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was sent me on Mr. Nelehorpe; but the sur-bitious estimate so small, that they shrank plus of it exceeding much the expense I have from representing a borough, as much as the
been at on this occasion, I desire you to make borough from the dignity of being represent· use of it, and of me, upon any other oppor-ed ; and expressed their aversion with as tunity.'*
much sincerity as ever primitive Bishop, in In one of his letters he makes the follow- times of hot persecution, cried “Nolo Epising declaration, which we have no doubt was copari.' Nay, there are authentic cases on perfectly sincere, and, what is still more record, in which the candidates fairly ran strange, implicitly believed :—'I shall, God away from the proffered dignity, and even willing, maintain the same incorrupt mind resisted it vi et armis. Strange revolutions ! and clear conscience, free from faction or any we are ready to exclaim, that a man should self-ends, which I have, by his grace, hitherto now be willing to spend a fortune even in preserved.'+
the unsuccessful pursuit of an honor which We have said that these letters are also his ancestors were reluctant to receive even interesting as incidentally illustrating parlia- when paid for it; and that constituencies mentary usage. Marvell was one of the last should resist, as the last insult and degrada-if not the very last—who received the tion, that disfranchisement which many of wages which members were entitled by law them in ancient times would have been but to demand of their constituents. To this too happy to accept as a privilege ! subject he makes some curious references. In such a state of things we can hardly On more than one occasion it appears, that wonder, that the attendance of members was members had sued their constituents for not very prompt and punctual, or that great arrears of pay; while others had threatened difficulty was often found in obtaining a full to do so, unless the said constituents agreed House. Severe penalties were threatened at to re-elect them at the next election. To- various times against the absentees. In one day,' says he in a letter dated March 3, letter we are told— The House was called 1676-7, Sir Harbotle Grimstone, Master of yesterday, and gave defaulters a fortnight's the Rolls, moved for a bill to be brought in, time, by which, if they do not come up, to indemnify all counties, cities, and bo- they may expect the greatest severity." In roughs for the wages due to their members for another— The House of Commons was tathe time past, which was introduced by him ken up for the most part yesterday in calling upon very good reasons, both because of the over their House, and have ordered a letter poverty of many people not able to supply so to be drawn up from the Speaker to every long an arrear, especially new taxes now place for which there is any defaulter, to coming upon them, and also because Sir signify the absence of their member, and a John Shaw, the Recorder of Colchester, had solemn letter is accordingly preparing, to be sued the town for his wages; several other signed by the Speaker. This is thought a members also having, it seems, threatened sufficient punishment for any modest man ; their boroughs to do the same, unless they nevertheless, if they shall not come up hereshould choose them, upon another election, to upon, there is a further severity reserved.'t Parliament.'\ The conditions of re-election More than once we find a proposition, that are assuredly strangely altered now-it is no these absentees should be punished by being longer possible to drive so thrifty a bargain, compelled to pay double proportions toward or bribe after so ingenious a fashion. But the never-ending subsidies. One member these 'wages, moderate as they were-only proposed that the mulcts thus extorted from about two shillings a-day to a member of a negligent or idle senators, should be excluborough, and to a county member four-were sively employed in building a ship, to be in some cases alleged to be so heavy a tax, called The Sinner's Frigate—an ill-boding that instances occur of unpatriotic boroughs name, and applicable only to a vessel begging to be disfranchised, to escape the burdensome honor of sending members to
* Built in the eclipse, and rigg'd with curses dark.' Parliament! Nor was the reluctance always
Though the law-makers of that age were on one side. At earlier periods of our his
paid at little more than the rate of a journeytory, we have accounts of members who, notwithstanding this liberal pay-about that of man tailor of modern times, their perform a hedger and ditcher in these more luxurious ances, if estimated by their value, were greatly
overpaid. When we see in Marvell's corresdays found the inconveniences of membership so great, and the honor in their unam-ployed-shamefully betraying the nation with
pondence how the House was frequently emthe groaning people to support the royal prof-tellers for the aves chanced to be very ill ligacy-ingeniously contriving the most elab- reckoners, so that they were forced to tell orate and comprehensive methods of ruin, several times over in the House; and when and pursuing the worst ends by the worst at last the tellers for the ayes would have means—diminishing, by their absurd enact- agreed the noes to be 142, the noes would ments in relation to trade and commerce, needs say that they were 143; whereupon that very revenue which was almost their sole those for the ayes would tell once more, and object of solicitude-addressing the King, then found the noes to be indeed but 129, that he will be pleased to abstain from wear- and the ayes then coming in proved to be ing one shred of foreign manufacture, and to 138, whereas if the noes had been content discountenance the use of it in his subjects, with the first error of the tellers, Sir George bringing in bills that all Nonconformists had been quit upon that observation."* shall pay double taxes, and that all persons The following sounds odd— Yesterday, shall be buried in woollens' for the next six upon complaint of some violent arrests made or seven years'—and other things of a similar in several churches, even during sermon nature, we cannot forbear lifting up our hands time, nay, of one taken out betwixt the bread in astonishment at the vaunted wisdom of our and the cup in receiving the sacrament, the ancestors.
