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BRAKE.

but it will be found that it is quite in ac-
Road.

cord with the best locomotive practice of
the day, and that when an attempt has

been made to reduce the proportion, the
FOR LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS.

engines have not proved good steamers How to run a headlight casing without with heavy trains.“ On the Great Southglass. A. If the glass is half broken or ern & Western Railway of Ireland 18 in. there is a hole in it, knock the glass en- cylinders go with 1,050 ft. of surface, tirely out, turn burner one-third higher, but the stroke is only 24 in. On the and rain, wind, or snow will not put it Great Eastern Railway we have 1,200 ft.

with an 18-in. cylinder, 26 in, stroke, and When side-tracked, turn down the on the Brighton Railway, 1,485 ft., with light, or it will smoke.

an 1874 cylinder, 26 in. stroke. It must How to block a driving or engine truck not be forgotten, however, that a boiler box when spring is broken. A. Run for- with too little heating surface may be ward or back wheel on a wedge, block made to steam better by increasing the box, and go.

size of the fire-box, and we could name Quickest way to set an eccentric. A. instances where locomotives have been Let fireman catch hold of lugs on eccen- greatly improved by having had the tric and knock key out of front end of backs of the fire-boxes taken out and the eccentric rod where it connects to link, fire-boxes lengthened 12 inches. drop rod, turn eccentric, hold eccentric rod, and let it follow eccentric until rod will go in eye neat, put key in, tighten HANSCOM'S STRAIGHT-AIR AUTOMATIC eccentric, and go, and it will be as true as any machinist can set it.

This invention has for its object a more To explain why pipe from steam gauge perfect control of the train than has to boiler is bent. A. Steam condenses hitherto been attainable, and at the same in the bent part and presses against the time to simplify and reduce the quantity springs in gauge and keeps steam from of mechanism necessary to accomplish cutting springs; the gauge being air or the purpose desired, making it less substeam tight will not rust. Only, backing ject to rapid deterioration and less liable up or standing, the gauge pipe will to interruption from slight causes, therefreeze, Why is it that water in a boiler run of those who have not had to acquire es

fore allowing it to be placed in the hands ning for twenty years don't rust boiler or pecial education for the purpose of operflues? If you put boiler in water, it will

ating it. rust boiler out in one year. A. Boiler

The mechanism included consists of an being air tight, it won't rust on the in-air-compressor for compressing the air, side.

a brake cylinder under each car connect-
ed to the ordinary brake gear, two train

pipes for conveying the air from the air-
It is a noteworthy fact,” says an compressor to the brake cylinders, an en-
English contemporary, “that however gineer's brake-valve for directing the air
much change may be effected in the type into either end of the brake cylinder, and
of a locomotive, certain proportions ap- an automatic valve, by which air is re-
pear to be incapable of alteration withont tained in one end of the brake-cylinder
doing harm; 212 square feet of heating so that in case of the train breaking in
surface ought to be provided for each two, the brakes will be automatically set
square inch of piston area, or, what on every car on the train.
comes to the same thing, the area of one

Each of the train pipes has a pressure piston multiplied by 5 will give the pro- gauge attached to it, so that the pressure per heating surface. Thus, the area of in each pipe is indicated at all times, and a 17-in. piston is 227 square inches, and the difference between the two shows the 227 x 5= 1,135 square feet. An 18-in. acting air pressure on either side of the cylinder has an area of 254.4 in., and piston. 254.4 x 5 = 1,272. In like manner, the A spring, such as is usually used, is proper surface for 19-in. cylinders is placed around the piston rod for drawing 1,417 square feet. Of course this is not back the piston when the air pressure is to be regarded as a hard-and-fast rule, ( released.

PROPORTIONS OF LOCOMOTIVES.

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No reservoir other than the brake-cyl- purpose of supplying the tanks of eninder is used, the air being compressed gines that are to be built to be run by directly in the brake cylinder where it is natural gas. “The scheme is perfectly to be used.

practicable," said an officer of the PhilThe engineer's brake-valve is so con- adelphia company recently. structed that when it is in its mid posi- "It has been said the gas is so volatile tion, which it occupies when the train is that no tank can be constructed that will running, the air from the pump flows hold it. This is all nonsense. We shall freely through it into both train pipes demonstrate not only the practicability and into both ends of the brake-cylinder of confining the gas, but the fact that it so that the pressure on both sides of the may be used as a fuel aboard engines so piston is equal.

cheaply, that in a short time not a locoBy moving this valve either to the motive running into or out of this city right or left, the air may be released from will use coal. It was held two or three either end of the brake cylinder, while years ago that artificial gas could not be the opposite end is in direct communica- used to illuminate passenger cars.

