ally of Solomon, Hiram the Great. This latter monarch, who appears to have been singularly liberal and beneficent in his policy, furnished, as is well known, both materials and artists for Solomon's temple. For these and other services he received from that monarch certain cities, which, failing to satisfy his expectations, he named the "land of Cabul" (displeasing).
Pygmalion, whose cruel treatment of his sister Dido and her husband Sichæus (or of Elizabeth and Acerbas, as Mr. Jones delights to call the unfortunate couple) was the immediate cause of the founding of Carthage, reigned at a later period in Tyre. During the reign of Ithobal I., according to the authority of Herodotus, the circumnavigation of Africa was accomplished, under We now come to the second book of the the auspices indeed of Pharaoh Necho, volume, in which the fact of the identity of king of Egypt, but under the superintendthe Mexicans with the Tyrians being pre-ence and with the naval assistance of sumed to be established, the author pro- Tyre. Mr. Jones announces with great ceeds, by a history of Tyre from her origin mystery, as a conclusive proof that the exto her overthrow by Alexander, to instruct pedition was really accomplished, the cirus as to the events which led to the coloni- cumstance that Herodotus in his account zation of America, and the means employed has mentioned the phænomenon of the to effect it. In this portion of his task, Mr. sailors observing, upon passing the line,
that their shadows turned from the left to Damascus, springing with their gold-imbuing
the right. But this would merely establish their progress as far as Melinda, a point which they would reach, comparatively speaking, at the commencement of their
It was shortly after this expedition, if any such really took place, that Tyre experienced the fulfilment of the first prophecy which had been made concerning her by Jeremiah and Ezekiel, that she should be taken by the Chaldeans under Nebuchadnezzar. This fact, according to Bishop Newton, is established by heathen writers, it being expressly mentioned by Josephus on the authority of Menander, and by Philostratus in his 'Indian and Phoenician Histories.' The effects of this siege, which lasted thirteen years, compelled the inhabitants to desert that part of the city which stood upon the main-land and to shut themselves up in the island, which subsequently became the Tyre so celebrated in history. Some authors have supposed that the island, Tyre, was first inhabited as a city after this siege by the Chaldeans; but Vitringa, in his dissertation upon Isaiah, has satisfactorily proved that New and Old Tyre were one city.
The next important event in the history of Tyre is the deposition of the reigning family and substitution of that of Strato, a dynasty which continued until the termination of the monarchy; this event took place in the reign of Azelmic, the eighth king of that family, when" the ancient city," after a gallant defence, was taken, sacked, and destroyed by Alexander the Great, This siege is fixed by Mr. Jones as the commencement of the annals of ancient America, and he takes the opportunity to try his powers of graphic and stirring narration. We cannot think the experiment successful, or that the fifty pages containing an account of this event were particularly needed, or have much to do with the elucidation of his theory. An historical account, indeed, it cannot be called: it is a species of dramatic story, built upon the details which Arrian and Plutarch have handed down, and is throughout in the style of the following quotation, which purports to record the storming of the city, and the anecdote of the superstitious citizens chaining the statue of their Hercules-Apollo to the principal altar.
"At length the advancing heralds of Apollo were seen bounding above the mountains of
feet from cloud to cloud until they reached the and approached from the mighty portals of zenith, when the Sun-god himself appeared, the East, arrayed in the gorgeous mantle of his eternal throne! There was a moment of calm, breathless intensity, as before the hurricane; then arose the loud hosannahs from his Tyrian subjects, now prostrate with adoration: but they were answered by the terrific and appaling shouts of the ambushed Macedonians! seized the kneeling worshippers; they were Sudden as the storm-flash, a breathless panic transfixed with fear, surprise, and wonder; they felt that their ever-faithful deity had delivered them, bound in his own fetters, to the unsparing foe. They called aloud for his protection, but the brow of their god was suddenly shadowed by the clouds of an approaching tempest, indicating the war of elements as of man; the voice of supplication was changed to the wild language of despair; all was horror and confusion among the temples, palaces, courts, and streets of the metropolis; the screams and shrieks of women and children, trodden under foot by the frantic and flyyells of the invaders, which even deadened ing citizens, were unheard amid the demoniac the sound of the distant and murmuring thunder; and they now in their shouts of approaching triumph applied the battering-engines with every energy and success, for the ramparts were unmanned, and their desperate assault unchecked.
from surprise now rallied, and snatching up "The boldest of the Tyrians recovering weapons merely of attack (for their persons were defenceless, from their festival attire) flew towards the wall, against which the impious attack was so furiously rendered. It was too late; an upper breach had been made, and the soft stone wall was fast falling beneath the repeated and ponderous blows of the battering-engines; the baliste and catapulta were now unmanned and overthrown as being useless, while the giant towers were wheeled and levered towards the breach which now momentarily increased in width; the several dropbridges of the towers were instantly lowered upon the battered walls, when the concealed and javelins, rushed like wolves from their soldiery, after their first discharge of arrows dens upon the devoted sheepfolds! As the towers, galleries, and hive-cells were emptied, they were instantly replaced (refilled?) by swarms of warriors from the camp, the whole of which was now in motion. The hitherto inactive and impatient cavalry were drawn out and marshalled, ready to plunge like fierce dragons within the city when the crumbling walls should be partially levelled. The bravest of the hardy Tyrians met the first storming party (the forlorn hope even of ancient days) with dauntless courage, and kept in check, even by their dead bodies, the instant advance of the foe; the wall was disputed inch by inch, and with increasing fury by both parties, each being resolved to conquer or to die!