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RECENT DISCOVERIES IN EGYPT.
From the Athenæum.
Korusko, Nov. 20th, 1843. On the 21st of August I left Fayoum with the whole expedition, and started on the 23d from | Beni Suef in a fine spacious vessel. I was obliged to give up our plan of a land journey, as too troublesome, and attended with comparatively little advantage; and yet on the very first day of our Nile voyage, we discovered a small rock temple of the nineteeth dynasty on the right bank near Surania, which seems not known to Champollion and Wilkinson; it is the most northern temple of the old Pharaohs which Egypt has to show. It was dedicated by Menephtah II. (to use the old terminology) to Hathor; Menephtah III. has added his devices in the interior, and those of Ramses IV., the head of the twentieth dynasty, are to be found outside the rock.
[exquisite luxury of the great of those times, to read the presages of the mishaps connected with the sudden fall of that last dynasty of the old monarchy which brought them for several cen A LETTER has been received by Baron Alex-turies under the power of their northern foes. In ander v. Humboldt from Dr. Lepsius, detailing, at the gladiatorial games, which frequently occupy considerable length, his more recent discoveries whole walls, and form a characteristic feature of in Egypt. These partly relate to subjects of in-those ages, pointing us to a far extended custerest only to the Greek antiquarian scholar. We tom, which, in later times almost disappeared, shall therefore translate only such portions of we often find among the red and dark-brown his letter as we conceive will interest our read-faces of Egyptian or other races of the south, ers, merely stating, that Dr. Lepsius has collect- men of light complexion, generally with red hair ed from three to four hundred Greek inscriptions and beards and blue eyes, sometimes singly, of more or less importance, in Egypt and and sometimes in small groups. These people Nubia. appear often in the dress of servants, and are plainly of northern, at any rate of Semitic origin. We find, on the monuments of those times, victories of the kings over Ethiopians and negroes; there would, therefore, be nothing surprising in black slaves or servants. We find nothing, however, of wars against their northern neighbors, but it appears, that the immigrations from the north-east had already commenced, and that many wanderers sought, in luxurious Egypt, a maintenance either as servants or in some other way. In these remarks, I am thinking especially of that very remarkable scene on the grave of Nehera-se-Numhetep, which brings before our eyes, in such lively colors, the entrance of Jacob with his family, and would tempt us to identify it with that event, if chronology would allow us (for Jacob came under the Hyksos), and if we were not compelled to believe that such family I am surprised that Champollion does not immigrations were, by no means, of rare occurseem to have recognized the monuments of the rence. These were, however, the forerunners old kingdom. He only remarked, in his whole of the Hyksos, and doubtless, in many ways, journey through central Egypt to Dendera, the paved the way for them. * Champollion rock sepulchres of Benihassan, which he con- considered these people to be Greeks, when he founds with the "Speos Artemidos," and these was at Benihassan; he did not, however, then seemed to him to be works of the sixteenth or know how ancient were the monuments before seventeenth dynasty, and therefore of the new him. Wilkinson thought them prisoners, but kingdom. He also names Saniet el Meiten and this view is contradicted by their appearing with Siut, but makes scarcely any remark on them. their wives and families, baggage and asses; I Others also have either said nothing, or fallen consider them to be an immigrating Hyksos into error respecting these monuments of central | family, begging for admittance into the favored Egypt, so that every thing which I found here land, and whose arrival probably opened the appeared new to me. Judge then of my sur- gates of Egypt to their kindred, the Semitic prise, when we discovered, at Saniet, a row of conquerors. The town to which this stately nesixteen rock tombs, which gave us the names of cropolis of Benihassan belonged, must have their occupants, and belonged to the times of been very important, and, doubtless, was situated