The tion with the air-pump, and the pressure Pennsylvania Railroad is using nothing on that side of the piston may be increas- else in its trains on the Pittsburgh divi ed to the extent of the boiler pressure sion, and with the most satisfactory reand proportions of the steam and air-cyl- sults. We feel sure that the Road will inders of the pump.

not be very long in showing the other Any change of pressure is indicated by railroads of the country that it will run the gauges, so that the engineer has be- locomotives more cheaply than they can fore his eyes just the exact force which hope to. is being applied to the brake shoes. * As it is now, the coal bills of a com

These gauges are placed in a convenient pany are the biggest items of outlay in position in the cab, and the engineer has the exhibit of expenses. It takes nearly positive control in directing the air into a bushel of coal to run an engine a mile. either end of the brake-cylinder.

This is when the locomotive is in motion. The automatic valve is attached to the Frequent stops and starts increase this rear end of the brake-cylinder, and is so item slightly. The gas will be infinitely constructed that it will allow the air to cheaper. Engines will, of course, have flow freely into the brake cylinder, but to be furnished with tanks. These will its outflow is retarded by the small valve be so arranged with the compressors as which is kept to its seat by a spring. to contain very large quantities of the This spring is adjusted to any pressure gas, so that no accident or unexpected which it is desired to retain in this end delay will be sufficient to so diminish the of the cylinder, so that in the event of an supply as to embarrass the movements of accident and the train breaks in two, a the engine. The details of the plan will sufficient pressure of air will be main be more fully set forth as soon as possitained in this end of the cylinder to set ble. The matter has been discussed by the brakes and stop the train.

some of the best mechanical engineers of The train pipe has no valve between it the country, and nearly all of them think and the brake cylinder, so that the air has it practicable. Engines on this division free ingress and egress. The action of are only run as far as Altoona." this brake is wonderfully smooth and powerful, bringing a train to a standstill without any jar or shock, and the pressure in the brake-cylinder is under perfect The capacity of the iron horse for cov control, any degree of working pressure ering space has just been successfully on the piston being attainable, from tested, the occasion being an incident in nothing to the maximum, and the small connection with the visit of Prince Wilamount of pressure actually needed in liam of Prussia to the Czar during the practice is surprising.

recent maneuvers in Poland. The day before the arrival of the prince, about 4 o'clock in the afternoon, Czar Alexander,

who had already arrived at Brest-Litovsk, The Philadelphia company is arranging ordered his valet to get his Prussian unito pipe gas into the yards of the Pennsyl- form ready for the next day. “ But, your vania Railroad Company, into a big res- majesty," the valet replied, tremblingly, ervoir that is to be put up there for the "we have no Prussian uniform here;

FAST TIME IN RUSSIA.

GAS FOR LOCOMOTIVES.

your majesty ordered me to leave it be- prise to good engineers, many of whom hind at St. Petersburg. “Most vexing are firm in the belief that one hundred misunderstanding, the Emperor ex- miles an hour will yet be accomplished on claimed, and called the aide-de-camp on American roads. duty. My Prussian uniform must be The Emperor of Russia has taken the here at 7 to-morrow morning," was the first great step toward what I deem the peremptory order of the Czar. The ad- ultimatum of railroad travel. Instead of jutant bowed and retired. Two minutes cutting what I call a mere drill through later he sent a telegram to the Imperial the country and going around everything wardrobe office at St. Petersburg, and in the way for a straight line, he has cut another to the Warsaw Railway. At 6 a broad way for five hundred miles from o'clock in the evening a locomotive was St. Petersburg to Moscow. He has made ready to start from St. Petersburg. An it all the way two hundred feet wide, so imperial courier with a trunk containing that ihe engineer sees everything on the the uniform mounted the engine and the road. This is part of the future. race against time began. Relay locomo- One of the latest efforts at improvetives were held in readiness at Dunaburg ment in locomotives is that of a Frenchand Wilna, to take up the courier and man named Estrade, who has constructcontinue the run, as no single engine ed an engine which he calls La Parisicould have made a continuous run of enne. La Parisienne, when watered and such a length. The iron horses accom- fired, weighs 42 tons. Its driving wheels, plished the task assigned to them, and, six in number, are 812 feet in diameter. to use a sporting phrase, came up smil The cylinders are on the outside, with ing,” or rather puffing. At 7 o'clock in valve boxes on the top. The diameter of the morning the uniform was at Brest each cylinder is 872 inches, and the Litovsk. The courier had performed length of stroke is 2 feet and 372 inches. 589 miles in thirteen hours, or 457 miles This engine is built for high speed, and an hour, without rest. At 8 o'clock will carry a pressure of 200 pounds to Prince William arrived at Brest-Litovsk, the square inch. Estrade's engine is deand the Czar received him in his Prus- signed to run at the average rate of 78 sian uniform.

miles an hour.

