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Of Brindley apart from his works little then can be said, because little is now known. With regard to the personal habits and character of his great employer, it may be neither superfluous nor inappropriate to mention that if he declined to fill, in the House of Lords or elsewhere, the place assigned to him by birth and wealth, as a resident landlord and employer he left behind him a deep impression not only of power and authority, but of the kindly virtues, which in his case, as in many others, lurked under a somewhat rough exterior. If he preferred the conversation of a few friends and confidants of his schemes to the gossip of London circles, his intercourse with the poor man and the laborer was fre

own; nay, the literary coxcomb had then a stain-that his head was turned by success more flourishing soil in which to vegetate. But and adulation, and that he had never been in where were the Brindleys among those scho-the Irish Channel in a gale of wind. The lars? Where were the men capable of the same original and comprehensive views, the latter is likely enough; we are slow to believe the former of a man so eminently pracsame bold unprecedented experiments upon matter and the forces of nature, which the illit-tical and so simple-minded. erate Derbyshire ploughboy dared to entertain and undertake? If we range the annals of the whole world, and include within our survey even those examples of sacred history where divinely appointed ministers were raised to work out great designs, we shall find no instance more remarkable, nor one which more completely violates the ordinary expectations and probabilities of mankind than this, in which the uneducated millwright of a country village became the instrument of improving beyond the bounds of sober belief the condition of a great nation, and of increasing to an incredible amount her wealth and resources. But it may be asked, why would Brindley have been less fit or less likely to accomplish all he did, if at the same time he had been educated? The answer is, that a mind like Brindley's would have lost much of its force, originality, and boldness, if it had been tied down by the rules of science, hisquent and familiar, and his knowledge of attention diverted by the elegancies of literature, or his energy diluted by imbibing too much from the opinions of others. Alone he stood, alone he struggled, and alone he was proof against all the assaults of men who branded him as a madman, an enthusiast, and a person not to be trusted.'-p. 42,

their persons and characters extensive. His surviving contemporaries among this class mention his name with invariable affection and reverence. Something like his phantom presence still seems to pervade his Lancashire neighborhood, before which those on whom his heritage has fallen shrink into comparative insignificance. The Duke's This passage, and more in the same style, horses still draw the Duke's boats. The shows the estimation in which Brindley's Duke's coals still issue from the Duke's levtalents are still held by men conversant with els; and when a question of price is under all recent improvements, and competent by discussion-What will the Duke say or do? their own professional studies to judge of his is as constant an element of the proposition, achievements. Mr. Hughes's comparison of as if he were forthcoming in the body to anhim with Moses and Joshua, we consider ill-swer the question. He had certainly no judged and not in point; inasmuch as civil taste for the decorations which lighten and engineering had nothing to do with the pas-adorn existences less engrossed by serious sage either of the Red Sea or the Jordan. pursuits. The house he built commanded That Brindley at a certain period of his life a wide view of the works he constructed and could write, rests upon better testimony even the country he helped to fertilize, but it than the report of his relation, as specimens was as destitute during his life of garden of his writing were furnished not long since and shrubbery, as of pineries, conservafrom the office at Worsley, for the use of tories, and ornamental pigsties. Rising one Mr. Baines, author of that excellent work, morning after his arrival from London at this 'The History of Lancashire.' Of a singular place, he found that some flowers had been scheme attributed to Brindley, that of a planted in his absence, which he demolished bridge over the Irish Channel between Port- with his cane, and ordered to be rooted up. patrick and Donaghadee, Mr. Hughes re- The laborer who received the order, and marks: We know nothing, except that it who in the Lancashire phrase was flytten for was said to have been a very favorite scheme this transgression of the Duke's tastes, adds of Brindley's, and was to have been effected that he was fond enough however of some by a floating road and canal, which he was Turkey oaks which had been brought down confident he could execute in such a manner from a London nursery-garden, and took as to stand the most violent attacks of the much interest in their proper disposal. waves.' We know of no better authority nature had certainly more of the oak than than a newspaper paragraph for attributing the flower in his composition, though not, in any thing so foolish as this idea to Brindley. Johnson's phrase, the nodosity without the If he ever entertained it, two things are cer- strength. While resident in London his so


