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WE the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquillity, provide for the common defence, romote the eneralWelfare, and secure the B essings of iberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Cousrr'ru'rron for the United States of America.


Snc'rros 1. All legislative Powers herein

anted shall be vested in a. Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

SEO. 2. The House of Representatives shall be com osed of Members chosen every second Year by the Peo le of the several States, and the.Electors in eaci State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numero Branch of the State Legislature. '

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twentyfive Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen. .

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may

9 included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Repre' sentatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Mar land six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, Sout Carolina five, and Geor ia three.

When vacancies happen in t e Representation from any State, the Executive Authority there


of shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

Sac. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be com osed of two Senators from each State, chosen y the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Conse uence of the first Election, they shall be divide as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one-third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, duringthe Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make tem orary Appointments until the next Meeting 0 the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.

No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirt Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the nited States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he chosen.

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless the be equally divided.

The Senate s all chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Ofiice of President of the United States.

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and Disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honour, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Part convicted shall nevertheless be liable and en ject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

Snc. 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Con ress may at any time by Law make or alter suc Regulations, except as to the place of chusing Senators.

The Congress' shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meetin shall be on the first Monday in December, un ess they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

SEC. 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Ma'ority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, ex el a Member. .

Each ouse shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as ma in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Ygas and Nays of the Members of either House on any uestion shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those resent, be entered on the Journal.

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to_ any other Elace than thatin which the two Houses shall be sittin .

SEO. 6. The Senators and Representatives sha 1 receive a Compensa.n for their Services, to be ascertained b Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the nited States. The shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony an Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any S eech or Debate in either House, they shall not e questioned in any other Place.

N0 Senator or Representative shall, durin the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

Sec. 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate ma propose or concur with Amendments as on ot er Bills. .

Every Bill which shall have passed the Heuse of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it becomes a Law, be resented to the President of the United States; f he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and roceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsi eration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, b which it shall likewise be reconsid~ cred, an if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be deter


mined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectivelg. If any Bill shall not be returned by the resident within ten Days (Sundays ex- ‘ cepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a

uestion of Adjournment) shall be presented to t e President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Etl'ect, shall be 2. proved by him, or being disapproved by him, iihall be repassed by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

SEO. 8. The Congress shall have Power

To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Iinposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the

common Defence and general Welfare of the United States ; but all Duties, lmposts and Exoises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization,_and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptgies throughout the United States;

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of forei n Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Ieasures;

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;

To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

To promote the progress of Science and use-v ful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Anthors and Inventors the exclusiVe Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court; ‘

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on/the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Re risal, and make Rules concerning Captures on and and Water ;

To raise and support Armies, but no Appro’ riation of Money to that Use shall be for a onger Term than two years;

To provide and maintain a Navy ;

To make Rules for the Government and Regu

lation of the land and naval Forces;

To provide for calling/forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the UniOn, suppress Insurrections and re el Invasions;

To provide or organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for overning such Part of them as may be employe, in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authorit of training the Militia according to the Discip ine prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Con ress; become the Seat of the Government of the 'nited States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Le islature of the State in which the Same shall e, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, DockYards, and other needful Buildin s ;—And

To make all Laws which shal be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the fore

oing Powers, and all other Powers vested by t is Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

Sec. 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohiblted by the Con ress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundre and eight, but a Tax or Duty ,may be im osed on such Importation, not exceeding ten do lars for each Person.

The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may re

nire it.

N 0 Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be assed.

I\o Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles ex— ported from any State.

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another; nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be ublished from time to time.

No Title of obility shall be granted by the United States: and no Person holdinU any Office of Profit or Trust under them, sha 1, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any res< ent, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any liind ghatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign


SEC. 10. No State shall enter into' any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation ; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except w iat may be absolutely necessary for executing it’s inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Contronl of the Con ress.

'No State shall, without t e Consent of Con

res.= lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any


Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger ~ as will not admit of Delay.


SEC. 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Re resentatives to which the State may be entitle in the Congress: but' no Senator or Representative, or person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be ap ointed an Elector.

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for tWo Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate Shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there he more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President I and if no Person have a Ma'ority, then from the five highest on the List t e said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A Quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two-thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the reatest Number of Votes of the Electors shal be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.*]

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Da on which they shall give their Votes; which Pay shall be the same throughout the United States.

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to t e Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Oflice who shall. not have attaine to the Age of thirty-five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability


* This clause of the Constitution has been annulled. Se. twelfth article of the Amendments.

to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation, or In‘ ability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act aecordin ly, until the Disability be removed, or a Presi ent shall be elected.

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any (ither Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

Before he enter on the Execution of his Oflice, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation :—

i“ I do solemnly swear (or afiirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, rotect and defend the Constitution of the Unite States.”

SEC. 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may re uire the O inion, in writing, of ' the principal O cer in eacli of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relatin to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators resent concur ; and he shall nominate, and y and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they thin I proper,in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by ranting Commissions which shall expire at the rid of their next Session.

SEO. 3. He shall from time to time ive to the Congress Information of the State of he Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient ; he may, or: extraordinary Occasions, con, 'vene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he ma adjourn them to such Time as he shall thin proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other pubic Ministers; and he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and he shall Commission all the officers of the United States.

SEO. 4. The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be re moved from Office on Im eachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bri ery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.


AnrroLn III.

SEC. 1. The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such ihferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Jud es, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, s all hold their Offices during good Behavior, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

S20. 2. The judicial Power shall extend to all cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Con- _ stitutiou, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority ’;—to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers, and Consuls ;—to all Cases of admiralt and maritime Jurisdic' tiou ;—to Controversles to which the United States shall be a Party ;——to Controversies between two or more States ;—between a State and Citizens of another State ;—between Citizens of different States,—~between Citizens of the same State claimin Lands under Grants of different States, and etween a State or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, With such Exceptions, and under such Re ulations as the Congress shall make.

The Trial of- all Crimes, except in Cases of Im eachment, shall be byJury ; and such Trial sha 1 be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed ; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed. '

SEO. 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, iving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall e convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corru tion of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the ife of the Person attainted.

An'rrcLE IV.

SEO. 1. Full Faith and Credit shall by given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedin s of every other State. And the Congress ma y general Laws rescribe the Manner in whic such Acts, Recor s and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

SEC. 2. The Citizens of each State shall be en~ titled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

A Person char ed in an State with Treason, Felony, or other rime, w 0 shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be re— moved to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

No Person held to Service or Labour iIL-One

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