A SUCCESSFUL GAS LOCOMOTIVE.

EFFORTS AT IMPROVEMENTS IN LOCO

MOTIVES-POSSIBILITIES IN SPEED.

For several months past, a locomotive When George Stephenson asserted his propelled by gas has been in successful ability to run passenger coaches at a operation on one of the street railwais at speed of twelve to fifteen miles an hour, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. A paper scientific and practical men deemed him on the subject was lately read by Mr. fit for a lunatic asylum, but time has John Danks before the Victorian Engishown that trains may be run at a much neers' Association, from which we exgreater velocity without materially add-tract the following: ing to the dangers of railway travel. The During a period of some ten weeks, we flight of the fast express on the Pennsyl- ran a pumber of experimental trips, and vania Railway is a marked example of exhibited it to all who wished to see it. the possibilities in the way of sustaining Being anxious to put our invention to a high rates of speed. This road now runs more practical test, we entered into an the fastest train in America. Nine hund- arrangement with the government to carred and twelve miles, including several ry passenger traffic, and to work the Alstops, are accomplished in 2572 hours, phington line as a tram line. Under the and the average time is 36.30 miles an arrangement, it was stipulated that we hour. A portion of the distance is run should supply a motor which would draw at the rate of 75 miles an hour. At a a carriage in which the passengers should speed of 60 miles an hour the driving be carried; for this purpose we conwheels of the locomotive on this train structed a new motor with a six-horse make 2581, revolutions a minute. Wil power engine and fitted with friction gear liam Vanderbilt's spurt of eighty-one similar to our first experiment. The momiles in sixty-one minutes on the New tor reighed 41 tons, and the carriage 35 York Central is declared to be the high-cwt., making a total of 61 tons without est rate of speed ever attained in this passengers. The supply of gas is carried country, but this speed was not a sur-| in four copper containers, each 16 inches

to pass

in diameter, and about six feet long, THE AMERICAN PROJECT FOR PERSIAN which were tested by hydraulic pressure,

RAILROADS. before being used, to 200 pounds to the square inch. The total cubical capacity

The American speculator who has obof the four containers is 28 feet. These tained the concession from the Shah for containers charged with gas compressed the construction of a network of railways to ten atmospheres, or say 150 pounds in Persia, would appear to mean busiper square inch, represent 280 cubic feet ness, after all. The concession, which of gas stored, which is sufficient for a he obtained while acting at Teheran as run of fifteen miles. We have never get he has conveyed to St. Petersburg, and

Minister-Resident of the United States, exceeded the pressure of 100 pounds, which we find gives ample supply to car offered to carry out under the direct ry us to Alphington and back twice. We auspices of the Russian government. have, for compressing the gas, an engine British diplomacy at Teheran is reported and compressing pumps fixed near the to be much exercised by this act; and, if line; with this we take the gas from the we are not mistaken, influence is being Metropolitan Company's main and force brought to bear upon the Shah to induce it into receivers, where it remains under him to clip the wings of the concession, pressure until required for use. When

if Mr. Winston realizes his present aim the motor requires a fersh supply of gas of transferring it to Russia for a cash it is brought opposite the receivers and consideration. England has acquiesced the retainers on the motor are connected in a good many Russian movements lateby a short India rubber hose to a pipe ly, but we question whether she would leading from the receivers. A tap is regard with indifference the extension of then turned, which allows the

the Russian railway system from the

gas from the receivers to the containers until Caucasus to the Persian Gulf. This is the pressure is equal, when the tap is what the American proposes to do; and closed, the hose is disconnected, and the as, by the terms of his ninety-nine years' motor is again ready to resume duty. concession, he obtains mile-plots of land

The time required to charge the contain each side of the line through the richest ers does not exceed two minutes. The provinces of Persia those bordering engine, compression pump and receivers upon the Caspian Sea--the initial section, need not be near the line; they may be from the shores of that sea to Teheran, is placed one or two hundred yards away, almost sure to pay. Afterward, it is proin any convenient place, and the gas posed to carry one line south to the under pressure led to the line through Persian Gulf, on which Russia has long a high pressure pipe.

aspired to establish a naval station, and The power of the gas engine is derived another east to Meshed, whence a short from à fuel which has no weight, of extension would carry it on to the which a large quantity can be carried Russian railways from the Caspian to without adding to the load, and the sup. Mery. These two main lines would comply of it, as has been shown, can be re- pletely open up Persia, and at the same plenished with the greatest ease.