cial intercourse was limited within the circle tunate that the duke possessed no taste for of a few intimate friends, and for many years those luxuries of architectural embellishment he avoided the trouble of a main part of an with which the wealth of modern railroad establishment suited to his station, by an ar- companies enables them, without imprurangement with one of these, who for a stipu- dence, to gratify the public eye. The inlated sum undertook to provide a daily din- dulgence of such a taste might have risked ner for his Grace and a certain number of the success of his undertaking, and the fame guests. This engagement lasted till a late of a ruined speculator might have been his period of the Duke's life, when the death of lot. He shrunk, however, from no expense the friend ended the contract. These were days when men sat late even if they did not drink hard. We believe the Duke's habits were no exception to the former practice, but if we may judge from a Worsley cellarbook, which includes some years of his residences there, his home consumption of wine was very moderate. He is said to have smoked more than he talked, and was addicted to rushing out of the room every five minutes to look at the barometer.

'I well remember the steam-tug experiment on the canal. It was between 1796 and 1799. Captain Shanks, R. N., from Deptford, was at Worsley many weeks preparing it, by the duke's own orders and under his own eye. It was set going, and tried with coal-boats; but it went slowly, and the paddles made sad work with water on the bank. The Worsley folks called the bottom of the canal, and also threw the it Buonaparte.'

and no experiment which, to use a phrase of his own, had utility at the heels of it;' nor was his one of those ordinary minds which are contented with a single success, and incapable of pushing a victory. About the end of the last century, at a moment when other men would have been contented with results obtained before Bell or Fulton had shown the availability of the steam paddlewheel for navigation, he made an attempt to substitute the steam-tug for horse towage on We have conjectured that the Duke's early his canal. The following notice from one of association with Wood might possibly have his surviving servants substantiates this ingenerated the taste for old pictures which ulti-teresting fact :mately displayed itself in the formation of the Bridgewater collection: an accident, however, laid the foundation of that collection. Dining oue day with his nephew Lord Gower, afterwards Duke of Sutherland, the Duke saw and admired a picture which the latter had picked up a bargain for some 107. at a broker's in the morning. You must take me, he said, 'to that d-d fellow to-morrow.' Whether this impetuosity produced any immediate result we are not informed, but It may be presumed that the failure was plenty of d-d fellows were doubtless not complete, for no second trial appears to have wanting to cater for the taste thus sudden- been made. Eight coal-boats were, howly developed such advisers as Lord Farn- ever, dragged to Manchester, of twenty-five borough and his nephew lent him the aid of tons each, at a little more than a mile an their judgment. His purchases from Italy hour. We find in Mr. Priestley's volume and Holland were judicious and important, that a similar experiment was made on the and finally the distractions of France pour- Sankey Canal in 1797, when a loaded barge ing the treasures of the Orleans Gallery into was worked up and down by a steam-engine this country, he became a principal in the for twenty miles; but, singular as it may ap fortunate speculation of its purchase. A pear, says Mr. Priestley, to this time vessels conversation recorded with Lord Kenyon, have continued on this canal to be towed by father to the present lord, illustrates his sa- manual labor. The application of steam gacity in matters connected with his main power to haulage on canals has, by the inpursuit. At a period when he was begin- vention of the submerged screw propeller, ning to reap the profits of his perseverance been rendered a mere question of compara and sacrifices, Lord Kenyon congratulated tive expense, as all detriment, either to banks him on the result. Yes,' he replied, we or bottom, from the propelling machinery, is shall do well enough if we can keep clear of obviated. In the case, however, of heavy

those d-d tramroads'

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Nothing was more remarkable in the operations of the duke and his great engineer than the rigid economy with which they were conducted. It is well known that the ingenuity of Brindley, as his novel task rose before him, was constantly displaying itself in devices for the avoidance or the better distribution of labor. It was perhaps for

goods, we apprehend that no material increase in the rate of speed can be obtained, as the mere displacement, independent of the cause of motion, generates, at a slight increase of velocity, a wave sufficient to destroy any banks not fenced with masonry; Mr. Houston's beautiful discovery has indeed shown, that if the speed can be increased to a considerable extent the evil ceases


least with boats of a particular construction; | present Emperor of Russia. The Duc de and the fast passage-boats, long used on the Bordeaux is the last on the list. Glasgow and Lancaster canals, and lately adopted on the Bridgewater, have proved the merit of his invention. The labor to the horses is somewhat painful to witness, though the stages are short. In other respects we scarcely know any aquatic phenomenon more agreeable to the eye than the appearance of one of these vessels at her full speed. In grace of form and smoothness of motion they rival the swan-like gondola itself of Venice.

