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mistress, without his or her consent, said master or mistress may pursue and recapture said apprentice, and bring him or her before any justice of the peace of the county, whose duty it shall be to remand said apprentice to the service of his or her master or mistress; and in the event of a refusal on the part of 'said apprentice so to return, then said justice shall commit said apprentice to the jail of said county, on failure to give bond, until the next term of the county court; and it shall be the duty of said court, at .he first term thereafter, to investigate said case, and if the court shall he of opinion that said apprentice left the employment of his or her master or mistress without good cause, to order him or her to be punished, as provided for the punishment of hired freedmen, as may be from time to time rovided for by law for desertion, until he or s e shall agree to return to his or her master or mistress: Provided, That the court may rant continuances, as in other cases: And provi ed further, That if the court shall believe that said apprentice had ood cause to guit his said master or mistress, t- e cOurt shall ischarge said a-pprentice‘from said indenture, and also enter a judgment against the master or mistress, for not more than one hundred dollars, for the use and benefit of said apprentice, to be collected on execution, as in other cases. SEc. 5 provides that if any person entice away any apprentice from his or er master or mis~ tress, or shall knowingly employ an apprentice, or furnish him or her food or clothing, without ‘ the written consent of his or her master or miss tress, or shall sell or give said apprentice ardent spirits without such consent, said person so offending shall be deemed guilty of a high misdemeanor, and shall on conviction thereof before the county court, be punished as provided for the punishment of persons enticing from their employer hired freedmen, free negroes, or mulattoes. Sec. 6 makes it the duty of all civil officers to report any minors within their respective counties to said probate court for a prenticeship. SEO. 9 provides that it shall he lawful for any freedman, free negro, or mulatto, having a minor child or children, to apprentice the said minor child or children as rovided for by this act.

$150.10 provides t at in all cases where the,

age of the freedman, free negro, or mulatto cannot be ascertained by record testimony, the judge of the county court shall fix the age.

The Vagrant Act, November 24, 1865.

SEC. 1 defines who are vagrants.

SEO. 2 provides that all freedmen, free negroes, and mulattoes in this State, over the age of eighteen years, found on the second Monday in January, 1866, or thereafter, with -no lawful employment or business, or found unlawfully assem ling themselves together, either in the day or night time, and all white persons so assembling with freedmcn, free negroes, or mulattoes, or usually issociating with freedmen, free negroes, or mulattoes on terms of equality, or living in adultery or fornication with a freedwoman, free negro, or mulatto, shall be deemed vagrants, and on conviction thereof shall be fined in the sum of not exceeding, in the case of a freedman, free negro or mulatto, fifty dollars, and a white man two hundred dollars, and im

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risoned, at the discretion of the court, the ree negro not exceeding ten days, and the white man not exceeding six months.

SEO. 3 gives all justices of the peace, mayors, and alder-men jurisdiction to try all questions of vagrancy, and it is made their duty to arrest parties violating any provisions of this act, investigate the charges, and, on conviction, unish as provided. It is made'the duty of all s erifls, constables, town constables, city marshals, and all like officers, to report to some officer having jurisdiction all violations of any of the provisions of this act, and it is made the duty of the county courts to inquire if an officer has neglected any of these duties, an if guilty to fine him not exceeding $100, to be paid into the county treasury.

SEO. 5 provides that all fines and forfeitures collected under the provisions of this act shall be paid into the county treasury for general county purposes, and in case any freedman, free negro or mulatto, shall fail for five days after the imposition of any fine or forfeiture upon him or her, for violation of any of the provisions of this act to pay the same, that it shall be, and is hereby made, the duty of the sheriff of the proper county to hire out said freedman, free negro or mulatto, to any person who willy for the shortest period of service, ay said fine or forfeiture and all costs: Provided), A reference shall be given to the employer, if t ere be one, in which case the employer shall be entitled to deduct and retain the amount so paid from the wages of such freedman, free negro or mulatto, then due or to become dIJG-g and in case such freedman, free negro or mulatto cannot be hired out, he or she may be dealt with as apau er.

