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LONDON, SATURDAY, OCTOBER 3, 1863.
NOTES:- Mrs. Hemans's "Forgeries," 261-The Carmichaels of Carspherne, &c., 262- Shakspeariana : "The Merchant of Venice" Shakspeare Genealogy Shakspeare Jubilee-Shakspeare's original Vocation, Ib. MINOR NOTES:- William Law and David Pringle-Lord Hervey's Memoirs: "duchtich" - Thomas GardnerMonumental Inscription from Schiller-Singular State of a Parish: Upper Eldon- Dresses of Court Ladies in Scotland- Curious Error in De Quincey-The last Prayer of Beatrice Cenci, 265. QUERIES: Anonymous :-Archidiaconal Visitations in Ireland-Bishops' Robes -- Charity Coal Crest William Crossley - Drama Epitaph at Ewerby, co. Lincoln Epigram Executions for Murder Family History-Benjamin Gale- Garnier: Théorie élémentaire des Transversales"-A Goose Tenure-Half-way Tree and the French Tailor's Motion - N. Hawksmore Paul Jones - Duke of Kingston's Regiment, 1745- William Middleton, Esq.-Nottinghamshire IncumbentsParty-Peacock Family, &c., 267.
QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:-"Woo'd and married and a' Book of Sports-Theodore Paleologus-Quotation Wanted "Pylgrimage of Perfection" Eurasian Satirical Ballad Paston Letters," 270. REPLIES: Sir Francis Drake, 271-"Scoticisms: "Beattie: David Hume, 272-"Sharp's Sortie from Gibraltar," 273- Albion and her white Roses, 274- Herod I. surnamed the Great, 275- Booterstown, near Dublin - Saxon Sundial at Bishopston, near Newhaven, Sussex - Aërostation-Court Costumes of Louis XIII.- Prayers for the Dead-Riddle-Dickens and Thackeray-Lady's Dress Miller of the Dee"-Quotation - Stonehenge - Regiomontanus, &c., 276. Notes on Books, &c.
MRS. HEMANS'S "FORGERIES."
In the touching Memoir prefixed to the collected edition of Mrs. Hemans's Works (Wm. Blackwood & Sons, 1839) by her equally gifted sister, the late Mrs. Owen, who wedded some of the sweetest lyrics of which the English language can boast to music of a kindred character, there is an interesting account of a jeu d'esprit, which Mrs. Hemans used to call her "sheet of forgeries." While on a visit to Liverpool, a gentleman requested her to furnish him with some authorities from the old English writers for the use of the word "barb," as applied to a steed. She very shortly supplied him with the following imitations, for which (as I have never seen them noticed elsewhere) you may find a corner in the pages of "N. & Q." The mystification succeeded completely, and was not discovered until some time afterwards:
"The warrior donn'd his well-worn garb,
He mounted on his jet-black barb,
And put his lance in rest.'
"Eftsoons the wight, withouten more delay,
Spurr'd his brown barb, and rode full swiftly on his
"Hark! was it not the trumpet's voice I heard?
The soul of battle is awake within me!
"No sooner had the pearl-shedding fingers of the young Aurora tremulously unlocked the oriental portals of the golden horizon, than the graceful flower of chivalry, and the bright cynosure of ladies' eyes-he of the dazzling breast-plate and swanlike plume-sprung impatiently from the couch of slumber, and eagerly mounted the the noble barb presented to him by the Emperor of Aspromontania."-Sir Philip Sidney's Arcadia. "See'st thou yon chief whose presence seem to rule The storm of battle? Lo! where'er he moves Death follows. Carnage sits upon his crestFate on his sword is throned-and his white barb, As a proud courser of Apollo's chariot, Seems breathing fire." Potter's Eschylus.
"Oh! bonnie look'd my ain true knight
I watch'd him till my tearfu' sight
"Why, he can heel the lavolt and wind a fiery barb as well as any gallant in Christendom. He's the very pink and mirror of accomplishment."-Shakspeare.
"Fair star of beauty's heaven! to call thee mine, All other joys I joyously would yield;
My knightly crest, my bounding barb resign
For the poor shepherd's crook and daisied field;
"For thy dear love my weary soul hath grown
"As a warrior clad
THE CARMICHAELS OF CARSPHERNE,
AND THEIR CONNECTION WITH THE HOUSE OF THAT ILK.