In his testamentary dispositions for the entail of his Lancashire estates, it is well known, at least to conveyancing lawyers, that he evinced extreme anxiety to carry power beyond the grave. As this desire in its excess becomes often a subject of animadversion, it is just to observe that the main object he had in view in this portion of his will was to secure to the public the continuance, the perpetuity, as far as human things can be perpetual, of the advantage of his undertakings. Whether, in devising a scheme for this purpose, by which power was to be dissociated from property, he adopted the best means for his end, may be doubted. The purpose is the more unquestionable, as he left the other portion of his magnificent possessions without a single condition of entail. "There is a Providence that shapes our ends, Rough hew them as we may.'

Descriptions, more or less detailed, of the duke's works are to be found in many publications. It may be sufficient here to state that the line of open navigation constructed under his acts, beginning in Manchester, and branching in one direction to Runcorn, in another to Leigh, amounts in distance to some thirty-eight miles, all on one level, and admitting the large boats which navigate the estuary of the Mersey. Of this the six miles from Worsley to Leigh were constructed The gentlemen of Liverpool and Manchesafter Brindley's decease. We use the ex- tor, who originated the railroad between pression open, because to this we have to add those towns, will well understand us when the extent of subterranean navigable canals, we say that one effect of his peculiar dispoby which the main produce of the Worsley sitions for the management of his canal coal-field is brought out in boats, to be con- property after his death, was to accelerate veyed on the open canal to its various des- the introduction of those d-d tramroads' tinations. This singular work was com- in which his sagacity taught him to foresee menced in 1759, and has been gradually dangerous rivals to the liquid highway. pushed on, as new coal-workings were opened and old ones became exhausted. Frisi speaks of them with much admiration at a period when they extended for about a mile and a half-at the time we write, the total length of tunnels amounts to forty-two miles and one furlong, of which somewhat less than two-thirds are in disuse, and rendered inaccessible. There are in all four different levels. The main line, which commences at Worsley, is nine feet wide and nine high, including four feet depth of water. The others are the same height, but only eight feet wide. Two are respectively at fifty-six and eighty-three yards below the main line: the fourth is thirty-seven yards above it. The communication with the latter was formerly conducted by means of an inclined plane, which has however been disused since 1822, the coal being now brought by shafts to the surface. Distinguished visitors have visited this curious nether world. The collective science of England was shut up in it for some hours, rather to the discomfiture of some of its members, when the British Association held its meeting at Manchester in 1843. Heads, if not crowned, destined to become so, have bowed themselves beneath It was vain to raise the cry, 'Great is Diana its arched tunnels: among others, that of the of the Ephesians.' The progress of anterior JUNE, 1844.


In 1829 the time was doubtless ripe for
the introduction of that wonderful contriv-
ance, the locomotive engine, and from ob-
vious local circumstances it was almost in-
evitable that Liverpool and Manchester should
take the lead in its adoption. The fact is
nevertheless notorious that the manner in
which irresponsible power had for some time
been exercised, with reference to the public,
in the management of the Bridgewater line
of navigation, accelerated a crisis which un-
der other circumstances might for a time
have been delayed. Great fear and confusion
of mind fell upon canal proprietors. The
invention which, in the opinion of many
practical men, was to supersede their craft,
started like Minerva full armed from the
brains of its various contrivers. Few ma-
chines in the records of human ingenuity
have attained such early perfection as the
locomotive engine. It placed the powers of
fire at once at issue with those of water :—
"Old Father Thames reared up his reverend head,

And fear'd the fate of Simois would return;
Deep in his sedge he sought his oozy bed,
And half his waters shrunk into his urn."