SEO. 6 provides that the same duties and iabilities existing among white persons of this Statesliall attach to freedmen, free negroes and mulattoes, to support their indigent families and all colored aupers; and that in order to secure asupport igr such indi ent freedmen, free negroes and mulattoes, it s all be lawful, and it is

ereby made the duty of the boards of county police of each county in this State, to levy a poll or capitation tax on each and every freed— man, free negro or mulatto, between the ages of eighteen and sixty years, not to exceed the sum of one dollar annually to each erson so taxed, which tax when collected shall e paid into the county treasurcr's hands, and constitute a fund to be called the freedmen’s pauper fund, which shall be a plied by the commissioners of the

oor for tiie maintenance of the poor of the reednien, free negroes and mulattoes, of this State, under such regulations as may be estab~ lished by the boards of the county police in the respective counties of this State.

also. 7 provides that if any freedman, free negro or mula-tto shall fail or refuse to pay any tax levied according to the provisions of the sixth section of this act, it shall be prima facic evidence of vagrancy, and it shall be the duty of the sheriff to arrest. such freerlman, free negro or mulatto, or such persons refusing or neglecting to pay such tax, and proceed at once to hire, for the shortest time, such delin-pient tax-pnver to any one who Wlil pay the 881‘ tax, with the accruing costs, giving preference to the employer, if there be one.

An Act to confer Civil Rights on Freedman, and for other Purposes, November 25, 1865. Scenes 1 provides that all freedmen, free

negroes and mulattoes may sue and be sued, implead and be impleaded in all the courts of law and equity of this State, and may acquire personal property and choses in action by descent or pure ase, and may dispose of the same in the same manner and to the same extent that white persons may: Provided, That the provisions of this section shall not-be so construed as to allow any freedmen, free negro or mulatto to rent or lease any lands or tenements, except in incorporated towns or cities, in which places the corporate authorities shall control the same.

Sso. 2 provides that all freedmen, free negroes and mulattoes may intermarry with each other in the same manner and under the same regulations that are provided by law for white persons: Provided, That the clerk of probate shall keep separate records of the same.

SEC. 3 further provides that all freedmen, free negroes and mulattoes, who do now and have heretofore lived and cohabited together as husband and wife shall be taken and held in law as legally married, and the issue shall be taken and he (1 as legitimate for all purposes. That itshall not be lawful for any freedman, free negro or mulatto to intermarry with any white person; nor for any white person to intermarr with any freedman, free negro or mulatto; an any person who shall so intermarry shall be deemed guilty of felony, and on conviction thereof, shall be confined in the State enitentiary for life; and those shall be deemed freedmen, free negroes and mulattoes who are of pure negro blood, and those descended from a negro to the third generation, inclusive, thou h one ancestor of each generation ma have een a white erson.

SEO. provides that in a dition to cases in which freedmen, free negroes and mulattoes are now by law competent witnesses, freedmen, free negroes and mulattoes shall be competent in civrl cases, when a party or parties to the suit, either plaintiff or plaintiffs, defendantcr defendants; also iu cases where freedmen, free negroes and mulattoes are either plaintiff or plaintifl's, defendant or defendants, and a white person or white persons is or are the op osing party or parties, plaintiff or laintitfs, efendant or de

cndants. They shal also be competent witnesses in all criminal prosecutions where the crime charged is alleged to have been com— mitted by a white person upon or against the person or property of a freedman, free negro or mulatto: Provided, That in all cases said witnesses shall be examined in open court on the stand, except, however, the ma be examined before the grand jury, an shall in all cases be subject to the rules and tests of the common law as to competency and credibility.

SE0. 5 Jrovidcs that every freedman, free negro, and mulatto shall on the second Monday of January, one thousand eight hundred and sixt -six, and annually thereafter, have a lawful ome or employment, and shall have written evidence thereof, as follows, to wit: If living in any incorporated city, town, or village, a license from the mayor thereof, and if living outside of any incorporated city, town, or

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village, from the member of the board of police of his beat, authorizing him or her to do irregular and job work, or a written contract, as provided in section six of this act; which licenses may be revoked for cause at any time by the authority granting the same.

8120.6 rovides that all contracts for labor made with freedmen, free negroes, and mulattoes, for a longer period than one month, shall be in writin Y and in duplicate, attested and read to said freedmangfree negro, or mulatto by a beat, city, or county officer or two disinterested white persons of the county in which the labor is to be performed, of which each party shal have one; and said contracts shall be taken an held as entire contracts, and if the laborer shall quit the service of the employer before the expiration of his term of service without good cause, he shall forfeit his wages for that year up to the time of quittin .