the sixth dynasty, and, therefore, reached almost opposite on the left bank of the Nile, as were to the time of the great pyramids. Five of them nearly all the more important cities of Egypt. contained the devices of the long-lived (Makro- It will not seem strange, that Greek and Roman biot) Apappus Pepi, who was 106 years old, and geography knew no more of this city, than of reigned 100 years. One dated from old Cheops, many other towns of the old monarchy, when and another from the times of Ramses. In we remember that the power of the Hyksos, of Benihassan I had the whole of a rock tomb 500 years' duration, intervened. One seems to drawn: it will present a specimen of the mag-read, in the unfinished state of many of the nificent architecture and art of the best times of tombs, the lack of inscriptions in still more, and the old monarchy under the mighty twelfth dynasty. I think it will make some stir among the learned in Egyptian lore, when they see, in connection from the work of Geh. Rath Bunsen, why I have ventured to transfer several well known monuments from the new to the old monarchy. That this was a glorious period for Egypt, is proved by these magnificent sepulchral halls alone. It is interesting, too, in these rich representations on the walls, showing as they do the degrees of the peaceful arts, and the
the non-completion of the way up the steep bank of the river to them, the sudden nature of the fall of the monarchy and of this once flourishing city. Nor is Benihassan the only town where we meet with works of the twelfth dynasty. A little south of the vast plain on which the emperor Hadrian erected, in memory of his drowned favorite, the city of Antinoë, with its gorgeous and still partly remaining streets with their hundreds of columns, there descends, towards the east, a narrow dell, in which we found a
whole row of nobly executed tombs of the twelfth ing of flags, with choral songs and hearty toasts, dynasty, of which, however, the great part are drunk in a glass of genuine Rhine wine. I need unhappily defaced. On the tomb of Ki-se- hardly add, that on such an occasion we did not Tuthetep, is represented the transport of the omit to think of you. As night closed in, we lit great colossus, already published by Rosellini, two cauldrons of pitch, at the entrance of the though without the accompanying inscriptions, temple, on both sides of which our banners were from which we learn, that the colossus was made planted; we also kindled a large bonfire at the of limestone (the hieroglyphical expression for Pronaos, which shed a glorious light on the which I first became acquainted with here), and magnificent proportions of the column-supported that it was about two feet high. In the same hall, which for the first time for centuries we valley, on the southern wall of rock, is another were restoring to its primitive purpose of a fesrow of tombs, with but few inscriptions, but tive hall, a "hall of panegyrics," and cast a which, to judge by the style of the hieroglyphics, magic gleam on the two mighty, calm, colossal and the titles of the dead, belongs to the sixth Memnons. The temple of Edfu is one of dynasty.. In Siut we recognized, from the best preserved, was dedicated to Horus at some distance, the magnificent style of the rock and Hathor, the Egyptian Venus, who was sepulchres of the twelfth dynasty. But here, one time entitled here the queen of men and also, ruin has been at work in modern times, it women. Horus as a child is here represented having been found more convenient to break off like all Egyptian children-at any rate all inthe walls and columns of these grottoes than to fants-naked and with his finger on his mouth. cut building stones out of the massive rock. II had some time since made out of the inscriplearned from Selim Pasha, the governor of Up- tion the name of Harpokrates, but here I have per Egypt, who received us in a most friendly found it represented and written en toutes lettres way at Siut, that, a few months before, quarries as Har-pe-chreti, i. e. Horus the child. The of alabaster had been discovered a short dis- Romans misunderstood the Egyptian gesture of tance off in the direction of the eastern moun- the finger, and made out of the infant that cantains, the excavation of which had been com- not speak, the god of silence that will not speak. mitted to him by Mohammed Ali; and I heard The most interesting