No time link her fortunes altogether with boiler, coal, or coal bunker is required, those of Russia, who, from the Caspian, and one man, not necessarily a mechanic, would be able to dominate both railways. is all that is needed to take charge. It is Mr. Winston proposes that Russian entrue that the motor we have working is gineers should construct the line, Russian running upon a railway, and there may, tracklayers lay it, and the metals and and no doubt would be more power re

from quired to work it on a street tramway. way works at St. Petersburg, Kolomna, This, however, appears to be but a ques. Briansk and the Ural mountains. tion of a larger engine; if a three-horse will not do the work then a-six-horse, and if a six-horse will not do the work, then a twelve-horse. It is only a question of more power and larger expenditure of “Smoke and sparks,” said Mr. Walker, gas, which the president has shown is not the inventor of a firing apparatus which a matter of great importance. The fact prevents smoke and sparks, “are simply of our having run a motor 40 miles a day evidence of imperfect combustion. That's for four months, has, I think, established the problem in a nutshell. The need of the principle.

a device to consume smoke and sparks is

[graphic]

RUNNING A LOCOMOTIVE WITHOUT

SMOKE OR SPARKS.

RAILROADS IN MEXICO,

apparent to any one, and I think I have served. 3. The expense of maintenance solved the problem. This imperfect com- is decreased after the second year of serbustion pecessarily implies a waste of vice, while with wooden ties this item fuel, and consuming smoke and sparks increases with the age of the ties. 4. The adds to the motive force of the fuel. As system is rapidly perfecting, so that the applied to locomotives its value is ap- fastenings are made absolutely certain parent. It means comfort in traveling, and less expensive for repair and mainteeconomy in fuel, and safety from fire by nance than fastenings used with wooden sparks from a locomotive, such as will ties. 5. The value of the metallic tie cost thousands of dollars' logs every when worn out in service is much greater year.'

than the value of an old wooden tie. In “How is it done? Is the process an summing up these advantages, and comexpensive one?

bining them with the actual cost of purNot at all. The alterations are in the chase, redemption and interest, M. Post fire-box alone. The fire box is divided concludes that no country can exclusively longitudinally by a water-leg, thus prac- use wood for this purpase with true econtically making two fires, which are omy; and he cites Holland as a proof of cemented by a throat in he forward end his assertion, where wood is still easily of the water-leg. Some thirty inches obtained and iron is not very plentiful. above the grate bars a corrugated brick He says all the Holland companies have arch is built over both fires to within adopted the metallic tie. thirty-six inches of the doors, where a throat is formed through the combustion chambers and leading to the tubes of the boiler. In the center of this throat is The American railroads in Mexico have hung a wrought and cast iron water already done much to arouse the most damper, which can be manipulated at stubbornly conservative people on the face will by the fireman, and which controls of the globe from their lethargy, and in the direction or circulation of the cur- a manner that no other instrumentality rents or draughts to the fires. These fires probably could have affected. When the are coaled alternately. Supposing the locomotive first appeared, it is said that right-hand fire has just been replenished the people of whole villages iled affright(the damper being down on that side) the ed from their habitations, or organized smoke and sparks made are carried processions with religious emblems and through the water-leg and must pass over holy water to exorcise and repel the monthe left-hand fire, which is in an incan- ster. During the first year of the expedescent state, and mixing with the heat- rience of the Mexican Central, armed ed oxygen are burned, the corrugated guards also were considered an essential brick arch causing any flying cinders to accompaniment of every train, as had be deflected downward into the fire. been the case on the Vera Cruz railroad When the left-hand fire wants coaling since its opening in 1873. But all this is the damper is reversed and the operation now a matter of the past, and so impressed is in the opposite direction."

is the government with the importance of This system has been tried on several keeping its raiload system safe and intact roads with success, Mr. Walker says. that the Mexican congress recently de

creed instant execution, without any formal trial, to any one caught in the act of

wrecking or robbing a train. At a recent meeting of the French So. \Vhat sort of things these poor Mexiciety of Civil Engineers, a paper by M. cans would buy if they could was indiPost, of Holland, upon metallic railroad cated to the writer by seeing in the hut ties, was read. According to the author, of a laborer on the line of the Mexican the principal advantages inherent in the Central railroad-a place destitute of alnew system, advantages based on an act most every comfort, or article of surual trial of about twelve years in Ger- niture or convenience - a bright, new, many, etc., are: 1. The average durabil- small kerosene lamp, than which nothing ity of the ties remaining in the track af- that fell under his observation in Mexico ter twelve years' use is much greater with was really more remarkable and inmetallic ties of a good design than with teresting. Remarkable and interesting, the best wooden ties. 2. Safety is better because neither this man nor his father, guaranteed, as the gauge is better pre-l possibly, since the world to them began,

METALLIC RAILROAD TIES.

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