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lines have been prepared for final measurement; the reconnaissance has been extended. The triangulation has included Key Biscayne bay, the keys and sounds to Turkey key. The triangulation of Cedar keys and the vicinity of Crystal river has been commenced. The topography has embraced the Marquesas, Boca Grande and its vicinity, Bahia Honda, and Key Biscayne bay, and the main, to the limits of the triangulation. The hydrography of Key West and Boca Grande has been completed. A hydrographic reconnaissance has been made of Mosquito inlet, on the eastern coast of Florida, for placing buoys. Hourly tidal observations have been kept up at Key West.
The chart of Key West is in the hands of the engraver. Sketches of the reconnaissance of Cedar keys and Mosquito inlet have been prepared and published.
SECTION VIII. Coast of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.—The secondary triangulation has included work of revision, and has been extended westward, signals being placed in Lake Borgne and the Rigolets. Biloxi and St. Louis bays have been triangulated. The topography has advanced along Mississippi sound from West Pascagoula river, to include Biloxi bay, and has included part of Pass Christian. The hydrography has been extended outside east and west of Mobile entrance; has included Bon Secours bay, (Mobile bay,) Pass Christiad, and a reconnaissance of the Southwest pass and the Pass à l'Outre of the mouths of the Mississippi. Hourly cidal observations have been made at Fort Morgan, Mobile entrance.
The chart of Mobile entrance has been published; the preliminary chart of Mobile bay has been prepared and published, and the drawing of the two sheets of the finished chart of the bay has been nearly completed. Sketches of Horn Island pass, Pass Christian, and the delta of the Mississippi, have been prepared and published.
Section IX. Coast of Texas. The primary triangulation has been extended westward to the set of stations preceding the Brazos, and the secondary triangulation somewhat further. The topography of Galveston bay has been completed, including Turtle bay and the entrance of the San Jacinto and Trinity rivers, and East and West bays, to the limits of last year's triangulation. The hydrography of Galvestou entrance has been completed, and that of the approaches nearly so. Hourly tidal observations have been made during part of the season at Galveston. The light-house sites in Galveston Upper and Lower bays, and at Aransas pass, have been examined and reported upon.
The drawing of the chart of Galveston entrance is in progress. Sketches of the bay and of Aransas pass, for light-house purposes, have been prepared and published.
Sections X AND XI. Coast of California and Oregon.— The appropriation permitted merely the employment of the same force as last year; namely, four parties. Although the hydrography has been materially impeded by the untoward loss of the steamer Jefferson, already alluded to, the efforts made to keep the work moving onward have been attended with success. The geographical positions of Point Conception, Point Pinos (Monterey,) Point Loma (San Diego,) and Cape Hancock, or Disappointment, have been determined. Magnetic observations have been made at the same points. The triangulation of partof San Francisco bay and of San Diego harbor has been made. Planetable surveys for sites of light-houses have been made in San Francisco bay and its approaches, at Monterey, Point Conception, San Diego, and Cape Hancock, or Disappointment, and its vicinity, including Cape Adams. Surveys for the joint commission for naval and military defences have been made at Mare island, near Vallejo, and on both sides of the entrance to San Francisco bay. A full hydrographic reconnaissance has been made of Columbia river from its entrance to a point above Astoria, of Humboldt harbor and river, and of Trinidad bay; and a general hydrographic reconnaissance is in progress from Monterey to San Diego, as supplementary to that of last year from Columbia river to Monterey. Buoys have been sent to Columbia river by direction of the Treasury Department, to be placed by the coast survey party there. A report on a light-house site at Humboldt harbor is received, and one at Umqua river has been directed. Tidal observations are making near San Francisco.
The chart of Columbia river has been engraved, and will be published after making provision for the introduction of reported recent changes, if found to be of importance. Sketches of the reconnaissance of Humboldt harbor, Trinidad bay, San Francisco entrance and bay, San Diego harbor, Cape Disappointment, Point Conception, Point Pinos, and Point Loma, have been engraved and published. The work in the field is in vigorous activity, and the arrangements in the office for publishing are most thorough and effective. · Besides the work stated in the several sections, the computation of the field work, the registry and assemblage of it, the reduction of the land work and hydrography in the office, have kept pace with the outof-door operations. Fifteen maps have been electrotyped. Sixty-three sketches, including those showing the progress of the work, have been prepared and engraved, to accompany this report.