inscription, which has not from his dragoman, that there was an inscrip- as yet been noticed or mentioned by any one, is tion to be found on them. I accordingly set off that on the eastern outside wall, built by Ptolemy on a hot ride to the place appointed, the next Alexander I., in which a large historical inscription morning, and found there a little colony, in all mentions several dates of kings Darius, Amyrthirty-one people, in the solitary, desert, burning tæus, and Nectanebus, and appears to relate to cave. Behind the tent of the overseer, I discov- the building of the city and temple. The day ered the remains of an inscription, recently much was so overpoweringly hot, that I was obliged longer, but still containing the name and title to defer a closer investigation and the copying of the wife, so much honored by the Egyptians, of the inscription till our return, till which time of the first Amasis, the founder of the eighteenth we have delayed all the more laborious work; dynasty which drove out the Hyksos, engraved but even then the selection from the inexhaustin clear, sharply cut, hieroglyphics. These are ible materials, all more or less adapted to our the first alabaster quarries whose age can be purpose, and this too with reference to what is proved by an inscription: upwards of 300 blocks, already published, will be far from easy. the largest eight feet long, two thick, have been In Assuan we were obliged to change our cut out during the last four months. The Pasha vessel, on account of the cataracts, and had for informed me, by his dragoman, that I might the first time for six months one of the pleasures have, on my return, a slab of the best quality, of home, in the shape of abundant rain, and a of whatever size I chose to fix on, as a testi- tremendous storm, which gathered on the other mony of his joy at our visit. The quarries as side of the cataract, rolled violently over the yet found lie all between Berseh and Gauáta; granite belt, and then hurried on amid terrific one would, therefore, feel inclined to think El explosions down the valley, to Cairo (as we Bosra the old Alabastron, if one could reconcile afterwards heard,) which it flooded in a manner with it the passage in Ptolemy; at any rate almost unheard of, within the memory of the inAlabastron can have nothing to do with the habitants. So we can say with Strabo and ruins in the valley of El Amazna, with which Champollion: "In our time it rained in Upper the description in Ptolemy as little agrees. *Egypt." Rain is indeed so rare here that our We remained in Thebes twelve days-twelve watchmen had never seen such a sight, and our astounding days-which scarcely sufficed for a Turkish Cavass, who knows the country well in glimpse of all the palaces, temples, and tombs, all respects, when we had long since carried our whose gigantic and royal magnificence fills the baggage into the tents and caused them to be vast plain. In the gem of all the Egyptian pub- more firmly fastened, did not offer to move his lic buildings-the palace of Ramses Sesostris, own property, but continued repeating abaden which this mightiest of the Pharaohs raised, moie, "never rain," words which he was obliged worthily of the god and himself, to the honor of to hear often afterwards, as a severe illness their highest divinity, Ammon Ra, the king of compelled him to remain some time patiently at gods, the protector and patron of the royal city Phile. of Ammon, on a gently sloping terrace, calculated to command the wide plain, and looking over the majestic river, to the distant Arabian mountain chain, we celebrated the birthday of our beloved king, with firing of guns and wav
Philo is as charmingly situated as it is interesting through its monuments. Our residence of eight days on this holy island is one of the most cherished recollections of our journey. We used to assemble after our desultory day's