In Burke's Visitation of Seats and Arms in Great Britain, under the head of "Coulthart of Coulthart," is given a pedigree with arms differing in bearings from any others ever assigned to the name by Scottish Heralds, purporting to manifest the genealogy of a family whose connection with the main stock of Carmichael I have yet to learn, and for information thereof I shall feel much indebted to any correspondent of" N. & Q." And first, as to the arms. Nisbet explicitly declares that the surname of Carmichael "beareth a fesse tortilé, az. and gu."; but this Carspherne line is made to exhibit quite another coat,-" Arg. on a bend cotised sa. a tilting spear proper." The similarity appears to be somewhat like that of Monmouth and Macedon,-the field being in both cases argent," though in some branches varied to "or." There is no express statement that the materials for the arms and descent of this family are drawn from the charter-chests of Coulthart, otherwise, as the chief of that name is enrolled among the Society of Antiquaries, more confidence would be placed in the description. It is remarkable that no attempt whatever is made in the Visitation of Seats to account for the origin of the Carspherne family, or to connect it with the chief line in Clydesdale. The discovery, such as it is, was apparently reserved to Mr. Lower, in his Patronymica Britannica, s.v. "Carmichael," where he says it is " a local name, derived from a barony in Lanarkshire, which was held by the family in the twelfth century, and from them" (i. e. the Carmichaels of that ilk) "probably descended the Carmichaels of Carspherne. See Knowles's Genealogy of Coulthart." The work referred to I have not yet met with, and should be glad to know whether it was publicly or only privately printed, and if accessible, from what sources it is compiled, and how far trustworthy. I should also like to know where I may find evidence that the ancestors of the house of Carmichael held the lands of that name as a barony so early as the twelfth century, for Douglas only gives William (he should have said John) de Carmychel as having a charter of the lands of Carmichael from William, Earl of Douglas and
[* Only seventy-five copies of this work were printed for private circulation. It is entitled "A Genealogical and Heraldic Account of the Coultharts of Coulthart and Collyn, Chiefs of the name, from their first settlement in Scotland, in the reign of Conarus, to the year of our Lord 1854; to which are added, the pedigrees of seven other Families, that, through Heiresses, became incorporated with the House of Coulthart. By George Parker Knowles,
Genealogist and Heraldic Artist. Derived from the Family Muniments. Roy. 8vo, 1855." The copy in the British Museum is printed on vellum.-ED.]
Mar, then superior thereof, circ. 1350. But Burke places at the top of the Carspherne tree one "Hector de Carmichael, who grants the lands of Craighead, A.D. 1141," from whom descends a another David, three generations lower, has a "David, engaged in fisheries on the Ayr Coast"; son Robert, killed on the Bruce's side at Inverury, and another son, Walter (by a second marriage with the daughter of Sir Jas. Douglas), who marries a Stewart of Dalswinton, and is father of Sir James Carmichael," called of Carspherne in a mortgage of 1379." Sir James is spoken of as "distinguished at Otterburn, and knighted by Robert II.," marrying Rachel Ramsay of Dalhousie, he has an only son Sir Richard, "tenth and last recorded heir male," who weds, 1419, Anne, daughter of Sir David, Chancellor of Quodtion of his family is carried, so runs the story, and having no male issue, the representaquan; into two ancient houses, by the marriage of the eldest coheiress to Sir Roger de Coulthart, "chief of his name, contract dated St. Oswald's Day, 1447;" while the second daughter becomes wife of Gilbert, son of Sir James Douglas of Loudon, ancestor of the Earls of Morton," between whose family and the Carmichaels of Hyndford there was much alliance in later days. I may notice that the motto " Toujours Prest," borne by that Ilk and its branches is given to the Carspherne line; I know not how far back it can be traced distinctly. Moreover, the 'spear in the crest is borne "entire," whereas all the other families of the name, being descended from Sir John de Carmichael, who broke his lance against the Duke of Clarence at the Battle of Beaugé, have it "broken." There has been much variety in the orthography of this surname. "Kirkmichael" is found in the Scotichronicon;
66 St. Michell" in Hume of Godscroft. Johannes de Scto. Michaeli," A.D. 1296, also a (Qy. Was "Dominus Carmichael? See Nisbet, App. Ragman Roll.) Pinkerton says, in the Preface to his Scotch Poetry, laverock (=Carlaverock), are two of the oldest that Caër-michael (= Carmichael), and CuërCeltic names in Scotland? By Celtic he must mean Brito-Celtic, as "Caer is a Cymric and not a Gaelic form. CHAS. H. E. CARMICHAEL. The College, Isle of Cumbrae, near Greenock, N.B.