SEC. 7. provi es that every civil officer shall, and every person may arrest and carry back to his or her legal employer any freedmen, free negro, or mulatto who s all have quit the service of his or her employer before the expiration of his or her term of service without good cause; and said officer and persor'i shall be entitled to receive for arrestin and carrying back ever deserting employé aforesaid the sum of five do lars, and ten cents per mile from the place of arrest to the place of delivery, and the same shall be paid by the employer and held as a set-off for so much against the wages of said deserting employé: Provided, That said arrested party after being so returned may appeal to a justice of the peace or member of the board of .the police of tie county, who, on notice to the alleged employer, shall tr , summarily, whether said appel ant is legal y em loyed by the alleged employer and has goo cause to quit said employer; either party shall have the ri ht of ap cal to the county court, pending which the a leged deserter shall be remanded to, the alleged employer, or otherwise disposed of as shall be right and just; and the decision of the county court shall be final.

SEO. 8 provides that upon affidavit made by the employer of any freedman, free negro, or mulatto, or other credible person, before an justice of the peace or member of the boar of olice, that any freedman, free negro, or mu atto, legally employed by said employer, has illegally deserted said employment, such justice of the peace or member of'the board of police shall issue his warrant or warrants, returnable before himself or other such ofiicer, directed to any sheriff, constable, or s ecial deputy, commanding him to arrest sai deserter and return him or her to said employer, and the like (proceedings shall be had as provrded in the prece ing section; and it shall be lawful for any officer to whom such warrant shall be directed to execute said warrant in any county of this State, and that said warrant may be transmitted without indorsement to any like officer of another county to be executed and returned as aforesaid, and the said employer shall pay the cost of said warrants and arrest and return, which shall be set off for so much against the wages of said deserter.

SEC. 9 provides that if an person shall persuade, or attempt to persua e, entice, or cause any frcedman, free negro, or mulatto to desert from the legal em loyment of any person before the expiration of is or her term of service, or shall knowingly employ any such deserting freedman, free ncgro, or mulatto, or shall knowingly give or sell to any such deserting freedman, free negro, or mulatto any food, raiment, or other thing, he or she shall be guilty of amisdemeanor, and upon conviction shall be fined not less than twenty-five dollars and not more than two hundred dollars and the costs; and if said fine and costs shall not be immediately paid, the court shall sentence said convict to not exceedin two months’ imprisonment in the county {:11 , and he or she shall, moreover, be liable to he party in'ured in damages: Provided, If any erson shall, or shall attempt to, persuade, enice, or cause any freedman, free negro, or mulatto to desert from any legal employment of any erson with the view to employ said freedman, ree negro, or mulatto without the limits of this State, such person, on conviction, shall be fined not less than fifty dollars and not morcr'than five hundred dollars and costs; and if said fine and costs shall not be immediately paid the court shall sentence said convict to not exceeding six months’ imprisonment in the conntyjail.

SEO. 10 provides that it shall be lawful for any freedman, free negro, or mulatto to charge any

'white erson, freedman, free negro, or mulatto, by afiigavit, with any criminal offence against his or her person or property, and upon such affidavit the proper process shall be issued and executed as if said ah'idavit was made by awhite

erson, and it shall be lawful for any freedman, 'ree negro, or mulatto, in any action, suit, or controversy ending or about to be instituted in any courtof aw or equity in this State, to make all needful and lawful affidavits as shall be necessary for the institution, prosecution, or defence of such suit or controversy.

SEo.11 provides that the penal laws of this State, in all cases not otherwise specially provided for, shall apply and extend to all freedmen, free negroes, and mulattoes.

An Act Supplementary to “An Act to confer Civil Rights upon Freedman," and for other purposes, December 2, 186?.