labor, before we sat down to dinner, on the lofty Ptolemy Lathyrus cut his hieroglyphical interrace of the temple which hangs steep over scriptions over the earlier ones. The hierothe river, on the eastern coast of the island, and glyphical genealogy of the Ptolemies here bewatch the shadows of the sharply cut, well pre-gins again with Philadelphus, while in the Greek served dark blocks of sandstone, of which the text of the Rosetta inscription it begins with temple is built, growing over the river, and Soter. Another remarkable fact is, that here blending with the black volcanic masses of rock, Epiphanes is called the son of Ptolemy Phipiled wildly one upon the other, between which lopator and Cleopatra, while according to histhe yellow sand seemed pouring like streams of torical accounts Arsinoe was the only wife of fire into the valley. This island appears to Philopator, and is so called in the inscription of have acquired its sacred character late, under Rosetta and on other monuments. She is certhe Ptolemies. Herodotus, who himself ascend-tainly called Cleopatra in a passage of Pliny; ed the cataracts under the Persians, does not but this would have passed for an error of the mention Phil; indeed it was then held by the historian or copyist, were not the same change Ethiopians, who even possessed half of Ele-of name confirmed by a hieroglyphical and offphantine. The oldest buildings on the island cial document. There is, therefore, no more are of a date 100 years after Herodotus' visit, ground to place the sending of Marcus Attilius erected by the last king of Egyptian descent, and Marcius Acilius by the Roman senate to Nectanebus, on the southern point of the island. Egypt, to form a new treaty on account of the There is no trace of older remains in any state Queen Cleopatra, mentioned by Livy, under of ruin. Much older inscriptions are to be found Ptolemy Epiphanes, as Champollion-Figeac on the large neighboring island of Bigeh, whose does, instead of Ptolemy Philopator, as other hieroglyphical name was Senem, and which historians informs us. We must rather suppose, was adorned during the old monarchy with either that the wife and sister of Philopator bore Egyptian monuments; for we found there a both names, which undoubtedly does not remove grante statue of King Sesustes 11., of the all the difficulty, or that the project mentioned Iwelith dynasty. The little rocky island of Ko- by Appius, of a marriage between Philopator nosso, called in hieroglyphics the isle of Kenes, and the Syrian Cleopatra, afterwards wife of contains some very old inscriptions, and has in- Epiphanes, was carried into effect after the murtroduced to me a previously unknown monarch der of Arsinoë, although not mentioned by of the age of the Hyksos; but this island is any historians. We are naturally in want of clearly not Abaton, as Letronne has imagined. means to settle clearly this interesting point. The meroglyphical name of Phile has hitherto There are innumerable Greek inscriptions at been erroneously read Manlak. I have found Phile, and it will interest Letronne to hear, the word written Ilak; from this, combined with that I have found on the still remaining base of the article arose Philak, and hence the Greek the second obelisk, of which only a part was Philo; but why in the plural? There appears carried with its fellow to England, the remains originally to have been a group of islands;-hard indeed to decipher-of a Greek inscripPliny mentions four, if the text be accurate. The mark which Champollion read " man," have found interchanged with the i, so that the inscription is now clearly llak and Jueb, which last I take to be Abaton. In the court-yard of the great temple of Isis we made a valuable discovery, namely, two decrees (?) of the Egyptian priests, containing a tolerable number of words in two languages, i. e. hieroglyphic and common, one of which contains the same text as the decree of the Rosetta stone. At least, I have compared the seven last lines, which not only correspond with the inscription of Rosetta in their contents, but also in the respective length The inscription must first be drawn out before I can pronounce farther on it; at any rate it will be no unimportant acquisition to Egyptian philology, if only a part of the broken decree of Rosetta can be completed by it. The whole of the first portion of the inscription of Rosetta, which precedes the decree, is wanting here. Instead of this there is at the side a second decree, relating to the same Ptolemy Epiphanes in the introduction is mentioned the fortress of Alexander, i. e. the city of Alexander, being the first mention of it on any monuments with which we are as yet acquainted. Both decrees close, as does the inscription of Rosetta, with the direction to set up the inscription in the hieroglyphic and common languages, and in Greek. Here the Greek is wanting, unless it was written in red and washed away when
of the lines.