"THE MERCHANT OF VENICE."*
In reply to the remarks made on my change of table for temple, I will observe that, be the custom what it might be in the Middle Ages, Shakespeare was no antiquary; and in his plays, no matter
* 3rd S. iv. 201.
where the scene lay, the manners are those of England in his own time. Now, in the days of Elizabeth, the idea of going to a church to administer an oath would have been merely ridiculous, and Shakespeare, with his knowledge of law, would rather have talked of going before a justice for the purpose. Further, it would appear from Act II. Sc. 9, that the oath was administered immediately before the choosing of the casket.
As to what MR. SWIFTE says of " to the table" being more germane to the hospitalities of a farm-house," I grant it would be so in these days; but language alters, and our ancestors used table where we have different phrases. The word is used by Hamlet, Macbeth, and others of our poet's most exalted characters. As to MR. SWIFTE's reading of an "Indian deity" for an "Indian beauty," few, I think, will adopt it, and Shakespeare probably knew nothing of the Indian deities, whether they were handsome or not. Instead of feature being merely "Ben-Jonsonian" and "too pedantic for our poet," I beg to remind MR. SWIFTE that our poet uses it sixteen times, and always in the sense of form, figure, person. I doubt indeed if features was used in his time of the traits of the countenance.
Though I acknowledge that MR. SWIFTE's reading of "I pray you, think you question with a Jew," may make sense, I cannot receive it. I
doubt if there be an instance of "think" employed exactly in this manner in Shakespeare. The germane phrase would be "bethink you." Moreover, I doubt if Antonio or the poet would cast such an imputation on the whole of the race which had produced the gentle Jessica. I have asked sundry persons about this passage, and they have all confessed that they had never understood it. I found that "think" was usually taken in the sense of imagine, suppose, not of recollect, perpend, as by MR. SWIFTE. We may observe that the "question" with the Jew was going on "fast and furious," and it was more natural for Antonio to say Stop, than Reflect, to his friend.
"Britomart fights with many knights,
Prince Arthur stints their strife.”—F. Q. iv. 9. As to my falling into the " snare set by the editors of the second folio, in attempting to restore lost words, I beg to assure MR. EASY that I have had too much experience of printers not to know how they both add and subtract. Ex. gr. there never was a work more carefully read than my own Library Edition of the Poems of Milton, not only by myself, but by Mr. J. E. Taylor, the printer, and a most excellent reader in his office, and yet we meet in it the following line
"Flown the upper World; the rest were all,"
where to had been left out after "flown"; and yet it escaped us all. Further, in a reprint of Fletcher's Purple Island, I met the following final line of stanza xii. 85,
"In th' own fair silver shines and borrow'd goldwhich I corrected to
"In th' one fair silver shines and fairer borrowed gold;" and on looking to the original edition, I found I was right. I could give many other instances to show that emendation is not mere hap-hazard or guess-work. And when we consider how villanously the Plays of Shakespeare were printed, emendation both as to sense and metre is the legitimate task of the critic. I agree with MR. EASY that " we should know the law of versification followed by Shakespeare"; but I believe there is no mystery about them, and that nothing is easier than to know them. I, however, utterly reject MR. EASY's system, which would make good verse of
"An age of poverty, from which ling'ring penance Of such mis'ry doth she cut me off," if it were for no other reason than that of does not bear the metric ictus. I am finally of opinion that no true poet ever wrote inharmonious verse, or perhaps even an inharmonious line. I wish, by the way, that our critics would free themselves from the decasyllabic incubus that lies so heavily upon them. "How often," says
Gifford, "will it be necessary to observe that our old dramatists never counted their syllables on their fingers! He knew that they proceeded by feet and ictus, and that their verses often run to twelve, thirteen, and even fourteen syllables, while they never, except at the beginning or end of a speech, contain less than ten. By the way, it is rather strange that Mr. Dyce seems not to be aware, with all his experience, of the frequency of the Alexandrine, or six-foot line, in the old dramatists.