improvements was appealed to, and with justice. The Yorkshire fox-hunter going to or returning from his sport will occasionally find himself on a flagged pathway, flanked on either side with an abyss of mud, and only wide enough to admit of progress in single file. This is the packhorse road of our ancestors, and, except the occasional semblance of the animal itself with its load displayed on village-signs, things as retentive of odd bygone facts as the picture-writing of the Mexicans is now the only memorial of a mode of communication which in the memory of man was hardly superseded by the wagon and the coach. The latter machines, doubtless, still survive; but many a tinkling peal of bells was silenced, many a set of dock-tailed horses with their accoutrements of tinted worsted put in abeyance by Brindley, as many a four-horse coach has since been slapped into flies and station omnibuses by the Harlequin wands of the Brunels and Stevensons. Even their inventions begin to tremble. We can hardly expect that in our time the disembodied spirit of Bishop Wilkins, if it revisit the glimpses of the luminary it proposed while in the body to invade, will be gratified by the triumph of some aërial machine over the railroad. He must be a bold man, however, who would now predict how long the capital vested in the present system of railroads may continue undisturbed and unaffected by some new application of power. While we write, it is possible that nothing but the mass of the investment and the pre-occupation of lines of country (and even these are but feeble impediments to British enterprise and ingenuity) prevent it from being so interfered with by the atmospheric railroad. Perhaps some still simpler scheme of galvanism, or gaseous explosion, is fermenting in the cranium of some unknown mechanician, which may supplant the invention of Watt. Of the relative prospects, then, of railroad and water-carriage, it would be presumptuous to speak; but some dozen years of experience enable us to say that there is an inherent force of vitality in the latter, which will at least secure it an honorable death and respect from its


truth quite as often lost sight of amid the pursuits of peaceful gain as in the hot chase of military fame and conquest-more often, we fear, forgotten in Protestant than in Roman Catholic countries-Man does not live by bread alone.' We are not now on the subject of railroads, and we forbear addressing to that quarter considerations to which we believe and trust that corporate bodies comprising the élite of the land for wealth and intelligence are already alive. The case of canals, also, we consider in some respects more peculiar and more pressing. The floating population of the latter is by its avocations and its migratory habits rendered in some respects almost as distinct a race as that of the sea, without being accessible to the religious impressions which affect those who see the wonders of the great deep. It is comparatively an easy task for the wise and good to take advantage of those natural circumstances which render the mariner peculiarly susceptible to religious influences, and this duty has in many instances not been neglected. On board the vessel of Columbus all hands were invariably mustered for the evening hymn, and with that ritual sound was hailed the appearance of the shifting light which first betrayed the existence of the New World to its discoverer. It was for the special use of the mariner of his country that Grotius composed his treatise on the truth of the Christian religion.t In our own service many have labored in this sacred cause, and when the morning rose on the bay of Aboukir, what spectacle was it which most astonished the French survivors of that awful night on board the vessels of their captors? Not merely that of energy unimpaired by slaughter, and discipline unrelaxed by triumph; it was that of the general celebration of divine service throughout Nelson's fleet. We fear that the inland navigator has many of the rough vices of the regular mariner, and if his opportunities of religious instruction, warning, and consolation

Puesto que el Amirante á los diez de la noche vido lumbre... y era como una candelilla de cera que se alzaba y levantaba, lo qual a pocos pareciera ser indicio de tierra. Pero el Amirante tuvo per cierto estar junto à la tierra. Por lo qual cuando dijeron la "Salve," que la acostumbran decir é cantar á su manera todos los marineros, y se hallan todos, rogó y amonestólos el Amirante que hiciesen buena guarda al castillo de proa, y mirasen bien por la tierra.'-Diary of Columbus, First Voyage, 11th of October.

As such an euthanasia is, we trust, for the present postponed, we would fain leave not altogether unnoticed one or two topics which we consider worthy the deep attention of all in any way connected with the administration either of canals or railroads. The + Propositum enim mihi erat, omnibus quidem former have raised, the latter are raising, civibus meis, sed præsertim navigantibus, operam within the sphere of their influence, a popu-rent potius tempus, quam, quod nimium multi fact navare utilem, ut in longo marino otio impendelation which by its numbers and its exigen-unt, fallerent.-Preface to the treatise De Veritate cies ought to remind us of a great truth-a | Fidei Christianæ,