tion written in red, which probably was at one
island, which, on account of this circumstance, | waiting for your last proofs, as he did for Docwas called iɛgov nedtov, "the sacred plain." This tor Forster's. I know it's killin me, says he; is a translation of Ph-i-ueb, or Ph-ih-ueb, (for but if I die of overwork it's in the way of my this h is also to be found in the hieroglyphics,) vacation. Poor boy! I did all I could to nurin the Coptic Ph-iah-ueb, the sacred field. Dio- ridge him: Mock Turkey soop and strong dorus and Plutarch call this sacred field the slops, and Wormy Jelly and Island Moss; but Apator, the unapproachable, save and except by he couldn't eat. And no wunder; for mental the priests. The fact that Diodorus in the same laber, as the Docter said, wares out the stumplace describes Osiris as v vihais repevov mack as well as the Branes, and so he'd been proves still more clearly what the plural form spinnin out his inside like a spider. And a points at, that the Greeks understood by Phile, spider he did look at last, sure enuff-one of not only the island Philek, but the whole group that sort with long spindle legs, and only a dot of islands by the cataracts, according to Pliny of a Boddy in the middle. Another bad thing and others, even Elephantine, which lies at the is sittin up all nite as my Sun did, but it's all northern extremity of the cataracts. The name agin Natur. Not but what some must, and Philek is never found in the plural, but in the in- partikly the writers of Politicks for the Papers; scriptions I have discovered the names of eleven but they ruin the Constitushun. And, besides, different islands, all probably belonging to this even Poetry is apt to get prosy after twelve or group of the cataracts. one; and some late authors read very sleepy. But as poor Robert said, what is one to do when no day is long enuff for one's work, nor no munth either. And to be sure, April, June, November, and September, are all short munths, but Febber-very! However one great thing is, relaxing-if you can. As the Doctor used to say, what made Jack a dull boy-why being always in the workhouse and never at the playhouse, So get out of your gownd and slippers, says he, and put on your Best Things and unbend yourself like a Beau. If you've been at your poetical flights, go and look at the Tems Tunnel; and if you're tired of being Witty, go and spend a hour with the Wax Work. The mind requires a Change as well as the merchants. So take my advice, Sir-a mother's advice-and relax a littel-I know what it is: You want brassing, a change of Hair, and more stummuck. And you ought to ware flannin, and take tonicks. Do you ever drink Basses Pail? It's as good as cammomile Tea. But above all, there's one thing I'd recummend to you: Steal Wine. It's been a savin to sum invalids. Hoping you will excuse this libberty from a stranger, but a well-meaning one,-I am, Sir, 'A SUESCRIBER.""
From the Literary Gazette.
Hood's Magazine came out a few days too late this month, but the following apology for it is so truly in the writer's best vein, that we cannot regret the accident, and only hope it will cause no loss to him. Poor editors had little need to have bad health added to their other ills.-Ed. L. G.
"The Echo-The writer of the following letter guesses so truly at the main cause of the delay in the publication of the present number, that our best explanation to our subscribers will be, to give the epistle entire, verbatim et literatim, -as addressed to the Editor:
'Sir,-By your not cumming out on the Furst, I conclude you are lade up-being notorus for enjoyin bad helth. Pullmery, of course. my poor Robert-for I've had a littery branch in my own fammily-a periodical one like yourself, only every Sunday, insted of once a munth; and as such, well knew what it was to write long-winded articles with Weekly lungs. Poor fellow! As I often said, so much head work, and nothin but Head work, will make a Cherubbim of you: and so it did.-Nothing but write CURIOUS ETYMOLOGY.-When one visits Paris, -write-write, and read-read-read: and, as he will observe over the doors of certain shops the our Doctor says, it's as bad to studdy till all is word reliure, which he will soon discover means brown, as to drink till all is blew. Mix your bookbinding. The appearance of this word caused cullers. And wery good advice it is-when it us at first a few minutes' reflection. What was its can be follerd, witch is not always the case; for etymology? What had reliûre to do with the if necessity has no Law it has a good deal of binding of books? A little examination disclosed Litterature, and Authers must rite what they that reliûre comes from the same root as the word must. As poor Robert used to say about sed-religion, and that, in fact, both terms almost mean dontary habits, it's very well, says he, to tell me the same thing etymologically. Religion is comabout-like Mr. Wordsworth's single man as pounded from two Latin roots, re, again, and ligo, grew dubble-sticking to my chair; but if to bind, and may be considered as meaning to be there's no sitting, says he, ther'll be no hatch-bound again, or rebound; thereby importing that ing: and if I do brood too much at my desk it's because there's a brood expected from me once a week. Oh, it's very well, says he, to cry Up, up with you; and go and fetch a walk, and take a look at the daisies, when you've sold your mind to Miffy Stofilis; and there's a Divil
rude and natural habits, and bound themselves to the religiously disposed have thrown off certain lead a new and better life. Who could have imagined that the signboard term reliûre had any connection with religion? The study of etymology, however, makes us acquainted with many such relationships.-Chambers's Ed. Jour.