SEC. 1 provides that in every case where any white person has been arrested and brought to trial, by virtue of the provisions of the tenth section of the above recited act, in any court in this State, upon sufficient proof being made to the court or jury, u on the trial before said court, that any free man, free negro or mulatto has falsely and maliciously caused the arrest and trial of said White person or persons, the court shall render up a judgment avainst said freedman, free negro or mulatto for all costs of the case, and impose afine not to exceed fifty dollars, and imprisonment in the county jail not to exceed twenty days; and for'afailure of said freedmen, free negro or mulatto to pay, or cause to be paid, all costs,,fines and jail fees, the sheriff of the county is hereby authorized and required, after giving ten da s’ public notice, to proceed to hire out at pub ic outcry, at the court-house of the county, said freedman,

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free negro or mulatto, for the shortest time to raise the amount necessar todischarge said freedman, free negro or muihtto from all costs, fines, and jail fees aforesaid.

An Act to punish certain Offences therein named, and for other purposes, November 29, 1865SE0. 1. Be it enacted, &c., That no freedman,

free negro, or mulatto, not in the military service of the United States Government, and not licensed to do so by the board of police of his or her county, shall 'keep or carry fire—arms of any kind, or any ammunition, dirk, or bowie-knife; and on conviction thereof, in the county court, shall be punished by fine, not exceeding ten dollars, and pay the costs of such probeedings, and allsuch arms or ammunition shall be forfeited to the informer; and it shall be the duty of every civil and military officer to arrest any freedman, free negro, or mulatto found with any such arms or ammunition, and cause him to be committed for trial in default of bail.

SEO. 2. That any freedman, free negro, or mnlatto, committing riots, routes, adrays, trespasses, malicious mischief and cruel treatment to animals, seditious speeches, insulting gestures, language, or acts, or assaults on any person, disturbance of the peace, exercising the functions of a minister of t e gospel without a license from some regularly organized church, vending spirituous or intoxicating li uors, or committing any other misdemeanor, t e punishment of which is not specifically provided for by law, shall, u on conviction thereof, in the county court, be ned not less than ten dollars, and not more than one hundred dollars, and may be imprisoned, at the discretion of the court, not exceeding thirty days.

SEO. 3. That if any white person shall sell, lend, or give to any freedman, free negro, or mulatto, any fire-arms, dirk, or bowie-knife, or ammunition, 'or any spirituous or intoxicating liquors, such person or persons so offending, u on conviction thereof, in the county courtof his or or county, shall beiined not exceeding fifty dollars, and may be imprisoned, at the discretion of the ’ court, not exceeding thirty days.

SEO. 4. That all the penal and criminal laws now in force in this State, defining offences, and prescribing the mode of punishment for crimes and misdemeanors committed by slaves, free negroes or mulattoes, be and the same are hereby re-enacfed, and declared to be in full force and effect, against freedmen, free negroes, and mulattoes, except so far as the mode and manner of trial and punishment have been changed or altered by law.

SEC. 5. That if any freedman, free negro or mulatto, convicted of any of the misdemeanors provided against in this act, shall fail or refuse, for the space of five days after conviction, to pay the fine and costs imposed, such person shal be hired out by the sheriff or other officer, at public outcry, to any white person who will pay said fine and all costs, and take such convict for the shortest time.

GEORGIA

1865, December 15—Free persons of color are made competent witnesses in all courts in cases where a free erson of color is a party, or the offence charge is against the person or property

I

of a free person of color. Persons of color now living as husband and wife are declared to be so, except a man has two or more reputed wives, or a. wife two or more reputed husbands; in such event, they shall select one and the marriage ceremony be performed.

1866, Feb. 23—All male inhabitants, white and black, betWeen sixteen and fifty, subject to work on the public roads, except such as are speciall exempted.

Marc 'i—Any officer knowingly issuing any marriage license to ‘parties, either of whom is of African descent an the other a white person, lhall be guilty of amisdemeanor, and on conviction be fined from two hundred to five hundred dollars, or imprisoned for three months, or both. An officer or minister marrying such persons sha 1 be fined from five hundred to one thousand dollars, and imprisoned six months, or both.

March 9—That among persons of color the arent shall be required to maintain his or her 0 ildmn, whether legitimate or ille itimate. That children shall be subjected to t e same obligations, in relation to their parents, as those which existing relation to white persons. That every colored child hereafter born, is declared to be the legitimate child of his mother, and also of his colored father, if acknowledged by such father.

To Amend the Penal Code.