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have hitherto been far scantier, it behooves | land the Hebrew camp in the wilderness, and those who derive profit from his toil to be the we doubt the obligation to attempt it. It is, more considerate and active in devising the in our humble judgment, far better in this and mitigation of such an evil. Nor do we mean other analogous cases to keep in view such an to aver that the employer has been universal- arrangement of hours as may not only not obly neglectful. In many quarters exertion has struct, but multiply the opportunities of atbeen made, and we will venture to say, wher- tending divine service, and thus attract peoever made-rewarded. All honor to those ple to rural churches and chapels, rather than who carried in the British parliament, against drive them into suburban public-houses. a vexatious, we trust a penitent opposition, the Weaver Churches Bill.

We have now touched, albeit discursively, on three principal species of the genus Canal: There are, however, stations of resort on the canal of supply for domestic consumplines of navigation at which, for various rea- tion, the canal of irrigation, and the canal for sons, it might be neither easy nor expedient inland conveyance of merchandise. It might to plant and endow regular places of worship, be expected that we should say something on to which another and very effective expedi- a class of works exceeding these in magnient may be adapted. On the broader canals tude, and of great antiquity-the Ship Ca烈 at least a condemned barge, vulgò a flat, may nal. Though a legitimate branch of our subbe converted at a trifling expense into a float-ject, however, it would be impossible for us ing chapel, suitable for a congregation of to go into either its history or its prospects, some 150 adults. We can bear witness that without swelling this article beyond all due such have been filled by zealous and grateful bounds. With reference to remote antiquity worshippers, many of whom had never before-whether originating in military schemes, with 'holy bell been tolled to church;' many like the Velificatus Athos of Xerxes, and the of whom would never have been tempted artificial river of Drusus uniting the Rhine within the precincts of one on dry land, and the Issel, or in more purely commercial some from indolence, others perhaps from the purposes, like that projected by Sesostris and scarcely censurable shyness and pride which finished by the Ptolemies, from the Nile to so often prevent the poor man from contrast- the Red Sca-it deserves an ample discusing his worn habiliments with those of rich-sion. In more modern instances the results er neighbors. We think the sternest oppo- have not always been such as to invest the nent of cheap churches, the greatest stickler for spires, chancels, and roodlofts, would forego his objections in favor of these arks of refuge, if he could witness their effects.


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There is another subject of far greater complexity, which has engaged the attention of Parliamentary committees, as yet without any decided result, that of Sunday canal traffic. We are not of the sterner school of Scotch Calvinism in this particular, but we certainly think that the mere consideration of gain to proprietors ought every where to give way to the great object of procuring rest for man and beast on that day, and opportunity for worship and for relaxation of every innocent kind to the former. We doubt, however, whether the religious or moral interests of Manchester would be atlvanced by a sudden stoppage of all the passage-boats which often convey at present the clergyman, established or dissenting, to the scene of his labors, or the artisan and his family to Lord Stamford's noble park. Sure we feel that the immediate effect of such stoppage would be to multiply the few horses and drivers who do thus labor on the Sabbath, by an enormous figure, in the shape of all descriptions of hired land conveyance. 'Stop them too,' would reply the zealous and sincere champion of strict observance. We cannot make of Eng

subject with an interest proportionate to its grandeur. In this point of view, the most splendid of our own undertakings in conception and execution (the Caledonian) has hitherto turned out a failure Its eminent author, Mr. Telford, was engaged in a sounder and more successful operation of the same class, though of less dimensions, in the Swedish canal of Gotha, of which he revised the survey, and superintended the execution.— With some exceptions, we may almost assert that neither the sea-risk of the ship-owner, nor the toil of the mariner, has been as yet materially diminished by this class of works. There is something specious and attractive in the notion of cutting isthmuses and connecting oceans by a direct communication for sea-going vessels, which has in all ages excited the imagination of sovereigns; but while subjects have counted the cost, governments have more frequently talked and deliberated than acted. Even Louis XIV. resisted the temptation of the éclat, and the suggestions of Vauban, in the instance of the Canal of Languedoc. In speaking thus, however, of the past and present, we insinuate no prognostications as to the future. The straw, we are aware, is stirring. It is possible that while we write, under the patronage of such men as the Bridgewater of Modern Egypt, Mehemet

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