The list of geographical positions from the preliminary computations of the survey, with the necessary maps to render it available to geographers, surveyors, and others, has been prepared with much labor, and is now appended to this report. (Appendix No. 12.)
In the estimates for the next fiscal year, I provide for the continuation of the work on the same scale which has been heretofore approved by the Executive and Congress; expressing, however, my conviction, which has been before stated, that the appropriations for the Florida reefs and keys should be increased, for at least a few years, to sixty thousand dollars, so as to enable the work to be rapidly pushed in that quarter.
The publication of the observations made in the survey, to which I have also, from time to time, called attention, is very desirable. It will secure them from all possibility of loss; can be done better, more quickly, more accurately, with greater knowledge of all details, while the work is in progress, than after it has all closed. The publication of the observations would tend to facilitate the progress of the work itself, and furnish means of estimating the relative value of different processes used in it. It has been warmly recommended by one of the first scientific bodies in the country, the American Philosophical Society. The cost of publishing the data from the work, and many results which we are now cramped for means to give to the public, would not exceed thirty thousand dollars for the first year, and might be less afterwards. They should be published in a form suited to scientific observations, and creditable to the country, and under close supervision at the Coast Survey office.
I am satisfied that it will be best for a few years to give the full appropriation asked last year for the western coast, that we may render the facilities which the great and rapidly increasing commerce demands. The navigation by steam renders the necessity for a knowledge of the coast more than ever important, as steam-vessels run a direct course, keeping near the land, and stopping from harbor to harbor, as commerce requires. Until we have the necessary information of a general kind, we ought to press the survey in that quarter. The results, even under the disadvantageous circumstances of the past year, show what may be done by zeal and industry, furnished with adequate means. The addition of another party there is very desirable.
In making these estimates, I suppose the usual aid derived under the law from the War and Navy Departments. The unusual calls during the past year for payment of transportation of naval officers on first joining the work, ordered often, as they are, from distant points, and for clerks or draughtsmen for the hydrographic parties when ashore, have pressed heavily on our limited means, which did not hold out to the end of the fiscal year. I have provided against the recurrence of this contingency by addition to the estimates for the coast of the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, which, though small, is necessary to prevent the cutting off of part of the anticipated operations.
ESTIMATE FOR THE FISCAL YEAR 1852–53. General expenses for all the sections, namely: rent, fuel, post
age; materials for drawing, engraving and printing; carpenter's work and materials; instrument maker's work and materials; blank-books, stationery, printing and ruling forms; binding; transportation of instruments, maps and charts, and miscellaneous office expenses; purchase of new
instruments, books, maps, and charts.................. $16,000 SECTION J. Coast of Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts,
and Rhode Island. Field-work.—To extend the primary triangulation in Maine, and make the reconnaissance and astronomical and magnetic observations connected with it; to extend the secondary triangulation over Casco bay, (Portland,) and to determine the heights of the stations between Portsmouth (New Hampshire) and Portland; to complete the topography of Newburyport harbor; to commence that of the coast between Portsmouth and Portland, and of Portland harbor; to complete the topography of Cape Ann; to continue the hydrography of the Nantucket shoals, and of the ocean near Nantucket ; to commence that for off-shore chart No. 2; to complete that of Chatham, Gloucester, and Annis Squam harbors, and to commence those of York, Saco, and Kennebunk; to continue the observations of tides and currents in Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket sounds,
and to take the views required for the general coast chart No. 2. Office-work.—To inake the reductions and computations for the section; to complete the drawing of coast chart No. 3, from Cape Pogue to Chatham light, the drawing of Salem, Newburyport and Portsmouth harbor charts, and to commence those of Chatham, Gloucester, Annis Squam,
and Portland harbors; to continue the engraving of Boston · harbor chart; to complete those of Newburyport, Salem and
Portsmouth,—will require ........................... $36,000 SECTION II. Coast of New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Delaware,
To continue the triangulation and hydrography of the Hudson; to make such work of verification as may be required; to complete the observations of tides and currents for offshore chart No. 1; to complete the engraving of south side of Long Island, middle sheet; to complete the engraving of Connecticut river entrance,—will require ............