March 12—The 4,435th section of the Penal Code shall read as follows :

All persons wandering or strolling about in idleness, who are able to work, and who have no property to support them; all persons leading an idle, immoral, or profligate life, who

have no pro erty to support them, and are able'

to work an do not work; all persons able to work having no visible and known means of a fair, honest, and reputable livelihood; all persons having a fixed abode, who have no visible property to support them, and who live 1) steallng or by trading in, bartering for, or u ing stolen property; and all professional gam lers living in idleness, shall be deemed and considered va rants, and shall be indicted assuch, and it shall e lawful for any person to arrest said vagrants and have them bound over for trial to the next term of the county court, and upon conviction, they shall be fined and imprisoned or sentenced to work on the public works, for not longer than a. year, or shall, in the discretion of the court, be bound out to some person for a time not longer than one year, upon such valuable consideration as the court may prescribe ; ghe person giving bond in a sum not exceeding

30 , clothe and feed, and provide said convict with medical attendance for and during said time: Provided, That the defendant ma , at any time, before conviction, be discharge , upon paying costs and giving bond and security in asum not exceeding $200, payable to said court, and condition for the good behavior and industry of defendant for one year. .

March 8—The wilful and malicious burning of an occupied dwelling-house of another on a farm, or lantation, or elsewhere, shall be punished wit death ; also burglary in the night; also stealing a horse or mule, unless recommended by the jury to the mercy of the court.

payable to said court and conditioned to‘

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March 17—County courts organized, as in other States, for hearing of “cases arising out of the relation of master and servant, ’ &c. Where such cases shall go against the servant, the judgment for costs upon written notice to the master shall operate as a garnishment against him, and he shall retain a sufficient amount for the payment thereof, out of an wages due to said servant, or to become due uring the period of service, and may be cited at any time by the collecting officer to make answer thereto.

March l7—SEC. 1. That all nevroes, mulattoes, mestizoes, and their descendants having one eighth negro or African blood in their veins, shall be known in this State as “persons of color." .

2. That persons of color shall have the right to make and enforce contracts, to sue, be sued, to be parties and give evidence, to inherit, to purchase, lease, sell, hold, and convey real and

ersonal property, and to have full and equal lienefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of (person and estate, and shall not be subjecte to any other or different punishment, pain or penalty, for the commission of any act or offense, than such as are prescribed for white persons commit-ting like acts or offenses.

March 20—Orimes defined in certain sections named, as felonies are reduced below felonies, and all other crimes, punishable by fine or imprisonment or either, shall be likewise punishable by a fine not exceeding $1,000, imprisonment not exceeding six months, whippin not exceeding thirty-nine lashes, towork in a. c aingang on the public works not to exceed twelve months, and any one or more of these punishmtgnts may be ordered in the discretion of the

u e. J g ALABAMA.

December —Bill passed, “ makingit unlawful for any freedmen, mulatto, or free person of color in this State to own fire-arms, or carry about his person a pistol or other deadly weapon, ' under a penalty of a fine of $100 or imprisonment three months. Also, making it unlawful for any person to sell, give, or lend fire-arms or ammunition of any description whatever to any freedmen, free negro, or mulatto, under a penalty of not less than $50 not more than $100 at the discretion of the jury.

December 9—This bill passed: That all freedmen, free negroes, and mulattoes, shall have the right to sue and be sued, plead and be impleaded in all the different and various courts of this State, to the same extent that white persons now have by law. And they shall be competent to testif only in open court, and only in cases in whic freedmen, free negmes, and mulattoes are parties, either plaintiff or defendant, and in civi or criminal cases, for injuries in the per~ sons and property of freedmen, free negroes, and mulattoes, and in all cases, civil or criminal, in which a freedmen, free negro, or mulatto, is a witness against a white person, or a white person against a freedman, free negro, 0r mulatto, the parties shall be competent witnesses, and neither interestin the question or suit, nor marriage, shall disqualify any witness from testifying in open court.

