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DOCUMENTS ON NEUTRALITY AND WAR.

1.

NEUTRALITY PROCLAMATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES.

Statement.--The President of the United States has issued general neutrality proclamations from time to time since August 4, 1914. He issued a special proclamation relating to the Panama Canal Zone on November 13, 1914 (p. 11), which was accompanied by a protocol of an agreement between the United States and Panama (p. 14).

[Neutrality—Italy and Austria-Hungary.]'
BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,

A PROCLAMATION.
Whereas a state of war unhappily exists between Italy and Austria-
Hungary;

And whereas the United States is on terms of friendship and amity with the contending powers, and with the persons inhabiting their several dominions;

And whereas there are citizens of the United States residing within the territories or dominions of each of the said belligerents and carrying on commerce, trade, or other business or pursuits therein;

And whereas there are subjects of each of the said belligerents residing within the territory or jurisdiction of the United States, and carrying on commerce, trade, or other business or pursuits therein;

And whereas the laws and treaties of the United States, without interfering with the free expression of opinion and sympathy, or with the commercial manufacture or sale of arms or munitions of war, nevertheless impose upon all persons who may be within their territory and jurisdiction the duty of an impartial neutrality during the existence of the contest;

1 Proclamations declaring and enjoining neutrality, of like purport, were issued as follows: Austria-Hungary and Servia, Germany and Russia, Germany and France, Aug. 4, 1914; Germany and Great Britain, Aug. 5, 1914; Austria-Hungary and Russia, Aug. 7, 1914; Great Britain and Austria-Hungary, Aug. 13, 1914; France and AustriaHungary, Aug. 14, 1914; Belgium and Germany, Aug. 18, 1914; Japan and Germany, Aug. 24, 1914; Japan and Austria-Hungary, Aug. 27, 1914; Belgium and Austria-Hungary, Sept. 1, 1914; Great Britain and Turkey, Nov. 6, 1914; Italy and Turkey, Aug. 23, 1915.

And whereas it is the duty of a neutral government not to permit or suffer the making of its waters subservient to the purposes of war;

Now, therefore, I, Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States of America, in order to preserve the neutrality of the United States and of its citizens and of persons within its territory and jurisdiction, and to enforce its laws and treaties, and in order that all persons, being warned of the general tenor of the laws and treaties of the United States in this behalf, and of the law of nations, may thus be prevented from any violation of the same, do hereby declare and proclaim that by certain provisions of the act approved on the 4th day of March, A. D. 1909, commonly known as the “Penal Code of the United States,” the following acts are forbidden to be done, under severe penalties, within the territory and jurisdiction of the United States, to wit:

1. Accepting and exercising a commission to serve either of the said belligerents by land or by sea against the other belligerent.

2. Enlisting or entering into the service of either of the said belligerents as a soldier, or as a marine, or seaman on board of any vessel of war, letter of marque, or privateer.

3. Hiring or retaining another person to enlist or enter himself in the service of either of the said belligerents as a soldier, or as a marine, or seaman on board of any vessel of war, letter of marque, or privateer.

4. Hiring another person to go beyond the limits or jurisdiction of the United States with intent to be enlisted as aforesaid.

5. Hiring another person to go beyond the limits of the United States with intent to be entered into service as aforesaid.

6. Retaining another person to go beyond the limits of the United States with intent to be enlisted as aforesaid.

7. Retaining another person to go beyond the limits of the United States with intent to be entered into service as aforesaid. (But the said act is not to be construed to extend to a citizen or subject of either belligerent who, being transiently within the United States, shall, on board of any vessel of war, which, at the time of its arrival within the United States, was fitted and equipped as such vessel of war, enlist or enter himself or hire or retain another subject or citizen of the same belligerent, who is transiently within the United States, to enlist or enter himself to serve such belligerent on board such vessel of war, if the United States shall then be at peace with such belligerent.)

8. Fitting out and arming, or attempting to fit out and arm, or procuring to be fitted out and armed, or knowingly being concerned in the furnishing, fitting out, or arming of any ship or vessel with intent that such ship or vessel shall be employed in the service of either of the said belligerents.

9. Issuing or delivering a commission within the territory or jurisdiction of the United States for any ship or vessel to the intent that she may be employed as aforesaid.

10. Increasing or augmenting, or procuring to be increased or augmented, or knowingly being concerned in increasing or augmenting, the force of any ship of war, cruiser, or other armed vessel, which at the time of her arrival within the United States was a ship of war, cruiser, or

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