whose intereststhey were in trusted-taxing Marvell's Letters, p. 276. # Ibid. p. 210. # Ibid. p. 289. * Marvell's Letters, p. 117.
House ordered that a bill be brought in for Some strange scenes appear now and then better observing the Lord's Day.'+ to have occurred in the Commons, and worthy " To William Ramsden, Esq.-I think I rather of an Arkansas House of Assembly have not told you that, on our bill of subsidy, than of a British Parliament. The following the Lord Lucas made a fervent bold speech is an example; though, as usual in such against our prodigality in giving, and the squabbles, the 'Pickwickian construction of weak looseness of the government, the King all offensive words seems to have prevailed at being present; and the lord Clare another to last. 'One day, upon a dispute of telling persuade the King that he ought not to be right upon division, both parties grew so hot present. But all this had little encouragethat all order was lost; men came running ment, not being seconded. Copies going up confusedly to the table, grievously affronted about every where, one of them was brought one by another; every man's hand on his into the Lords' house, and Lord Lucas was hilt, quieted though at last, by the prudence asked whether it was his. He said, part was of the Speaker; every man in bis place be- and part was not. Thereupon they took ading obliged to stand up and engage his honor, vantage, and said it was a libel even against not to resent any thing of that day's proceed- Lucas himself. On this they voted it a libel,
and to be burned by the hanginan, which The disputes with the Lords were frequent, was done; but the sport was, the hangman and difficult of adjustment. The following burned the Lords' order with it. I take the is a droll complication of their relations, and last quarrel betwixt us and the Lords to be almost as hopeless as the dead-lock' in the as the ashes of that speech.'I Critic. I have no more time than to tell you, Not seldom, to the very moderate 'wages' that the Lords having judged and fined the of a legislator, was added some homely exEast India Company, as we think illegally, pression of good-will on the part of the conupon the petition of one Skyner, a merchant, stituents. That of the Hull people generally and they petitioning us for redress, we have appeared in the shape of a stout cask of ale, imprisoned him that petitioned them, and for which Marvell repeatedly returns thanks. they have imprisoned several of those that In one letter he says, We must first give petitioned us.
It is a business of you thanks for the kind present you have very high and dangerous consequence.'t pleased to send us, which will give occasion
One or two other brief extracts from these to us to remember you often; but the quanletters seem not unworthy of insertion. The tity is so great that it might make sober men following is a curious example of the odd forgetful.'J accidents on which the most important events Marvell's correspondence extends through depend. Sir G. Carteret had been charged nearly twenty years. From June 1661, there with embezzlement of public money. The is, however, a considerable break, owing to House dividing upon the question, the ayes his absence for an unknown period-probawent out, and wondered why they were bly about two years—in Holland. He showed kept out so extraordinary a time; the ayes little disposition to return till Lord Bellasis, proved 138, and the noes 129; and the rea- then high steward of Hull, proposed to that son of the long stay then appeared :--The
* Marrell's Letters, p. 125, 126. t Ibid. p. 189. *Marvell's Letters, p. 426. tIbid. p. 106 # Ibid. p. 416.