1866, Febuary 16—A law was enacted, of which section 1 provides that it shall not be lawful for any person to interfere with,hire, employ, or entice away, or induce to leave the service of another, any laborer or servant who shall have stipulated or contracted, in writing, to serVe for any given number of days, weeks, or months, or for one year, so long as the said contract shall be and remain in force and binding upon the parties thereto, without the consent of the party employing or to whom said service is due and owin in writing, or in the presence of some verita 1e white person; and any person who shall knowingly interfere with, hire, employ, or entice away, or induce to leave the serVice aforesaid, without justifiable ex use therefor, before the expiration of said term of service so contracted and sti ulated as aforesaid, shall be guilty of a mis emeanor, and on conviction thereof, must be fined in such sum, not less than fifty nor more than five hundred dollars, as the jury trying the same may assess, and in no case less than double the amount of the injury sustained by the party from whom such laborer or servant was induced to leave, one-half to go to the party injured and the other to the county as fines and forfeitures.

SEO. 2 provides that the arty injured shall be a. competent witness in al prosecutions under this act, notwithstanding his interest in the fine to be assessed.

SEC. 3 provides that when any laborer or servant, having contracted as provided in thenfirst section of this act, shall afterward be found, before the termination of said contract, in the service or employment of another, that fact shall be prima. facie evidence that such person is uilty of violation of this act, if he fail and refuse to forthwith dischar e the said laborer or servant, after being noti ed and informed of such former contract and employment.

A new penal code was adopted.

The material changes introduced by the new penal code are briefly these: ' .

First. Whi ping and branding are abolished, as legal punis ments, and a new punishment is introduced, entitled “ hard labor for the county.” This “ hard labor for the county " is put under the control of the court of county commissioners, who are authorized to employ a superintendent of the convicts, to make regulations for their

overnment and labor, to put them to work on t e public roads, bridges, &c., or to hire them out to railroad companies or private individuals.

Second. For all offences which were heretofore punishable by fine, or by fine and imprisonment, either in the county jai or in the penitentiary, the jury may still impose a fine; to which the court, in its discretion, may superadd imprisonment or hard labor, within specified limits in each case.

Third. The dividing line between grand and

etit larceny, is raised from twenty to one hundred dollars; grand larceny being made a felony, that is, it may be punished by imprisonment in the enitentiary; while petit larceny is only a mis emeanor, unishable by fine, or by fine and im risonment 1n the county jail. ourth. A county court is established for the trial of misdemeanors. _ p _ Fifth. Justices of the peace have jurisdiction

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An Act Preliminary to the Legislation induced by the Emancipation of Slaves, October 19, 1865.

SECTION 3 provides that all free negroes, mulattoes, and niestizoes, all freedwomen, and all descendants through either sex of any of these persons, shall be known as ersons of color, except that every such descen ant who may have of Caucasian blood seven eighths, or more, shall be deemed a white person.

SEO. 4 provides that the statutes and re ulations concerning slaves are now inapplicab e to persons of color; and although such persons are not entitled to social or olitical equality with white persons, they shalrhave the right to ac~ quire, own, and dispose of property, to make contracts, to enjoy t e fruits of their labor, to sue and be sued, and to receive protection under the law in their persons and property.

SEO. 5 provides that all rights and remedies res ectin persons or property, and all duties an liabi ities under laws, civil and criminal, which apply to white persons, are extended to persons of color, subject to the modifications made by this act and the other acts hereinbefore mentioned.

An Act to Amend the Criminal Law, December 19, 1865.

SECTION 1 provides that either of the crimes specified in this first section shall be felony, without benefit of clergy, to wit: For a person of color to commit any wilful homicide, unless in self-defence; for a person of color to commit an assault upon a white woman, with manifest intent to ravish her; for a person of color to have sexual intercourse with a white woman by personating her husband; for any person to raise an insurrection or rebellion in this State; for any person to furnish arms or ammunition to other persons who are in a state of actual in,surrection or rebellion, or permit them to resort to his house for advancement of their evil purpose; for any person to administer, or cause to be take by any other person, any poison, chloroform, soporific, or other destructive thing, or to shoot at, stab, cut, or wound any other erson, or by any means whatsoever tov cause glodily injury to any other erson, whereby, in any of these cases, a bodi y injury dangerous to the life of any other person is caused, with intent, in any of these cases, to commit the crime of murder, or the crime of rape, or the crime of robbery, burglary, or larceny; for any person who had been transported under sentence to return to this State within the period of prohibition contained in the sentence; 01 for.

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