I will treat the critics now to what is rather a rarity― a certain emendation. In Measure for Measure, Act III. Sc. 1, we read
"Nips youth in the head, and follies doth emmew,
Here the critics write of course a deal of nonsense, for the fact is, it is the falcon, and not the fowl, that is emmewed. The right word, then, is enew, teaze, torment, annoy, from ennuyer (?).
"How presently, upon the landing of the fowl, she [the falcon] came down like a stone, and enewed it, and suddenly got up again, and suddenly, upon a second landing, came down again, and missing of it in the downcome, recovered it beyond expectation, to the admiration of the beholder, at a long flight."-Nash, Quaternio, ap. Staunton on 2 Hen. VI. ii. 1.
That correction I hold to be absolutely certain, and to me the following in the same play is little less so:
"How might she tongue me! Yet reason dares her no;
"Did I not tell thee yea?"
Sam. Agon. v. 1729.
"Laf. Pardon, my lord, for me and for my tidings. King. I'll see thee to stand up."
All's Well, Act II. Sc. 1. "I'll see thee," is mere nonsense; and Pope's "I'll fee thee" is little better; and “I'll sue thee," but so-so. My opinion is, that the poet wrote "I beseech thee;" and the ch having been effaced in the MS. by damp, &c., the printer took the I be for Ile (the way I'll was then written), and so made "Ile see thee." I lately showed how in this way create became eat in Humlet, Act. III. Sc. 4. THOS. KEIGHtley.
Do manus: The Prince of Morocco was as good a Catholic as General Othello, or the King of Naples' Tunisian son-in-law; else would the heiress have negatived his chance of domiciling his harem in Belmont, and superseding her chaplain by a mufti.
Has MR. EASY, or any other commentator, observed in the much-sought Portia, the "nothing undervalued to Cato's daughter," a certain feminity, which our patresfamilias call changeableness, but which Shakspeare's heart-knowledge accounted perhaps a normal condition? When, in the protasis of this delightful drama, she and her confidante (how unlike the yea-and-nay confidantes of French tragedy!) are "over-naming' her several suitors, a young Venetian-he who afterwards came in for the casket prize-is incidentally mentioned, and her liking toward him skilfully foreshadowed, the Moor's approach is announced; her anticipation of whose southern tincture discredits his possible merit: "the condition of a saint" will not reconcile her to "the complexion of a devil." At their meeting, Desdemona-like, she professes to see his visage in his mind, were it not for her father's will, &c., &c.; and, when he misses in his choice, she hails his defeat with veritable Northern anti-negroism:
put up with "a box of the ear" from an Englishman; and also with its attestation under a Frenchman's hand: sufficient reasons for her mislike, but in the Caledonian's instance not very probable. The Merchant of Venice was, we know, mise en scène in Elizabeth's time, when the disparagement of Scotland and Scotsmen was a tolerably safe subject. But, I should like to be informed, was this bit of national ill-will—“regnante Jacobo Primo atque Sexto," expurgated from the prompter's copy? Personally, it would have much annoyed that pacific sovereign, who had so many quiet ways of satisfying his displeasures. Besides, a deserved imputation is always more readily taken in dudgeon than an undeserved. The satirist who called Trajan a
tyrant or perjurer, would have been forgiven: Tiberius would have swamped him in the Roman Guiana, or silently walked him down the Gemonian steps.
Not being rich in Shakspearian records, I refer me to some well supplied and equally well disposed possessor. EDMUND LENTHAL SWIFTE.