SIbid. p. 14, 15.
worthy corporation to choose a substitute for royal dignity. On the morning after the their absent member. They replied that he above-mentioned interview, he sent Lord was not far off, and would be ready at their Danby to wait on the patriot with a special gummons. He was then at Frankfort, and at message of regard. His lordship had some the solicitation of his constituents immedi- difficulty in ferrering out Marvell's residence; ately returned, April 1663.
but at last found him on a second floor, in a But he had not been more than three dark court leading out of the Strand. It is months at home, when he intimates to his said, that groping up the narrow staircase, he correspondents his intention to accept an in- stumbled against the door of Marvell's humvitation to accompany Lord Carlisle, who ble apartment, which, flying open, discovered had been appointed ambassador-extraordinary him writing. A little surprised, he asked his to Russia, Sweden, and Denmark. He for- lordship with a smile if he had not mistaken mally solicits the assent of his constituents his way. The latter replied in courtly to this step, urges the precedents for it, and phrase— No; not since I have found Mr. assures them that during his watchful col- Marvell. He proceeded to inform him that league's attendance, his own services may be he came with a message from the King, who easily dispensed with. His constituents con- was impressed with a deep sense of his mesented; he sailed in July, and appears to have rits, and was anxious to serve him. Marvell been absent rather more than a year. We replied with somewhat of the spirit of the find him in his place in the Parliament that founder of the Cynics, but with a very difassembled at Oxford, 1665.
ferent manner, 'that his Majesty had it not In 1671, for some unknown reason, there in his power to serve him.'* Becoming is another hiatus in his correspondence. It more serious, however, he told his lordship extends over three years. From 1674, the that he well knew that he who accepts court letters are regularly continued till his death. favor is expected to vote in its interest. On There is no proof that he ever spoke in Par- his lordship's saying, “that his Majesty only liament; but it appears that he made copious desired to know whether there was any place notes of all the debates.
at court he would accept;' the patriot replied, The strong views which Marvell took on that he could accept nothing with honor, public affairs—the severe, satirical things for either he must treat the King with ingratwhich he had said and written from time to itude, by refusing compliance with court time—and the conviction of his enemies, measures, or be a traitor to his country by that it was impossible to silence him by the yielding to them. The only favor, therefore, usual methods of a place or a bribe, must he begged of his Majesty, was to esteem him have rendered a wary and circumspect con- as a loyal subject, and truer to his interests duct very necessary. In fact, we are in- in refusing his offers than he could be by acformed that on more than one occasion he cepting them. His lordship having exhausted was menaced with assassination. But, though this species of logic, tried the argumentum hated by the Court party generally, he was as ad crumenam, and told him that his Majesty generally feared, and in some few instances requested his acceptance of £1,000. But respected. Prince Rupert continued to hon- this, too, was rejected with firmness; or him with his friendship long after the rest 'though,' says his biographer, 'soon after of his party had honored him by their hatred, the departure of his lordship, Marvell was and occasionally visited the patriot at his compelled to borrow a guinea from a friend.' lodgings. When he voted on the side of In 1672 commenced Marvell's memorable Marvell, which was not infrequently the case, controversy with Samuel Parker, afterwards it used to be said that he had been with his Bishop of Oxford, of which we shall give a tutor. Inaccessible as Marvell was to flattery and
* Another and less authentic version of this anecoffers of preferment, it certainly was not for deed, but on that very account, in our judgment,
dote has been given, much more circumstantial inwant of temptations. The account of his more apocryphal. But if the main additions to memorable interview with the Lord Treasur- the story be fictions, they are amongst those fictions er Danby has been often repeated, and yet it which have gained extensive circulation only bewould be unpardonable to omit it here. Mar- cause they are felt to be not intrinsically improba
ble. We have been at some pains to investigate vell, it appears, once spent an evening at the origin of this version ; but can trace it no furCourt, and fairly charmed the merry monarchther than to a pamphlet printed in Ireland about by his accomplishments and wit. At this we the middle of the last century. Of this we have need not wonder : Charles loved wit above not been able to get a perusal. Suffice it to say,
that the version it contains of the above interview, all things—except sensual pleasure. To
and which has been extensively circulated, is not his admiration of it, especially the humorous borne out by the early biographies; for example, species, he was continually sacrificing his that of Cooke, 1726.