7,000 SECTION III. Coast of Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia.
Field-work.–To complete the triangulation of the shores of the Chesapeake, and of adjacent bays and roadsteads in Virginia, of the outer shore to the capes of Virginia; to make the astronomical and magnetic observations required, the secondary triangulation of part of the Potomac or of James river; to continue the topography of the shores of the Chesapeake to York river on the western shore, and Tazewell's on the eastern shore of Virginia, and of the outer shore of the peninsula to Rogue's island; to continue the hydrography of the outside to Rogue's island, and of the Chesapeake to York river, nearly. Office-work.—To make the computations for the section; to complete the drawing of a third sheet of the Chesapeake bay, and to commence the second series; to complete a sheet of the general coast chart of the outer coast; to complete the engraving of the first sheet of Chesapeake bay, and of a general chart of the
upper section of the bay,—will require ................ 33,000 SECTION IV. Coast of North Carolina. To make the recon
naissance required in this and the next section; to continue the primary triangulation over Pamplico sound; the secondary triangulation northward, nearly to its connexion with that of the Chesapeake; to complete the tertiary triangulation of Core sound, and connect it with Beaufort harbor; to continue the triangulation of the Cape Fear river; to complete the topography of the ocean shore from Hatteras to Ocracoke, and of Currituck sound and the ocean shore northward, to beyond the Virginia and North Carolina line; to complete the hydrography of Currituck sound to the limits of the triangulation; to continue that of Pamplico sound and Ocracoke inlet; to continue that of the entire coast between Cape Hutteras and Cape Feur; to continue that of the Cape Fear river to Wilmington, (N. C.); to make the observations in the Gulf Stream in this section. Officework.—To complete the drawing of the chart of Albemarle,
a, to bey hydrograph to continue that of continue of the triaroke inlet; to and Cape Fin. c.); to notice
Croatan, Roanoke, and part of Currituck sounds; to continue the engraving of the first sheet; to draw and engrave the chart of Cape Fear entrance, of the Fryingpan shoals, &c.,
will require....................................... SECTION V. Coast of South Carolina and Georgia. Field - work.- To continue the secondary triangulation from its present limit eastward to Charleston, and westward from Beaufort, South Carolina; to complete the triangulation of the Sarannah entrance and river, and of Calibogue sound; to continue the primary triangulation eastward to Charleston; to complete the topography of Kiavah, James's and John's islands, and of the shores of Stono and Ashley rivers; to complete the hydrography of St. Helena and Calibogue sounds, and to commence that of the ocean coast between Charleston harbor and Savannah entrance; to make the Gulf Stream exploration in this section; to make tidal observations at Charleston and Savannah entrance. Office work.To make the computations required for the section; to complete the drawing of Savannah river, the engraving of the chart of Charleston harbor, and of Savannah harbor, entrance, and river, and of North Edisto harbor of refuge,
will require........................................ SECTION VI. Reefs, keys and coast of Florida.–See estimate
for special appropriation, as provided for the three years
last past. SECTION VIII. Coast of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisi
ana.—To continue the main and secondary triangulation southward from the Chandelcur islands towards the mouths of the Mississippi; to complete the connexion of Washington, Mobile and New Orleans, for difference of longitude by telegraph; and to make a triangulation of the principal entrances of the Delta of the Mississippi; to continue the topography of the shores of Pontchartrain and of the Chandeleur islands and main; to continue the hydrography of Mississippi sound, and of Louisiana bay; to make tidal observations at several points on the coast of Louisiana. Office work.—To make the computations and reductions required by the field work of the section; to complete the drawings of the two eastern sheets of the map from Mobile entrance to the mouths of the Mississippi; the engraving of
one sheet of Mobile bay, and the commencement of a second SECTION IX. Coast of Texas.—To continue the main and
secondary triangulation, to include part of Espiritu Santo bay; to continue the topography westward, to include Matagorda bay; to continue the hydrography of the outer coast and of the entrances, and Matagorda bay, and the tidal observations at points of the coast. Office work.—To complete the drawing of the map of Galveston upper and lower bays, and to commence the first sheet of the general coast chart of Texas; to complete the engraving of the chart of Galreston entrance, and to commence that of Galveston