SHAKSPEARE GENEALOGY (3rd S. iv. 201.). All will agree with your correspondent M. N. S., "That the devices of heraldry are really able to lend substantial aid in the prosecution of biographical and historical investigation;" but to render these investigations helpful to truth, must not the premises be strictly true? I would ask M. N. S. and your other readers, whether, because the testator, John Arden, was "esquire for the body to Henry VII.," he therefore "was a gentleman (and esquire), and entitled to coat armour ?" I would further ask, whether the documents (which have been published by MR. COLLIER) show that Robert Arden of Wilmcote was not a gentleman, but a "husbandman" only in the year 1550. Are the words not a gentleman and only the conclusions of M. N. S., or are they the words of the documents ?
called the world to worship on the banks
On that occasion, too, the words of the beautiful
"Thou soft-flowing Avon, by thy silver stream,
Of things more than mortal sweet Shakspeare would
Now angels by moonlight dance round his green bed;
No doubt many contributors to, and readers of "N. & Q." are looking forward with pleasure to the Shakspeare Commemoration next year.
OXONIENSIS. P.S. Was any collection of the odes recited, and of copies of verses written at the Jubilee in the last century preserved?
SHAKSPEARE'S ORIGINAL VOCATION.—I recollect reading, with great interest, Mr. Thoms's articles in "N. & Q." entitled, "Was Shakspeare ever a soldier?" About the same time Lord Campbell published a book endeavouring to prove that the poet had been bred to the law; an idea which some other writer had before adopted. Another author brought forward evidence from his writings that he was educated for the medical profession. Doubtless from the extent of knowledge which his works display, there is scarcely an avocation of which he was not master; and it would be an interesting inquiry, at this particular time, when preparations are being made to celebrate his three hundredth birth day, to record in your pages the various crafts and professions which from time to time have been attributed to him; with the titles and dates of the books, and the names of the authors who have supported the several conjectures. I anticipate an extensive catalogue, and both amusement and instruction to your readers. EDWARD Foss.
father's house; so as yow have been, I hope yow will
66 Temple, March 16, 1709.
gate, near prive garden, Chanell Roe,
in the same collection, may perhaps relate to a The "matter now in hand," from another epistle proposed marriage between Mr. James Pringle and Mrs. Santcolumb: a lady whose only objection was her inamorato's fancy for "women and wine," a propensity which the fair one can hardly be blamed for finding fault with. Her own relatives strongly objected to the connection, and predicted nothing short of constant misery; and she, despite her deep love, had nearly arrived at the same conclusion. She had no fortune, a fact known to her admirer; who, nevertheless, would willingly have taken her without a penny-but, alas! he was himself pretty much in the same predicament, having apparently no immediate forHe was, however, most anxious to do something for himself; and Anderson, who was evidently a kind-hearted and affectionate man, might, and probably did help him. Whether the lady and gentleman made up matters has not
been ascertained. The address to the care of "Mr. Brans," is meant to indicate Mr. Thomas Brand, a respectable London tradesman, with whom Mr. Anderson usually lodged when visiting
LORD HERVEY'S MEMOIRS: "DUCHTICH."— In the Poetical Epistle and Dramatic Scenes at Court by Lord Hervey, the word duchtich, as he writes it, occurs; upon which Croker remarks: "My German friends are not agreed as to the precise import of duchtich, which, however, from its use in p. 161, seems to mean shy." (Lord Hervey's Memoirs, ii. 148.) This word represents the Hanoverian pronunciation of the German word WILLIAM LAW AND DAVID PRINGLE.-In the tüchtig, and means able, able-bodied, stout, strong, fit, suitable, capable, useful. Lord Hervey was recent article (3rd S. iv. 151.) relative to William not a German scholar, for he also writes teufelisch, Law, the purchaser of Lauriston, it was conjec-teufflish" (diabolical), hundsnase, "huns-nas," tured that David Pringle, Mr. Law's debtor, was a relation of James Anderson. Upon looking through the large collection of Anderson's papers in the Advocates' Library, the correctness of the supposition is verified. Mr. Pringle was his brother-in-law, and the father of the writer of the following curious epistle:
troduces other words not to be found in classical feld, "felt," wechselbalg, "weckselbalch," and inGermany; but may be such provincialisms as were in occasional use by the family of George II.
T. J. BUCKTON.
THOMAS GARDNER. - Mr. Mackenzie Walcott, in his interesting volume entitled The East Coast of England, p. 47, gives the following quaint epitaph on Gardner, the historian of Dunwich, in