CHEMISTS OF THE EIGHTEENTH CEN-in chemistry is a gain to the arts and scien
BY AN OLD MAN.
From Fraser's Magazine.
ces of an intelligent nation, since in that department of philosophy the most theoretical speculations have been still found to be connected with the progress of all practical works. But it was in chemistry especially that, half a century ago, all interesting researches were passed over unnoticed by those who were destined in the end to be the greatest gainers from them; they were suffered to remain in the hands of the philosopher alone; it was left for time to do them justice, and to furnish additional illustrations of Bacon's axiom, "knowledge is power."
What interest did the separation of the air we breathe into its constituent gases excite among even well-educated classes? Yet where shall we find a discovery more fraught with curious consequences upon the face of it?
It is curious, and not uninstructive to observe, in the scientific history of a recent period, what very different matter for speculation the addition of a new fact to the stores of existing knowledge has afforded, when viewed by the philosopher on the one hand, and the practical man on the other. The former has been too much in the habit of estimating the discovery solely in proportion as it may have extended the limits of his transcendental science; the latter has thought highly of it only in the ratio of its immediate applicability to his own wants and wishes. The one regarded it in all its simplicity as a new truth; the other would not condescend What attention was given to Dr. Black's to consider it at all if it did not happen to be admirable views concerning latent heat beperplexed with certain desired consequences. yond the merely scientific world? Had they The philosopher was then too often nothing even a corner allotted to them in some Genbut the theorist; the practical man was rare- tleman's Magazine or miscellaneous register ly indeed the philosopher. Striving nomi- of the day? Yet these researches guided nally for the same end, they journied by paths Watt to the improvements of the steam-enso distinct, that they could never meet; con- gine, which have done more to liberalize the templating, as they declared, the same ulti- world then all the laborers of mob-orators and mate object, they viewed it through different sans-culotte politicians put together. In no media. In our time, when the two classes case was the general indifference to the phiof thinkers and doers are blended together in losopher's results more forcibly illustrated perfect intimacy, it is really difficult to be- than in that of the discovery of the composi lieve how great a barrier existed between tion of water. The pleasure which this af them only half a century ago. The want of forded to men of science did not extend itsympathy which kept them asunder appears self beyond them; it was reserved for them to have been due in a great measure to the alone to enjoy the anticipation of its consegenerally defective education, as far as an ac- quences,-those consequences themselves quaintance with science went, of the manu- were hailed with no interest. A revolution facturer, or the mechanic, or what is com- in chemical philosophy, the elucidation of monly called "the good man of business." the mysteries of combustion, the successive As a class, these persons were worse than ig- explanation of most important natural and arnorent in matters of physical philosophy; to tificial processes,-all were received with si be simply ignorant would have been compar- lent indifference; whilst a toy, in the posatively a small misfortune; they were intoler- session of which an acquaintance with hydroant. It was not merely that they did not gen had put it, engaged the entire attention readily appreciate, but that they would not of society. The utilitarian raved about balbelieve in the beauty of a discovery, unless loons, and neglected the true theory of the atthey could directly perceive the part it might mosphere. Perhaps no single chemical display in their own immediate scene of action. covery has ever more excited the esteem of On the other hand, the philosopher, loftily the generation succeeding that which so comdespising the spirit which would not worship pletely overlooked it, than this one of the truth for truth's sake, made no effort to quick-true composition of water. Each of its conen its perceptions, but wrapped himself up in sequences has been admired as they succes a comfortable sense of superiority, and his sively came into play; each step of preceding own somewhat selfish enjoyments. Thus it investigation has been fondly dwelt upon. often happened, that the period, with reason cannot then be surprising that the question, termed by the man of science the most bril- To whom do we owe this capital discovery? liant era of discovery, was derided by a pro- should have been repeatedly proposed; but fessed utilitarian as utterly profitless. it does appear strange that such a question, relating to a fact not more than sixty years
Nobody now doubts that every new truth