May, 1844. 8
somewhat copious account. To this it is en-conscience, they might have forborne to entitled from the important influence which it force, they remorselessly urged on those who had on Marvel's reputation and fortunes; solemnly declared that without such a violaand as having led to the composition of that tion they could not comply. More tolerant work on which his literary fame, so far as he of acknowledged vice than of supposed error, has any, principally depends-we mean the drunkenness and debauchery were venial, Rehearsal Transprosed.
compared with doubts about the propriety of Parker was one of the worst specimens of making the sign of the cross in baptism, or the highest of the high churchmen of the using the ring in marriage; and it would reign of Charles II. It is difficult in such have been better for a man to break half the times as these to conceive of such a charac- commands in the decalogue, than admit a teras, by universal testimony, Parker is doubt of the most frivolous of the church's proved to have been. Even Addison's Tory rites. Equally truculent and servile, they Fox-hunter—who thought there had been no displayed to all above them a meanness pro'good weather since the revolution, and who portioned to the insolence they evinced to all proceeded to descant on the “fine days they below them. While holding the same high used to have in King Charles II.'s reign;' church extravagances with their modern sucwhose dog was chiefly endeared to him be- cessors, they were far from participating in cause he had once like to have worried a the same jealousy of the state, which they dissenting teacher; and who had no other were ready to arm with the most despotic aunotion of religion but that it consisted in thority. They formally invested the monarch hating Presbyterians'-does not truly repre- with absolute power over the consciences of sent him. Such men could not well flourish his subjects; and, with a practice in harmoin any other age than that of Charles II. ny with their principles, were ready at any Only in such a period of unblushing profli- moment, (if they had had any,) to surrender gacy—of public corruption, happily unex- their own. As far as appears, they would ampled in the history of England-could we have been willing to embrace the faith of expect to find a Bishop Parker, and his pa- Mahometans or Hindoos at the bidding of tron and parallel, Archbishop Sheldon. The his Majesty; and to believe and disbelieve high churchmen of that day managed to com- as he commanded them. Extravagant as all bine the most hideous bigotry, with an utter this may appear, we shall shortly see it absence of seriousness-a zeal worthy of a gravely propounded by Parker himself. It • Pharisee' with a character which would was fit that those who were willing to offer have disgraced a 'Publican.' Apparently as such vile adulation, should be suffered to preattached to the veriest minutiæ of their high sent it to such an object as Charles II.—that church orthodoxy as any of the sincere big- so grotesque an idolatry should have as groots of the present Oxford School—they tesque an idol. As it was, the god was every gave reason to their very friends to doubt way worthy of the worshippers. In a word, whether they did not secretly despise even these men seemed to reconcile the most opthe cardinal doctrines of Christianity.* posite vices and the widest contrarieties; Scarcely Christians in creed, and any thing bigotry and laxity—pride and meanness-rerather than Christians in practice, they yet ligious scrupulosity and mocking skepticism insisted on the most scrupulous compliance --a persecuting zeal against conscience, and with the most trivial points of ceremonial ; an indulgent latitudinarianism towards vice and persisted in persecuting thousands of de--the truculence of tyrants, and the sycovout and honest men, because they hesitated phancy of parasites. to obey. Things which they admitted to be Happily the state of things which generatindifferent, and which, without violation of ed such men has long since passed away. * Of Sheldon, Bishop Burnet says, that he seems ship were not infrequent in the age of
But examples of this sort of high churchmannot to have had any clear sense of religion, if at all.' Of Parker
' he speaks yet more strongly. Charles II. ; and perhaps Bishop Parker But perhaps the most striking testimony is that of a may be considered the most perfect specimen Jesuit, Father Edward Petre, cited by Mr. Dove. of them. His father was one of Oliver CromHe says, the Bishop of Oxford has not yet de-well's most obsequious committee-men; his clared himself openly; the great obstacle is his wife, whom he cannot rid himself of: though I do son, who was born in 1640, was brought up not see how he can be further useful to us in the in the principles of the Puritans, and was religion he is in, because he is suspected, and of no sent to Oxford in 1659. He was just twenty esteem among the heretics of the English Church at the Restoration, and immediately com... If he had believed my counsel, which was to menced and soon completed his transformabetter.' Surely this Jesuit and his pupil were well tion into one of the most arrogant and timematched for honesty.
serving of high churchmen.
Some few propositions, for which he came ly uncharitable even to his own previous erearnestly to contend as for the faith once de- rors, and maligning and abusing all who still livered to the Saints, may give an idea of the retain them, it is impossible to doubt the principles and the temper of this worthy suc- motives which have animated him. On this cessor of the Apostles. He affirms, "That subject Marvell himself well observesunless Princes have power to bind their sub- Though a man be obliged to change a hunjects to that religion they apprehend most dred times backward and forward, if his judgadvantageous to public peace and tranquillity, ment be so weak and variable, yet there are and restrain those religious mistakes that tend some drudgeries that no man of honor would to its subversion, they are no better than put himself upon, and but few submit to it if statues and images of authority-That in they were imposed; as, suppose one had thought cases and disputes of public concernment, fit to pass over from one persuasion of the private men are not properly sui juris; they Christian religion into another, he would not have no power over their own actions; they choose to spit thrice at every article that he are not to be directed by their own judgments, relinquished, to curse solemnly his father and or determined by their own wills, but by the mother for having educated him in those opicommands and the determinations of the pub- nions, to animate his new acquaintances to lic conscience : and that if there be any sin the massacring of his former comrades. in the command, he that imposed it shall an- These are businesses that can only be expectswer for it, and not I, whose whole duty it is ed from a renegade of Algiers and Tunis;—to to obey. The commands of authority will overdo in expiation, and gain better credence warrant my obedience ; my obedience will hal- of being a sincere Mussulman.* low, or at least ercuse my action, and so se- Marvell gives an amusing account of the cure me from sin, if not from error; and in progress of Parker's conversion of the transall doubtful and disputable cases 'tis better formation by which the maggot became a carto err with authority, than to be in the right rion-fly. In the second part of the Rehearsal, against it: That it is absolutely necessary to after a humorous description of his parentage the peace and happiness of kingdoms, that and youth, he tells us that at the Restoration there be set up a more severe government he came to London, where he spent a conover men's consciences and religious persua- siderable time in creeping into all corners and sions than over their vices and immoralities ; companies, horoscoping up and down' (' asand that princes may with less hazard give trologizing' as he elsewhere expresses it) liberty to men's vices and debaucheries than concerning the duration of the government; their consciences.'*
—not considering any thing as best, but as He must have a very narrow mind or un- most lasting, and most profitable. And after charitable heart, who cannot give poor hu- having many times cast a figure, he at last man nature credit for the sincere adoption satisfied himself that the Episcopal governof the most opposite opinions. Still there are ment would endure as long as this King lived, limits to this exercise of charity; there may be and from thenceforward cast about how to be such a concurrence of suspicious symptoms, admitted into the Church of England, and find that our charity can be exercised only at the the highway to her preferments. In order to expense of common sense. We can easily this, he daily enlarged not only his conversaconceive, under ordinary circumstances, Dis- tion but his conscience, and was made free senters becoming Churchmen, and Church- of some of the town vices; imagining, like men becoming Dissenters; Tories and Muleasses, King of Tunis, (for I take witness Whigs changing sides; Protestants and Ro- that on all occasions I treat him rather above manists, like those two brothers mentioned in his quality than otherwise,) that, by hiding Locke's second Letter on Toleration,'ť so hinself among the onions, he should escape expert in logic as to convert one another, and being traced by his perfumes.'t
. Marvell then, unhappily, not expert enough to con- sketches the early history and character of vert one another back again—and all with Parker in both parts of the Rehearsal--though, out any suspicion of insincerity. But when as might be expected, with greater severity we find very great revolutions of opinion, at in the second than in the first. A few ludithe same time very sudden, and exquisitely crous sentences may not displease the reader. well-timed in relation to private interest ;when we find these changes, let them be what they may, al ways, like those of the heliotrope, had read Don Quixote and the Bible, besides
'This gentleman, as I have heard, after he towards the sun ;—when we find a man utter- such school-books as were necessary for his age,
· The Rehearsal Transprosed.-Vol. I. pp. 97, 98, 99, 100, 101.
Rehearsal Trasprosed.-Vol. I. pp. 91, 92. 3 | Locke's Works. — Vol. V. p. 79.
# Ibid. vol II. pp. 77, 78.